Publications by authors named "İlker Kahramanoğlu"

50 Publications

Robotic platforms for endometrial cancer treatment: review of the literature.

Minerva Med 2021 Feb;112(1):47-54

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Emsey Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey -

Introduction: The cornerstone in the management of endometrial cancer (EC) is surgical staging. Over the last few decades, minimally invasive surgery has been widely accepted as a mainstay in the treatment of endometrial cancer. The first robotic-assisted gynecological surgery was performed in 1998.

Evidence Acquisition: The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED databases from January 1998 to September 2020.

Evidence Synthesis: Several studies have reported the advantages of robotic-assisted surgery over laparoscopy in the management of EC. These are most pronounced in obese patients. Robotic-assisted surgery is also associated with a shorter learning curve, particularly for lymphadenectomy, which enables more surgeons to perform minimally invasive surgery for EC.

Conclusions: The effectiveness and oncological results of robotic surgery for EC appear to be similar to those of other surgical methods, but fewer intraoperative complications occur than with other methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07053-6DOI Listing
February 2021

GYNOCARE Update: Modern Strategies to Improve Diagnosis and Treatment of Rare Gynecologic Tumors—Current Challenges and Future Directions

Cancers (Basel) 2021 01 27;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Statistics, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel.

More than 50% of all gynecologic tumors can be classified as rare (defined as an incidence of ≤6 per 100,000 women) and usually have a poor prognosis owing to delayed diagnosis and treatment. In contrast to almost all other common solid tumors, the treatment of rare gynecologic tumors (RGT) is often based on expert opinion, retrospective studies, or extrapolation from other tumor sites with similar histology, leading to difficulty in developing guidelines for clinical practice. Currently, gynecologic cancer research, due to distinct scientific and technological challenges, is lagging behind. Moreover, the overall efforts for addressing these challenges are fragmented across different European countries and indeed, worldwide. The GYNOCARE, COST Action CA18117 (European Network for Gynecological Rare Cancer Research) programme aims to address these challenges through the creation of a unique network between key stakeholders covering distinct domains from concept to cure: basic research on RGT, biobanking, bridging with industry, and setting up the legal and regulatory requirements for international innovative clinical trials. On this basis, members of this COST Action, (Working Group 1, “Basic and Translational Research on Rare Gynecological Cancer”) have decided to focus their future efforts on the development of new approaches to improve the diagnosis and treatment of RGT. Here, we provide a brief overview of the current state-of-the-art and describe the goals of this COST Action and its future challenges with the aim to stimulate discussion and promote synergy across scientists engaged in the fight against this rare cancer worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865420PMC
January 2021

Subspecialty training in Europe: a report by the European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 Apr 24;31(4):575-584. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Gynaecological Department, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: ESGO (European Society of Gynaecological Oncology) and partners are continually improving the developmental opportunities for gynaecological oncology fellows. The objectives of this survey were to evaluate the progress in the infrastructure of the training systems in Europe over the past decade. We also evaluated training and assessment techniques, the perceived relevance of ENYGO (European Network of Young Gynaecological Oncologists) initiatives, and unmet needs of trainees.

Methodology: National representatives of ENYGO from 39 countries were contacted with an electronic survey. A graduation in well/moderately/loosely-structured training systems was performed. Descriptive statistical analysis and frequency tables, as well as two-sided Fisher's exact test, were used.

Results: National representatives from 33 countries answered our survey questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 85%. A national fellowship is offered in 22 countries (66.7%). A logbook to document progress during training is mandatory in 24 (72.7%) countries. A logbook of experience is only utilized in a minority of nations (18%) for assessment purposes. In 42.4% of countries, objective assessments are recognized. Trainees in most countries (22 (66.7%)) requested additional training in advanced laparoscopic surgery. 13 (39.4%) countries have a loosely-structured training system, 11 (33.3%) a moderately-structured training system, and 9 (27.3%) a well-structured training system.

Conclusion: Since the last publication in 2011, ENYGO was able to implement new activities, workshops, and online education to support training of gynaecological oncology fellows, which were all rated by the respondents as highly useful. This survey also reveals the limitations in establishing more accredited centers, centralized cancer care, and the lack of laparoscopic training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-002176DOI Listing
April 2021

Management of gynecological cancers in the COVID-19 era: a survey from Turkey

J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2020 12;21(4):265-271

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey

Objective: This study aimed to investigate how gynecologic oncologists modified their patient management during Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Turkey.

Material And Methods: An online survey was sent to gynecologic oncology specialists and fellows in Turkey. It included management questions about strategies for newly diagnosed or recurrent endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar cancer during the pandemic. Participants were asked if treatment of these cancers can be delayed or not and, if yes, the duration of delay.

Results: 32.9% of surgeons prescribed oral or intrauterine progesterone for early stage, low-grade endometrial cancer. Conversely, 65.7% and 45.7% of the most surgeons did not change their management for early stage high-grade and advanced stage endometrial cancers respectively, as they perform surgery. 58% and 67.1% of the surgeons continued to prefer standard surgical treatment for microinvasive and early stage cervical cancers, respectively. Radiotherapy was preferred administered with hypofractionated doses for locally advanced cervical cancer (57.1%). While 67.1% of surgeons operated early stage ovarian cancer patients, 50% administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to all advanced stage ovarian cancers and 50% administered more cycles of NACT in preference to interval debulking surgery. 93.7% of the surgeons responded that treatment should not be delayed beyond eight weeks.

Conclusion: Most Turkish gynecologic oncologists modified their management of gynecologic cancers due to the COVID-19 pandemic. While chemotherapy was preferred for ovarian cancer, postponement of the surgery, with or without non-surgical options, was considered for early stage, low-grade endometrial cancer. Treatment of gynecologic cancers should be decided on a case by case basis, taking into account local COVID-19 infection rates and availability of health facilities. Prognosis is also an important consideration if delay is contemplated. Standard treatment and normal time-frames should be used if possible. If not, a postponement for a maximum of eight weeks or referral to another center were acceptable alternatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/jtgga.galenos.2020.2020.0071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726458PMC
December 2020

Can risk groups accurately predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in sentinel lymph node-positive endometrial cancer patients? A Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group Study (TRSGO-SLN-004).

J Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 1;123(2):638-645. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Koç University School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to find out the risk factors associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis and determine the incidence of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis according to risk groups in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive endometrial cancer patients.

Methods: Patients who underwent at least bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy after SLN mapping were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into low, intermediate, high-intermediate, and high-risk groups defined by ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO.

Results: Out of 395 eligible patients, 42 patients had SLN metastasis and 16 (38.1%) of them also had non-SLN metastasis. Size of SLN metastasis was the only factor associated with non-SLN metastasis (p = .012) as 13/22 patients with macrometastasis, 2/10 with micrometastasis and 1/10 with isolated tumor cells (ITCs) had non-SLN metastasis. Although all 4 metastases (1.8%) among the low-risk group were limited to SLNs, the non-SLN involvement rate in the high-risk group was 42.9% and all of these were seen in patients with macrometastatic SLNs.

Conclusions: Non-SLN metastasis was more frequent in higher-risk groups and the risk of non-SLN metastasis increased with the size of SLN metastasis. Proceeding to complete lymphadenectomy when SLN is metastatic should further be studied as the effect of leaving metastatic non-SLNs in-situ is not known.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26310DOI Listing
February 2021

Adjuvant Treatment Modalities, Prognostic Factors, and Outcome of the Uterine Carcinosarcoma.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2021 01 18;43(1):34-42. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To determine the impact of adjuvant therapy and other factors associated with the recurrence and survival of patients with uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS).

Methods: A total of 102 patients who underwhent surgery for UCS from 1998 to 2017 were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: At 240 months, the actuarial recurrence rate was 34.3%. Distant recurrence was the most common recurrence pattern. Patients with higher CA 125 levels, sarcoma dominance, cervical involvement, advanced stage, no lymphadenectomy, and residual tumour had a significiantly higher risk of recurrence. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 67% and 77%, respectively. FIGO stage was found to be an independent prognostic factor for DFS and OS. Sarcoma dominance was independently associated with decreased OS.

Conclusion: Sarcoma dominance is associated with poor survival in UCS. Adjuvant treatment was not found to affect recurrence or survival. Given this finding, more effective postoperative strategies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2020.06.021DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) in gynecologic oncology: an international survey of peri-operative practice.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 10 4;30(10):1471-1478. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Gynecologic Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes in gynecologic oncology, with the majority of published reports originating from a small number of specialized centers. It is unclear to what degree ERAS is implemented in hospitals globally. This international survey investigated the status of ERAS protocol implementation in open gynecologic oncology surgery to provide a worldwide perspective on peri-operative practice patterns.

Methods: Requests to participate in an online survey of ERAS practices were distributed via social media (WhatsApp, Twitter, and Social Link). The survey was active between January 15 and March 15, 2020. Additionally, four national gynecologic oncology societies agreed to distribute the study among their members. Respondents were requested to answer a 17-item questionnaire about their ERAS practice preferences in the pre-, intra-, and post-operative periods.

Results: Data from 454 respondents representing 62 countries were analyzed. Overall, 37% reported that ERAS was implemented at their institution. The regional distribution was: Europe 38%, Americas 33%, Asia 19%, and Africa 10%. ERAS gynecologic oncology guidelines were well adhered to (>80%) in the domains of deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis, early removal of urinary catheter after surgery, and early introduction of ambulation. Areas with poor adherence to the guidelines included the use of bowel preparation, adoption of modern fasting guidelines, carbohydrate loading, use of nasogastric tubes and peritoneal drains, intra-operative temperature monitoring, and early feeding.

Conclusion: This international survey of ERAS in open gynecologic oncology surgery shows that, while some practices are consistent with guideline recommendations, many practices contradict the established evidence. Efforts are required to decrease the variation in peri-operative care that exists in order to improve clinical outcomes for patients with gynecologic cancer globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001683DOI Listing
October 2020

Gynecological cancers and urinary dysfunction: a comparison between endometrial cancer and other gynecological malignancies.

Minerva Med 2021 Feb 22;112(1):96-110. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a narrative overview of the available literature about voiding dysfunction in women with gynecological cancer before and after surgical, chemo- and radiotherapy treatments. Radical surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy may cause lower urinary tract dysfunction such as stress and urge urinary incontinence, and voiding difficulties. However, nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy may be a valid surgical approach in order to reduce bladder innervation impairment and maintain normal urinary function. Also, newer radiotherapy techniques significantly reduce the number of adverse effects, including bladder dysfunction. Pelvic floor muscle physiotherapy and training with biofeedback and urethral bulking agents represent some additional therapies that can be used in oncologically treated patients with urinary symptoms in order to improve a significant aspect of their quality of life. Considering the important impact on the patients' quality of life, a full urogynecological evaluation should be considered as an important part of oncological treatment and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.06770-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Combination of sentinel lymph node mapping and uterine frozen section examination to reduce side-specific lymphadenectomy rate in endometrial cancer: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study (TRSGO-SLN-002).

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 07 30;30(7):1005-1011. Epub 2020 May 30.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: This study aimed to find out whether side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy can be omitted without compromising diagnostic efficacy according to "reflex frozen section" analysis of the uterus in case of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping failure.

Methods: Patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer with an SLN algorithm were stratified as low-risk or high-risk according to the uterine features on the final pathology reports. Two models for low-risk patients were defined to omit side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy: strategy A included patients with endometrioid histology, grade 1-2, and <50% myometrial invasion irrespective of the tumor diameter; strategy B included all factors of strategy A with the addition of tumor diameter ≤2 cm. Theoretical side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy rates were calculated for the two strategies, assuming side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy was omitted if low-risk features were present on reflex uterine frozen examination, and compared with the standard National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) SLN algorithm.

Results: 372 endometrial cancer patients were analyzed. 230 patients (61.8%) had endometrioid grade 1 or 2 tumors with <50% myometrial invasion (strategy A), and in 123 (53.4%) of these patients the tumor diameter was ≤2 cm (strategy B); 8 (3.5%) of the 230 cases had lymphatic metastasis. None of them were detected by side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy and metastases were limited to SLNs in 7 patients. At least one pelvic side was not mapped in 107 (28.8%) cases in the entire cohort, and all of these cases would require a side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy based on the NCCN SLN algorithm. This rate could have been significantly decreased to 11.8% and 19.4% by applying reflex frozen section examination of the uterus using strategy A and strategy B, respectively.

Conclusion: Reflex frozen section examination of the uterus can be a feasible option to decide whether side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy is necessary for all the patients who failed to map with an SLN algorithm. If low-risk factors are found on frozen section examination, side-specific pelvic lymphadenectomy can be omitted without compromising diagnostic efficacy for lymphatic spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001353DOI Listing
July 2020

The effect of obesity on the onset of spontaneous labor and scheduled delivery rates in term pregnancies.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Jan;59(1):34-38

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Sciences University Diyarbakır Gazi Yaşargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Objective: To determine the effect of obesity on the onset of spontaneous labor, scheduled delivery rates and perinatal outcomes in term pregnancies.

Material And Methods: 242 obese and 244 non-obese pregnant women ≥37 gestational weeks were compared in terms of the onset of spontaneous labor, scheduled delivery rates and perinatal outcomes.

Results: Obese pregnant women had statistically significantly lower onset of spontaneous labor and higher rates of scheduled delivery. No difference was determined in respect of the type of delivery, 1st and 5th minutes APGAR scores and the need for intensive care. Higher values of birth weight, large for gestational age, macrosomia, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia were determined in obese women.

Conclusion: The onset of spontaneous labor rates in term obese pregnancies were lower and scheduled delivery rates were higher than in the non-obese pregnancies. However, more extensive studies are needed to better understand this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2019.10.002DOI Listing
January 2020

Multidisciplinary management of women with pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence and lower urinary tract symptoms.A clinical and psychological overview.

Prz Menopauzalny 2019 Dec 5;18(3):184-190. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Although female sexual dysfunctions are common among women with urogynecological conditions, they have not been thoroughly studied and there are still many questions without an answer. The recent evidence on sexual disorders in women with urogynecological diseases shows a quite wide spectrum of therapeutic approaches, which require the physicians to take into account not only the primary symptoms, but also all the associated factors negatively affected. It has been widely underlined that gynecological diseases are often associated with high stress and have a negative impact on quality of life and psychological well-being of women affected. For this reason, a multidisciplinary approach for the management of these diseases is highly recommended. Also in the case of urogynecological disorders, it is important to take into account psychological outcomes throughout the diagnostic and therapeutic process. In the light of these considerations, the aim of this short review is to evaluate the impact of the main urogynecological diseases and the currently available therapeutic options in order to improve quality of life and sexuality of these patients and to stress the need for a multidisciplinary approach in order to minimize the negative consequences of these diseases for the sexual well-being of women and their partners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pm.2019.89496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970416PMC
December 2019

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in early stage endometrial cancer: a Turkish gynecologic oncology group study (TRSGO-SLN-001).

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 03 18;30(3):299-304. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, Koc University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in clinically uterine confined endometrial cancer.

Methods: Patients who underwent primary surgery for endometrial cancer with an SLN algorithm were reviewed. Indocyanine green or blue dye was used as a tracer. SLNs and/or suspicious lymph nodes were resected. Side specific lymphadenectomy was performed when mapping was unsuccessful. SLNs were ultrastaged on final pathology.

Results: 357 eligible patients were analyzed. Median age was 59 years. Median number of resected SLNs was 2 (range 1-12) per patient. Minimal invasive and open surgeries were performed in 264 (73.9%) and 93 (26.1%) patients, respectively. Indocyanine green was used in 231 (64.7%) and blue dye in 126 (35.3%) patients. The dyes were injected into the cervix in 355 (99.4%) patients. The overall and bilateral SLN detection rates were 91.9% and 71.4%, respectively. The mapping rates using indocyanine green or blue dye were comparable (P=0.526). There were 43 (12%) patients with lymphatic metastasis. The SLN algorithm was not able to detect 3 of 43 patients who had isolated paraaortic metastasis. After SLN biopsy, complete pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed in 286 (80.1%) patients. Sensitivity and negative predictive value were both 100% for the detection of pelvic lymph node metastases. In addition, 117 (32.8%) patients underwent completion paraaortic lymphadenectomy after SLN biopsy. In these patients, sensitivity for detecting metastases to pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph nodes was 90.3% with a negative predictive value of 96.6%. The risk of non-SLN involvement in patients with macrometastatic SLNs, micrometastatic SLNs, and isolated tumor cells in SLNs were 61.2%, 14.3% and 0%, respectively.

Conclusions: SLN biopsy had good accuracy in detecting lymphatic metastasis. However, one-third of cases with metastatic SLNs also had non-SLN involvement and this risk increased to two-thirds of cases with macrometastatic SLNs. The effect of leaving these nodes in situ on survival should be evaluated in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2019-000847DOI Listing
March 2020

Sexuality in women with endometriosis: a critical narrative review.

Minerva Med 2020 Feb 11;111(1):79-89. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DiNOGMI), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease that generally affects young and sexually active women in different stages of their development and sexual life. Because endometriosis affects about 5-10% of women in reproductive age, it is possible to estimate that about 2-4% of those who are sexually active may suffer from sexual dysfunction caused by this disease. Surgical and pharmacological treatments of endometriosis can improve the patient's sexual function in the medium and long term, but not necessarily lead to a definitive resolution of the sexual issue. For this reason, the ideal treatment should be conducted by a multidisciplinary team, with the aim to improve overall sexual functioning and not only to reduce the painful symptoms during intercourse. In light of these considerations, the aim of this narrative review was to provide a general overview about the impact of endometriosis on sexuality of women affected and the effectiveness of surgical and pharmacological treatments in improving sexual function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.19.06299-2DOI Listing
February 2020

SATEN III-Splitting Adjuvant Treatment of stage III ENdometrial cancers: an international, multicenter study.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2019 10 2;29(8):1271-1279. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: The purposes of this study were to compare adjuvant treatment modalities and to determine prognostic factors in stage III endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC).

Methods: SATEN III was a retrospective study involving 13 centers from 10 countries. Patients who had been operated on between 1998 and 2018 and diagnosed with stage III endometrioid EC were analyzed.

Results: A total of 990 women were identified; 317 with stage IIIA, 18 with stage IIIB, and 655 with stage IIIC diseases. The median follow-up was 42 months. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with stage III EC by adjuvant treatment modality was 68.5% for radiotherapy (RT), 54.6% for chemotherapy (CT), and 69.4% for chemoradiation (CRT) (p=0.11). The 5-year overall survival (OS) for those patients was 75.6% for RT, 75% for CT, and 80.7% for CRT (p=0.48). For patients with stage IIIA disease treated by RT versus CT versus CRT, the 5-year OS rates were 75.6%, 75.0%, and 80.7%, respectively (p=0.48). Negative peritoneal cytology (HR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.86; p=0.02) and performance of lymphadenectomy (HR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.77, p=0.001) were independent predictors for improved OS for stage IIIA EC. For women with stage IIIC EC treated by RT, CT, and CRT, the 5-year OS rates were 78.9%, 67.0%, and 69.8%, respectively (p=0.08). Independent prognostic factors for better OS for stage IIIC disease were age <60 (HR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.36 to 0.69, p<0.001), grade 1 or 2 disease (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.94, p=0.014; and HR: 0.65, 95%CI: 0.46 to 0.91, p=0.014, respectively), absence of cervical stromal involvement (HR: 063, 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.86, p=0.004) and performance of para-aortic lymphadenectomy (HR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.72, p<0.001).

Discussion: Although not statistically significant, CRT seemed to be a better adjuvant treatment option for stage IIIA endometrioid EC. Systematic lymphadenectomy seemed to improve survival outcomes in stage III endometrioid EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2019-000643DOI Listing
October 2019

Quality of life and fertility preservation counseling for women with gynecological cancer: an integrated psychological and clinical perspective.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2020 06 2;41(2):86-92. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Molecular Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, MARGen Clinic, Granada, Spain.

Relational and sexual problems are frequent in patients with a diagnosis of gynecological cancer, because this disease has a strong negative impact on female identity and sexuality. Psychological and sexual functioning is affected by inauspicious diagnosis. Furthermore, therapies may compromise reproductive function. The aim of this study is to propose a general overview on the impact of gynecological cancer on quality of life and psychological and sexual functioning, as well as on the importance of adequate counseling related to fertility preservation techniques. We provide a narrative overview of the recent literature about quality of life and fertility preservation counselling in women with gynecological cancer. According to recent studies, 75% of women between 18 and 45 years with a diagnosis of cancer wish to have children. When cancer affects the reproductive system, the psychological distress is even stronger because there is a loss of menstrual function and fertility. Currently, fertility preservation techniques in women with gynecological cancer are beneficial and lead to an improvement in the quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2019.1648424DOI Listing
June 2020

Diet and Nutritional Interventions with the Special Role of Myo-Inositol in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Management. An Evidence-Based Critical Appraisal.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(22):2467-2473

Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, represents one of the most common maternal-fetal complications during pregnancy and it is associated with poor perinatal outcomes. To date, GDM is a rising condition over the last decades coinciding with the ongoing epidemic of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).

Objective: The aim of this review is to discuss the role of diet and nutritional interventions in preventing GDM with the explanation of the special role of myo-inositol (MI) in this matter.

Methods: We performed an overview of the most recent literature data on the subject with particular attention to the effectiveness of diet and nutritional interventions in the prevention of GDM with the special role of MI.

Results: Nutritional intervention and physical activity before and during pregnancy are mandatory in women affected by GDM. Moreover, the availability of insulin-sensitizers such as different forms of inositol has dramatically changed the scenario, allowing the treatment of several metabolic diseases, such as those related to glucose dysbalance. Although the optimal dose, frequency, and form of MI administration need to be further investigated, diet supplementation with MI appears to be an attractive alternative for the GDM prevention as well as for the reduction of GDM-related complications.

Conclusions: More studies should be conducted to prove the most effective nutritional intervention in GDM. Regarding the potential effectiveness of MI, further evidence in multicenter, randomized controlled trials is needed to draw firm conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190722155512DOI Listing
April 2020

Maternal abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness as a simple predictor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

J Perinat Med 2019 Aug;47(6):605-610

Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background To date, only a limited number of studies have evaluated the importance of abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (ASFT) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ASFT measurement during routine obstetric ultrasound performed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation in predicting cases with GDM. Methods This prospective comparative study was conducted on 50 cases with GDM and 50 cases without GDM in the GDM screening program at 24-28 gestational weeks between January 2018 and May 2018. The most accurate ASFT cut-off point values were determined for the prediction of cases with GDM by performing receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The ASFT was higher in those with GDM compared to those without GDM (P < 0.05). For an ASFT cut-off point value of 18.1 mm for the prediction of cases with GDM, the sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 72.0%, 60.0%, 64.2% and 68.1%, respectively. The risk of GDM increased 3.86-fold in those with ASFT level >18.1 mm (P = 0.001). Conclusion The ASFT value measured by routine obstetric ultrasound performed at 24-28 weeks of gestation was found to be significantly higher in patients with GDM in comparison to those without GDM. However, further multi-centered and comprehensive prospective studies are required to better demonstrate this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2018-0431DOI Listing
August 2019

Ykl-40 and cancer antigen 72-4 as new and promising diagnostic and prognostic markers for endometrial cancer.

Turk J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 9;15(4):235-242. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

İstanbul University Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, İstanbul,Turkey.

Objective: To determine the predictive role of serum levels of YKL-40 and cancer antigen (CA) 72-4 in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC).

Materials And Methods: Forty-one patients with EC and 21 women with uterine polyps were evaluated between January and December 2015 in a prospective study.

Results: Age, body mass index, preoperative serum YKL-40 and CA 72-4 levels were significantly higher in the malignant group compared with the control group. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with superficial myometrial invasion and no lymph node involvement (p=0.042; p=0.004). No relationship between clinicopathologic factors and serum CA 72-4 levels was found.

Conclusion: Serum CA 72-4 and YKL-40 levels are increased in women with EC compared with uterine polyps. Preoperative serum YKL-40 levels may be associated with favorable prognostic factors. The determination of YKL-40 before surgery may be helpful in the evaluation of the regional lymph nodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjod.77906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334238PMC
December 2018

An investigation of the effect of placental growth factor on intrapartum fetal compromise prediction in terminduced high risk pregnancies.

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(12):700-704

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Sciences University Diyarbakır Gazi Yaşargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Objectives: To date, there is no available test to predict the risk of intrapartum fetal compromise (IFC) during labor, either starting spontaneously or induced due to obstetrics indications. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of placental growth factor (PIGF) in identifying cases that develop intrapartum fetal compromise (IFC) in term high-risk pregnancies induced for labor.

Material And Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 40 IFC+ cases and 40 IFC- cases with high-risk term pregnancy and labor induction started in the Health Sciences University Gazi Yaşargil Training and Research Hospital, between January 2018 and April 2018. Comparisons were made between the groups in respect of placental growth factor (PIGF) levels, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

Results: The PIGF level was found to be statistically significantly lower in the IFC+ cases compared to the IFC- cases. For a PIGF cutoff value of 32 pg/mL for the prediction of IFC+ cases, sensitivity was 74.4%, specificity 73.2%, NPV 75% and PPV 72.5%, with a statistically significant difference determined between the groups. The IFC+ development risk increased 7.91-fold in patients with PIGF ≤ 32 pg/mL.

Conclusions: The PIGF levels in cases of IFC+ high risk pregnancies were found to be statistically significantly lower than those of IFC- cases. However, further, large-scale randomized controlled research is necessary to demonstrate this relationship better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0118DOI Listing
August 2019

Simple vaginal trachelectomy for early stage cervical cancer: A tertiary cancer center experience.

Ginekol Pol 2018 ;89(9):475-480

Objectives: Less radical fertility sparing procedures have been introduced to reduce morbidity and adverse obstetric outcome in cervical cancer. Our objective was to describe oncological and obstetric outcomes of women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent a simple vaginal trachelectomy (SVT).

Material And Methods: From 01/2013 to 05/2017, 14 women underwent SVT preceded by laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection.

Results: Patients' median age was 32 years and all of them were nulliparous. Histology included squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in 12 (85.7%) and 2 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Three patients had stage 1A1 with lymphovascular space invasion, 4 1A2 and 7 1B1. After obtaining final histopathology, one patient underwent radical hysterectomy due to positive surgical margin and excluded from analysis. None of the patients had lymph node metastasis. None of the 13 patients developed a recurrence within a median follow-up of 27 (6-56) months. Seven patients have conceived: 4 were term deliveries, 2 were late preterm deliveries and 1 was spontaneous abortion.

Conclusions: SVT in well selected early-stage cervical cancer patients seems to be a safe treatment option with excellent oncologic outcome, preserving reproductive function. Literature data will need to be confirmed in large prospective series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2018.0081DOI Listing
April 2019

The use of colposcopic punch biopsy in the management of abnormal cervical cytology: a 5-year retrospective audit.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Jan 19;39(1):110-114. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

a Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine , Istanbul University , Istanbul , Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of colposcopic punch biopsy to detect cervical epithelial neoplasia (CIN) II + in patients with abnormal cervical cytology and the major colposcopic findings in patients who underwent a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), subsequently. A total of 231 patients with abnormal cervical cytology who underwent a colposcopy guided cervical biopsy and subsequent LEEP were analysed. The mean age was 33.4 ± 8.7 years. CIN II + rate on LEEP pathology was significantly higher in patients with high-grade cytology, compared to those with a low-grade cytology (92 vs. 55%, p < .0001). CIN II + was found in 80, 98 and 100% of colpocopic biopsies of patients with LSIL, HSIL and AGC, respectively. The overall concordance rate between a colposcopic biopsy and LEEP was 41% with a kappa coefficient. The overall underestimation of CIN II + was 10.5%. On a patient-based analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of colposcopic biopsy were 89.4, 47.1, 79.5 and 66%, respectively. More than two cervical biopsies had 100% sensitivity for CIN II + on LEEP pathology. The specificity and PPV decreased with increasing number of cervical biopsies. A see-and-treat strategy may be considered for high-grade cytologies. Patients with a low-grade cytology should be managed with more than two colposcopic biopsies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2018.1468740DOI Listing
January 2019

YKL-40 in the diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and platinum sensitivity in serous epithelial ovarian cancer.

Turk J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Sep 3;15(3):177-181. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

İstanbul University Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To evaluate the use of YKL-40 in the discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal mass and to determine its prognostic value in assessing residual tumor after primary cytoreduction and platinum sensitivity in serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).

Materials And Methods: During the three years from January 2015 to December 2017, a nonconsecutive series of 100 patient (60 malignant, 40 benign) who underwent surgery for an adnexal mass were enrolled in the study. Preoperatively, serum samples were collected for YKL-40 level analysis.

Results: YKL-40 [receiver operator characteristics (ROC)-area under curve (AUC)=0.83] was a significantly better predictor of EOC than cancer antigen-125 (ROC-AUC=0.75). Using a cut-off for YKL-40 of 47.7 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 70%. Higher serum YKL-40 levels were associated with advanced stage, higher grade, residual tumor after primary cytoreduction and recurrence. Platinum-sensitive patients had significantly elevated levels of YKL-40 compared with platinum-resistant or refractory patients.

Conclusion: The results obtained from our study support the use of serum YKL-40 for the discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian tumors. YKL-40 levels in patients with serous EOC may also predict disease residual disease after primary cytoreduction and recurrence. Further studies are needed to understand the relationship between YKL-40 and platinum sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjod.28459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127478PMC
September 2018

Risk Factors for Recurrence in Low-Risk Endometrial Cancer: A Case-Control Study.

Oncol Res Treat 2018 6;41(7-8):466-470. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for recurrence in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer (EC).

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study was performed using 10 gynecological oncology department databases. Patients who met the following criteria were included in the study: (a) endometrioid-type histology, (b) histological grade 1 or 2, (c) no or < 50% myometrial invasion, (d) no intraoperative evidence of extrauterine spread, and (e) the patient underwent at least a pelvic lymphadenectomy. Recurrence was detected in 56 patients who were histologically diagnosed with low-risk EC, and these patients made up the case group. A total of 224 patients with low-risk EC without recurrence were selected (control group) using a dependent random sampling method. The case and control groups were match-paired in terms of grade, stage, and operative technique.

Results: Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-16.9; p = 0.001) and primary tumor diameter (PTD) ≥ 20 mm (OR 6.6, 95% CI 2.7-15.8; p < 0.001) were found to be independent risk factors for recurrence in women with low-risk EC.

Conclusion: The presence of LVSI and PTD ≥ 20 mm seem to be significant risk factors for recurrence in women with low-risk EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488112DOI Listing
August 2019

A Very Rare Case: HPV-Negative Vulvar Cancer in an Adolescent.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2018 1;2018:1816782. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Carcinoma of the vulva is usually regarded as a disease of older women, with the typical age of 65-85 years. There are a limited number of reports of vulvar cancer cases younger than 30 years. These patients have usually risk factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immunosuppression. Herein, we present a case of invasive squamous vulvar cancer in an 18-year-old patient without any risk factor. Vulvar radical local excision and bilateral inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed. The clitoris was preserved during the surgery. Patient did not receive adjuvant therapy. Follow-up after 12 months of the disease showed no evidence of disease. Vulvar carcinoma in very young women may develop without any predisposing factor. Early detection will result in better survival. So, there should be a high index of suspicion when a vulvar lesion is seen, even if the patient falls below the typical age range and does not carry any well-known risk factors such as HPV infection and immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1816782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5816857PMC
February 2018

The Role of Pathological Margin Distance and Prognostic Factors After Primary Surgery in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2018 03;28(3):623-631

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of clear surgical margin distance and other factors associated with the recurrence and survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.

Methods/materials: A total of 107 patients operated for vulvar carcinoma from 1996 to 2016 were included in the analysis. Patients were divided into subgroups with clear pathological margin of 2 mm or less, greater than 2 to less than 8 mm, and 8 mm or greater for the analysis of the prognostic impact of the clear margin distance. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: The median age of the patients was 66 years. The median follow-up was 69 months. The labia majora and/or labia minora were the most common sites of involvement. Radical local excision and radical vulvectomy were performed in 96 and 11 patients, respectively. Thirty-nine patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The overall recurrence rate was 46%. At 231 months, the actuarial local recurrence rate was 18.6%. Patients with clear pathological margin of 2 mm or less had significantly higher local recurrence risk. Five-year disease-free survival was 32.7%. Older age and adjuvant chemotherapy were found as independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that a more than 2 mm tumor-free margins is associated with better local control. In addition, older age is an independent prognostic factor for survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IGC.0000000000001195DOI Listing
March 2018

What influences women's contraceptive choice? A cross-sectional study from Turkey.

Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(12):639-646

Objectives: In our study, we tried to investigate the determinants of women's choices about contraception with the aim of discovering whether or not there is a difference in their preferences before and after consultation with a gynaecologist.

Material And Methods: A total of 1058 women were enrolled. They were given detailed information regarding contraception and contraceptive methods. Subsequently, a survey which was made of 21 questions was administered.

Results: Contraceptive counselling significantly changed the contraceptive choice of women. However, influences from social media and friends, their partners and religious belief affected their contraceptive choices. Significant differences in contraceptive choice were observed when women were categorized according to their marital status, education level, household income, age, and number of children.

Conclusions: Although contraceptive counselling influenced Turkish women's choices, there were still other determinants like social media and input from outside sources such as clerics and husbands, which should be overcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2017.0115DOI Listing
July 2018

See and treat strategy by LEEP conization in patients with abnormal cervical cytology.

Ginekol Pol 2017 ;88(7):349-354

Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty; Medical Faculty, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa, Turkey.

Objectives: To determine the overtreatment and re-LEEP rates of see and treat strategy (S & T) in women who underwent S & T by LEEP and to identify the risk factors for overtreatment and surgical margin and/or endocervical curettage positivity.

Material And Methods: A total of 800 patients who underwent S & T in Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty between June 2010 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Overtreatment rate was found to be 46.6%, decreasing with higher grade of cervical smear abnormalities. Age more than 45, low grade of cervical cytologic abnormality and absence of glandular involvement were associated with higher overtreatment rates. The more advanced the histopathology, the more increased risk of surgical margin on LEEP and ECC positivity (p < 0.0001, for both). Glandular involvement was associated with both surgical margin and ECC positivity.

Conclusions: S & T can be used in patients with high grade cytologic anomaly with an acceptable overtreatment rate. In addition, bigger pieces of specimens may need to be removed during LEEP in patients who have suspicious images of higher grade of abnormalities on colposcopy to reduce surgical margin or ECC positivity. When high rate of ECC positivity in patients with HSIL cytology is considered, we suggest performing ECC to every patients with HSIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/GP.a2017.0066DOI Listing
July 2018

Factors associated with survival after relapse in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer treated with surgery alone.

J Gynecol Oncol 2017 Sep 16;28(5):e65. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To determine factors influencing overall survival following recurrence (OSFR) in women with low-risk endometrial cancer (EC) treated with surgery alone.

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with recurrent "low-risk EC" (patients having less than 50% myometrial invasion [MMI] with grade 1 or 2 endometrioid EC) at 10 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected.

Results: We identified 67 patients who developed recurrence of their EC after initially being diagnosed and treated for low-risk EC. For the entire study cohort, the median time to recurrence (TTR) was 23 months (95% confidence interval [CI]=11.5-34.5; standard error [SE]=5.8) and the median OSFR was 59 months (95% CI=12.7-105.2; SE=23.5). We observed 32 (47.8%) isolated vaginal recurrences, 6 (9%) nodal failures, 19 (28.4%) peritoneal failures, and 10 (14.9%) hematogenous disseminations. Overall, 45 relapses (67.2%) were loco-regional whereas 22 (32.8%) were extrapelvic. According to the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Trial-99, 7 (10.4%) out of 67 women with recurrent low-risk EC were qualified as high-intermediate risk (HIR). The 5-year OSFR rate was significantly higher for patients with TTR ≥36 months compared to those with TTR <36 months (74.3% compared to 33%, p=0.001). On multivariate analysis for OSFR, TTR <36 months (hazard ratio [HR]=8.46; 95% CI=1.65-43.36; p=0.010) and presence of HIR criteria (HR=4.62; 95% CI=1.69-12.58; p=0.003) were significant predictors.

Conclusion: Low-risk EC patients recurring earlier than 36 months and those carrying HIR criteria seem more likely to succumb to their tumors after recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2017.28.e65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540724PMC
September 2017

Management options for interstitial ectopic pregnancies: A case series.

Pak J Med Sci 2017 Mar-Apr;33(2):476-482

Abdullah Tuten, Associate Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the Fallopian tubes can be life-threatining considering the thin myometrial tissue surrounding the gestational sac and highly vascularization which may result in catastrophic haemorrhage when interstitium is ruptured. The diagnosis and management is challenging. Conservative, medical, and surgical treatment options should be considered based on individual patient factors.

Methods: Four women were diagnosed with interstitial pregnancy in last five years in our tertiary center. Four different treatment modalities, including single dose methotrexate, laparotomy, hysteroscopy followed by vacuum aspiration, and vacuum aspiration under laparoscopy were performed according to patients' characteristics.

Results: . Successful outcome was achieved in all patients.

Conclusion: Interstitial pregnancy can be successfully treated with a single dose systemic methotrexate when all criteria are met. The classical cornual wedge resection remains lifesaving operation for cases of ruptured interstitial pregnancy. Less invasive procedures such as laparoscopic assisted transcervical vacuum aspiration and diagnostic hysteroscopy followed by vacuum aspiration can be performed in selected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.332.12093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432727PMC
May 2017

Cytoreductive Surgery Followed by Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer with Incidental Bochdalek Hernia and Postoperative Bilateral Thalamic Infarct: A Case Report.

Case Rep Oncol 2017 Jan-Apr;10(1):265-271. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

aDivision of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey.

Congenital Bochdalek hernia is a defect of the diaphragm and very rare in adults. Only around 100 cases have been reported in the literature. Herein, we present a case with a recurrent ovarian cancer who underwent secondary cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. An oval defect with dimensions of 3 × 4 cm was seen in the left posterolateral site of the diaphragm during surgical exploration. In addition, a 6 × 3 cm iatrogenic right-sided diaphragmatic defect was found and repaired. In the early postoperative period, a bilateral thalamic infarction occurred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000468980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422726PMC
March 2017