Publications by authors named "Øystein Fløtten"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

High-dose versus standard-dose twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy for patients with limited stage small-cell lung cancer: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 03;22(3):321-331

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Department of Oncology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Background: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for limited stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 30 fractions is considered to be the most effective schedule. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-dose, twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 60 Gy in 40 fractions improves survival.

Methods: This open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial was done at 22 public hospitals in Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment-naive confirmed limited stage SCLC, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2, and measurable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 were eligible. All participants received four courses of intravenous cisplatin 75 mg/m or carboplatin (area under the curve 5-6 mg/mL × min, Calvert's formula) on day 1 and intravenous etoposide 100 mg/m on days 1-3 every 3 weeks. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in permuted blocks (sized between 4 and 10) stratifying for ECOG performance status, disease stage, and presence of pleural effusion to receive thoracic radiotherapy of 45 Gy in 30 fractions or 60 Gy in 40 fractions to the primary lung tumour and PET-CT positive lymph node metastases starting 20-28 days after the first chemotherapy course. Patients in both groups received two fractions per day, ten fractions per week. Responders were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation of 25-30 Gy. The primary endpoint, 2-year overall survival, was assessed after all patients had been followed up for a minimum of 2 years. All randomly assigned patients were included in the efficacy analyses, patients commencing thoracic radiotherapy were included in the safety analyses. Follow-up is ongoing. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02041845.

Findings: Between July 8, 2014, and June 6, 2018, 176 patients were enrolled, 170 of whom were randomly assigned to 60 Gy (n=89) or 45 Gy (n=81). Median follow-up for the primary analysis was 49 months (IQR 38-56). At 2 years, 66 (74·2% [95% CI 63·8-82·9]) patients in the 60 Gy group were alive, compared with 39 (48·1% [36·9-59·5]) patients in the 45 Gy group (odds ratio 3·09 [95% CI 1·62-5·89]; p=0·0005). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (72 [81%] of 89 patients in the 60 Gy group vs 62 [81%] of 77 patients in the 45 Gy group), neutropenic infections (24 [27%] vs 30 [39%]), thrombocytopenia (21 [24%] vs 19 [25%]), anaemia (14 [16%] vs 15 [20%]), and oesophagitis (19 [21%] vs 14 [18%]). There were 55 serious adverse events in 38 patients in the 60 Gy group and 56 serious adverse events in 44 patients in the 45 Gy group. There were three treatment-related deaths in each group (one neutropenic fever, one aortic dissection, and one pneumonitis in the 60 Gy group; one thrombocytic bleeding, one cerebral infarction, and one myocardial infarction in the 45 Gy group).

Interpretation: The higher radiotherapy dose of 60 Gy resulted in a substantial survival improvement compared with 45 Gy, without increased toxicity, suggesting that twice-daily thoracic radiotherapy of 60 Gy is an alternative to existing schedules.

Funding: The Norwegian Cancer Society, The Liaison Committee for Education, Research and Innovation in Central Norway, the Nordic Cancer Union, and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30742-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Randomized phase III trial comparing switch-maintenance pemetrexed with observation followed by pemetrexed at progression in advanced NSCLC.

Acta Oncol 2020 Sep 16;59(9):1051-1057. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Two phase III trials show that maintenance pemetrexed therapy after platinum-doublet chemotherapy prolongs overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, few patients in the control arms received pemetrexed at progression in these trials, performance status (PS) two patients were ineligible and few of the participants were elderly. Thus, we designed this study comparing immediate switchmaintenance pemetrexed therapy with pemetrexed at progression after platinum-doublet chemotherapy. Patients with stage IIIB/IV non-squamous NSCLC, ≥18 years, PS 0-2, and non-progression after four courses of carboplatin/vinorelbine were randomized to receive immediate maintenance pemetrexed therapy or observation followed by pemetrexed at progression. The primary endpoint was OS, secondary endpoints were PFS, toxicity and health related quality of life (HRQoL). 105 patients were randomized between May 2014 and September 2017. Median age was 67 years, 36% were >70 years, 9% had PS 2, 91% stage IV and 47% were women. In the observation arm, 73% received pemetrexed at progression. Patients in the maintenance arm had a numerically longer OS (median 12.0 vs. 10.0 months;  = .10) and a statistically significant longer PFS (median 3.1 vs. 1.9 months;  < .01). In multivariable analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics, there was a trend toward improved OS (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-1.01);  = .05), and a significantly improved PFS (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.35-0.80;  < .01). There were no significant differences in toxicity or HRQoL between the treatment arms. There was a trend toward prolonged OS and significantly longer PFS from switch maintenance pemetrexed therapy when 73% of patients in the control arm received pemetrexed at progression. NCT02004184.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1778179DOI Listing
September 2020

A comparison of CT based measures of skeletal muscle mass and density from the Th4 and L3 levels in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2019 07 25;73(7):1069-1076. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Muscle mass and density assessed from CT-images at the L3 level are prognostic for survival and predict toxicity in cancer patients. However, L3 is not always included on routine CT-scans. We aimed to investigate whether images at the Th4 level may be used instead.

Methods: Patients from three chemotherapy trials in advanced NSCLC were eligible (n = 1305). Skeletal muscle area (cm), skeletal muscle index (SMI, cm/m) and skeletal muscle density (SMD) at Th4 and L3 levels were assessed from baseline CT-scans. SMI and SMD at the Th4 and L3 level were transformed into z-scores and the agreement between scores was investigated by Bland-Altman plots and estimated by intra-class correlation analyses. Linear regression was used to test if Th4 SMI and SMD z-scores predicted L3 SMI and SMD z-scores.

Results: CT-images from 401 patients were analysable at both levels. There was a moderate agreement between Th4 and L3 SMI z-scores with an intra-class correlation of 0.71 (95% CI 0.64-0.77) for men and 0.53 (95% CI 0.41-0.63) for women. Regression models predicting L3 SMI z-scores from Th4 SMI z-scores showed coefficients of 0.71 (95% CI 0.62-0.80) among men and 0.53 (95% CI 0.40-0.66) among women. R-squares were 0.51 and 0.28, respectively, indicating moderate agreement. A similar, moderate agreement between Th4 and L3 SMD z-scores was observed.

Conclusion: There was only moderate agreement between muscle measures from Th4 and L3 levels, indicating that missing data from the L3 level cannot be replaced by analysing images at the Th4 level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0325-5DOI Listing
July 2019

Associations between hematologic toxicity and health-related quality of life during first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a pooled analysis of two randomized trials.

Acta Oncol 2018 Nov 3;57(11):1574-1579. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

a European Palliative Care Research Centre (PRC), Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine , Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology , Trondheim , Norway.

Background: Many patients experience toxicity from chemotherapy that may negatively impact their health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but side effects often go undetected by health care personnel. Our aim was to investigate whether hematologic toxicity (HT) was associated with HRQoL impairment, and, consequently, if blood counts could be used to identify patients with the highest need for supportive care during chemotherapy.

Material And Methods: Data from two phase III trials of first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed (n = 873). Blood counts were measured weekly in the treatment period. We categorized patients as having severe (CTCAE grade 3-4) or non-severe (grade 0-2) HT during the first chemotherapy cycle. HRQoL was reported on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 before and at the end of the cycle. The primary endpoints were changes in global quality of life, fatigue, nausea/vomiting and dyspnea (LC13).

Results: Of the 766 patients with complete data set, 177 (23%) developed severe HT during the first chemotherapy cycle. Changes in fatigue and nausea/vomiting were significantly worse for patients experiencing severe compared to patients with non-severe HT (difference in mean change of 4.9 points; p = .01, and 6.4 points; p = .01, respectively), but this association was limited to neutropenia, not thrombocytopenia or anemia. There were no significant associations between HT and global quality of life or dyspnea (difference in mean change of 2.1 points; p = .28, and 3.3 points; p = .053, respectively).

Conclusions: Patients developing severe HT had worse changes in two out of four of the primary HRQoL endpoints, but the association was not strong enough to use blood counts to identify patients who need more clinical attention and supportive care during chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2018.1492151DOI Listing
November 2018

Survival in Limited Disease Small Cell Lung Cancer According to N3 Lymph Node Involvement.

Anticancer Res 2018 02;38(2):871-876

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Background/aim: There are several definitions of limited disease (LD) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), differing with respect to N3 disease accepted. We analyzed patients from a randomized trial comparing two schedules of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in LD SCLC to investigate whether there were survival differences between N3 subcategories (n=144).

Patients And Methods: Patients with a baseline CT scan available were analysed. Patients received four courses of cisplatin/etoposide and TRT of 45 Gy/30 fractions (twice daily) or 42 Gy/15 fractions (once daily).

Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 23.3 months in the whole cohort. N3-patients (n=37) had shorter survival than those with N0-2 (16.7 vs. 33.0 months; p<0.001). There were no significant OS-differences between the N3 subcategories, but patients with metastases to two or more N3 regions had shorter survival than other N3 patients (13.4 vs. 19.9 months; p=0.011).

Conclusion: There were no survival differences between the N3 subcategories, suggesting that all N3 disease should be considered as LD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.12296DOI Listing
February 2018

Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries.

Acta Oncol 2017 Oct 1;56(10):1249-1257. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

o Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine , Landspitli University Hospital, University of Iceland , Reykjavik , Iceland.

Introduction: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries.

Materials And Methods: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening.

Results And Discussion: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation of such a program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2017.1329592DOI Listing
October 2017

Muscle mass and association to quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2017 Oct 10;8(5):759-767. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway.

Background: Cancer wasting is characterized by muscle loss and may contribute to fatigue and poor quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to investigate associations between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) and selected QoL outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at diagnosis.

Methods: Baseline data from patients with stage IIIB/IV NSCLC and performance status 0-2 enrolled in three randomized trials of first-line chemotherapy (n = 1305) were analysed. Associations between SMI (cm /m ) and SMD (Hounsfield units) based on computed tomography-images at the third lumbar level and self-reported physical function (PF), role function (RF), global QoL, fatigue, and dyspnoea were investigated by linear regression using flexible non-linear modelling.

Results: Complete data were available for 734 patients, mean age 65 years. Mean SMI was 47.7 cm /m in men (n = 420) and 39.6 cm /m in women (n = 314). Low SMI values were non-linearly associated with low PF and RF (men P = 0.016/0.020, women P = 0.004/0.012) and with low global QoL (P = 0.001) in men. Low SMI was significantly associated with high fatigue (P = 0.002) and more pain (P = 0.015), in both genders, but not with dyspnoea. All regression analyses showed poorer physical outcomes below an SMI breakpoint of about 42-45 cm /m for men and 37-40 cm /m for women. In both genders, poor PF and more dyspnoea were significantly associated with low SMD.

Conclusions: Low muscle mass in NSCLC negatively affects the patients' PF, RF, and global QoL, possibly more so in men than in women. However, muscle mass must be below a threshold value before this effect can be detected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5659054PMC
October 2017

Tumour size reduction after the first chemotherapy-course and outcomes of chemoradiotherapy in limited disease small-cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2016 12 15;102:9-14. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; The Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital-Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Objectives: Concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) is recommended for limited disease small-cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). TRT should start as early as possible, often meaning with the second course due to patient referral time and the fact that TRT planning takes time. Early assessment of response to the first course of chemotherapy may be a useful way to individualise treatment. The aims of this study were to assess tumour size reduction after the first chemotherapy-course, and whether this reduction was associated with outcomes in LD SCLC.

Material And Methods: A randomised trial comparing twice-daily (45Gy/30 fractions) with once-daily (42Gy/15 fractions) TRT, given concurrently with four courses of cisplatin/etoposide (n=157) was the basis for this study. Tumour size was assessed on CT scans at baseline and planning scans for TRT according to RECIST 1.0.

Results: CT scans were available for 135 patients (86%). Ninety-four percent had a reduction in tumour size after the first chemotherapy-course. The median reduction in sum of diameters (SOD) of measurable lesions was ÷16mm (÷84 to +10mm), corresponding to ÷18% (÷51 to +12%). Eighty-two percent had stable disease, 18% partial response. Reduction in SOD was significantly associated with complete response at first follow-up (OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.09; p=0.013), PFS (HR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99; p=0.001), and overall survival (HR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00; p=0.010).

Conclusion: Response from the first course of chemotherapy had a significant positive association with outcomes from chemoradiotherapy, and might be used to stratify and randomise patients in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2016.10.003DOI Listing
December 2016

Drug Dose Per Kilogram Lean Body Mass Predicts Hematologic Toxicity From Carboplatin-Doublet Chemotherapy in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2017 03 5;18(2):e129-e136. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Variations in lean body mass (LBM) have been suggested to explain variations in toxicity from systemic cancer treatment. We investigated if drug doses per kilogram of LBM were associated with severe hematologic toxicity (HT) in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) enrolled onto randomized trials comparing first-line carboplatin-doublets.

Patients And Methods: Patients received carboplatin (AUC [area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve] = 5) plus either pemetrexed 500 mg/m, gemcitabine 1000 mg/m, or vinorelbine 60 mg/m. LBM was estimated from the cross-sectional muscle area at the third lumbar vertebra on computed tomographic scans. Administered doses on day 1, first cycle, were recalculated as milligram of drug per kilogram of LBM. Primary outcome was Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 grade 3/4 HT after cycle 1.

Results: Data from 424 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 65 years, 57% were men, and 78% had stage IV disease. Despite dose individualization by body surface area for the nonplatinum drugs, mean (range) doses expressed as mg/kg LBM showed ∼3-fold range: gemcitabine 38.0 (22.5-61.7) mg/kg LBM, pemetrexed 19.1 (8.1-27.9) mg/kg LBM, and vinorelbine 2.4 (1.4-3.6) mg/kg LBM. For these drugs, dose per kilogram of LBM was associated with HT in adjusted multivariate models (P = .004). Taking mean dose per kilogram LBM for each drug as reference, a 1% increase (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.06) or 1% decrease (OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) was associated with altered risk of grade 3/4 HT. For doses > 20% above and below mean (14% and 15% of patients, respectively) the risk of grade 3/4 HT was almost doubled (OR = 1.93, 95% CI, 1.21-3.10) and halved (OR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83), respectively.

Conclusion: Dose per kilogram of LBM varied considerably and was an independent predictor of HT. Computed tomography-defined LBM may provide a future basis for better dose individualization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2016.09.008DOI Listing
March 2017

Comorbidity and outcomes of concurrent chemo- and radiotherapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer.

Acta Oncol 2016 Nov 23;55(11):1349-1354. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

a Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine , NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology , Trondheim , Norway.

Background: Many patients with limited disease small cell lung cancer (LD SCLC) suffer from comorbidity. Not all patients with comorbidity are offered standard treatment, though there is little evidence for such a policy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with comorbidity had inferior outcomes in a LD SCLC cohort.

Material And Methods: We analyzed patients from a randomized study comparing two three-week schedules of thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) plus standard chemotherapy in LD SCLC. Patients were to receive four courses of cisplatin/etoposide and TRT of 45 Gy/30 fractions (twice daily) or 42 Gy/15 fractions (once daily). Responders received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). Comorbidity was assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), which rates conditions with increased one-year mortality.

Results: In total 157 patients were enrolled between May 2005 and January 2011. Median age was 63 years, 52% were men, 16% had performance status 2, and 72% stage III disease. Forty percent had no comorbidity; 34% had CCI-score 1; 15% CCI 2; and 11% CCI 3-5. There were no significant differences in completion rates of chemotherapy, TRT or PCI across CCI-scores; or any significant differences in the frequency of grade 3-5 toxicity (p = 0.49), treatment-related deaths (p = 0.36), response rates (p = 0.20), progression-free survival (p = 0.18) or overall survival (p = 0.09) between the CCI categories.

Conclusion: Patients with comorbidity completed and tolerated chemo-radiotherapy as well as other patients. There were no significant differences in response rates, progression-free survival or overall survival - suggesting that comorbidity alone is not a reason to withhold standard therapy in LD SCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2016.1201216DOI Listing
November 2016

Skeletal muscle radiodensity is prognostic for survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Clin Nutr 2016 12 1;35(6):1386-1393. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Dept of Internal Medicine, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.

Background & Aims: Recent research indicates that severe muscular depletion (sarcopenia) is frequent in cancer patients and linked to cachexia and poor survival. Our aim was to investigate if measures of skeletal muscle hold prognostic information in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: We included NSCLC patients with disease stage IIIB/IV, performance status 0-2, enrolled in three randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy (n = 1305). Computed tomography (CT) images obtained before start of treatment were used for body composition analyses at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3). Skeletal muscle mass was assessed by measures of the cross sectional muscle area, from which the skeletal muscle index (SMI) was obtained. Skeletal muscle radiodensity (SMD) was measured as the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) of the measured muscle area. A high level of mean HU indicates a high SMD.

Results: Complete data were available for 734 patients, mean age 65 years. Both skeletal muscle index (SMI) and muscle radiodensity (SMD) varied largely. Mean SMI and SMD were 47.7 cm/m and 37.4 HU in men (n = 420), 39.6 cm/m and 37.0 HU in women (n = 314). Multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusted for established prognostic factors, showed that SMD was independently prognostic for survival (Hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, p = 0.001), whereas SMI was not (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.01, p = 0.329).

Conclusion: Low SMD is associated with poorer survival in advanced NSCLC. Further research is warranted to establish whether muscle measures should be integrated into routine practice to improve prognostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.03.010DOI Listing
December 2016

Randomized phase II trial comparing twice daily hyperfractionated with once daily hypofractionated thoracic radiotherapy in limited disease small cell lung cancer.

Acta Oncol 2016 May 23;55(5):591-7. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

b Clinic of Oncology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital , Trondheim , Norway .

Background: Concurrent chemotherapy and thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) is recommended for limited disease small cell lung cancer (LD SCLC). Twice daily TRT is well documented, but not universally implemented - probably mainly due to inconvenience and concerns about toxicity. A schedule of three-week hypofractionated TRT is a commonly used alternative. This is the first randomized trial comparing twice daily and hypofractionated TRT in LD SCLC.

Material And Methods: Patients received four courses of cisplatin/etoposide (PE) and were randomized to TRT of 42 Gy in 15 fractions (once daily, OD) or 45 Gy in 30 fractions (twice daily, BID) between the second and third PE course. Good responders received prophylactic cranial irradiation of 30 Gy in 15 fractions.

Results: 157 patients were enrolled between May 2005 and January 2011 (OD: n = 84, BID: n = 73). Median age was 63 years, 52% were men, 84% had performance status 0-1, 72% had stage III disease and 11% non-malignant pleural effusion. The treatment arms were well balanced. The response rates were similar (OD: 92%, BID: 88%; p = 0.41), but more BID patients achieved a complete response (OD: 13%, BID: 33%; p = 0.003). There was no difference in one-year progression-free survival (PFS) (OD: 45%, BID: 49%; p = 0.61) or median PFS (OD: 10.2 months, BID: 11.4 months; p = 0.93). The median overall survival in the BID arm was 6.3 months longer (OD: 18.8 months, BID: 25.1 months; p = 0.61). There were no differences in grade 3-4 esophagitis (OD: 31%, BID: 33%, p = 0.80) or pneumonitis (OD: 2%, BID: 3%, p = 1.0). Patients on the BID arm reported slightly more dysphagia at the end of the TRT.

Conclusion: There was no difference in severe toxicity between the two TRT schedules. The twice daily schedule resulted in significantly more complete responses and a numerically longer median overall survival, but no firm conclusions about efficacy could be drawn from this phase II trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/0284186X.2015.1092584DOI Listing
May 2016

Low muscle mass is associated with chemotherapy-induced haematological toxicity in advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2015 Oct 9;90(1):85-91. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.

Background: Recent research suggests a significant relationship between lean body mass (LBM) and toxicity from chemotherapeutic agents. We investigated if higher drug doses per kg LBM were associated with increased toxicity in stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving a first-line chemotherapy regimen dosed according to body surface area (BSA).

Methods: Data from patients randomised to receive intravenous gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2) plus orally vinorelbine 60 mg/m(2) days 1 and 8 in a phase III trial comparing two chemotherapy regimens were analysed. LBM was estimated from assessment of the cross-sectional muscle area at the third lumbar level (L3) on computed tomography images obtained before chemotherapy commenced. Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) grade 3-4 haematological toxicity and dose reduction and/or stop of treatment after the first course of chemotherapy were defined as primary and secondary toxicity outcomes.

Results: The study sample included 153 patients, mean age was 66 years, 55% were men, 87% had disease stage IV and 75% had performance status (PS) 0-1. Gemcitabine doses per kg LBM varied from 23.2 to 53.1 mg/kg LBM, and vinorelbine doses from 1.5 to 3.3 mg/kg LBM. Higher doses of gemcitabine per kg LBM were significantly associated with grade 3-4 haematological toxicity in bivariate (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.03-1.23, p=0.008) and multivariate analyses (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.29, p=0.018), as were also higher doses of vinorelbine per kg LBM. No significant association was found between drug doses per kg LBM and dose reduction and/or stop of treatment.

Conclusion: The study showed that dose estimates according to BSA lead to a substantial variation in drug dose per kg LBM, and higher doses per kg LBM are a significant predictor for chemotherapy-induced haematological toxicity. The results indicate that taking LBM into account may lead to a better dose individualisation of chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2015.07.001DOI Listing
October 2015

A placebo-controlled, randomized phase II study of maintenance enzastaurin following whole brain radiation therapy in the treatment of brain metastases from lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2012 Oct 20;78(1):63-9. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

The Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital-Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.

Introduction: Enzastaurin is a protein kinase C inhibitor with anti-tumor activity. This study was designed to determine if maintenance enzastaurin improved the outcome of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in lung cancer (LC) patients with brain metastases (BMs).

Methods: Patients with LC (any histology) who had received WBRT for BMs were randomized to receive oral maintenance enzastaurin (1125 mg on Day 1 followed by 500 mg daily) or placebo. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP) of BMs.

Results: Fifty-four patients received enzastaurin and 53 patients received placebo. The median TTP of BMs was (months) enzastaurin: 6.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-11.9); placebo: 4.9 (95% CI: 3.6-not assessable); p=0.82. Median overall survival (OS) was (months) enzastaurin: 3.8 (95% CI: 2.6-5.6); placebo: 5.1 (95% CI: 3.7-5.7); p=0.47. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was (months) enzastaurin: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3); placebo: 2.0 (95% CI: 1.3-2.3); p=0.75. The overall response rate (ORR) for extracranial disease was enzastaurin: 0%; placebo: 4.5% (p=0.49) and for intracranial disease was enzastaurin: 9.3%; placebo 6.8% (p=0.71). Grade 4 hematologic treatment-emergent adverse events were (enzastaurin vs. placebo) thrombocytopenia (5.6% vs. 1.9%) and neutropenia (5.6% vs. 0%). There was 1 treatment-related death in each arm (enzastaurin: unknown cause; placebo: pulmonary embolism). No significant differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were observed.

Conclusions: Enzastaurin was well tolerated but did not improve TTP of BMs, ORR, OS, PFS, or HRQoL after WBRT in LC patients with BMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2012.07.007DOI Listing
October 2012

Influence of comorbidity on survival, toxicity and health-related quality of life in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer receiving platinum-doublet chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2010 Aug 12;46(12):2225-34. Epub 2010 May 12.

Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

Aim Of The Study: To investigate whether patients with severe comorbidity receiving platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a shorter overall survival, experience more toxicity or more deterioration of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than other patients during treatment.

Patients And Methods: Patients enrolled onto a phase III trial comparing pemetrexed/carboplatin with gemcitabine/carboplatin as first-line therapy of stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were analysed. Eligible patients had performance status 0-2 and adequate kidney/liver/bone-marrow function. Comorbidity was assessed from hospital medical records using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G). Toxicity was graded using the CTCAE v3.0 and the patients reported HRQoL on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-C30/LC13.

Results: Data from 402 of the 436 of the patients enrolled onto the phase III trial were analysed. The patients with severe comorbidity had similar survival as other patients (6.9 versus 8.1months; p=.34), similar frequency of neutropenia (48% versus 42%; p=.16), but experienced more neutropenic fevers (12% versus 5%; p=.012) and deaths from neutropenic infections (3% versus 0%; p=.027). They had more thrombocytopenia (46% versus 36%; p=.03), but not more thrombocytopenic bleedings (3% versus 4%; p=.65). In general, the patients with severe comorbidity reported poorer HRQoL, but not significantly more deterioration of HRQoL.

Conclusions: The results from our study suggest that patients with advanced NSCLC who have severe co-existing disorders benefit from and tolerate platinum-doublet chemotherapy as well as other patients. They do, however, appear to have a higher risk of acquiring infections when neutropenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2010.04.009DOI Listing
August 2010

Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group: pemetrexed plus carboplatin compared with gemcitabine plus carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2009 Jul 11;27(19):3217-24. Epub 2009 May 11.

3. etg, Gastro Sør, St. Olavs Hospital, NO-7006 Trondheim, Norway.

PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) = 5 (Calvert's formula) on day 1 or gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin AUC = 5 on day 1 every 3 weeks for up to four cycles. The primary end point was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) defined as global quality of life, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were enrolled from April 2005 to July 2006. Patients who completed the baseline questionnaire were analyzed for HRQoL (n = 427), and those who received > or = one cycle of chemotherapy were analyzed for toxicity (n = 423). Compliance of HRQoL questionnaires was 87%. There were no significant differences for the primary HRQoL end points or in overall survival between the two treatment arms (pemetrexed/carboplatin, 7.3 months; gemcitabine/carboplatin, 7.0 months; P = .63). The patients who received gemcitabine/carboplatin had more grade 3 to 4 hematologic toxicity than patients who received pemetrexed/carboplatin, including leukopenia (46% v 23%, respectively; P < .001), neutropenia (51% v 40%, respectively; P = .024), and thrombocytopenia (56% v 24%, respectively; P < .001). More patients on the gemcitabine/carboplatin arm received transfusions of RBCs and platelets, whereas the frequencies of neutropenic infections and thrombocytopenic bleedings were similar on both arms. CONCLUSION Pemetrexed/carboplatin provides similar HRQoL and survival when compared with gemcitabine/carboplatin with less hematologic toxicity and less need for supportive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.20.9114DOI Listing
July 2009

A prospective phase II study: high-dose pemetrexed as second-line chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2009 Jan 6;63(1):88-93. Epub 2008 Jun 6.

Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.

Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of high-dose pemetrexed as second-line chemotherapy in small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

Patients And Methods: Patients with verified SCLC who had received one prior chemotherapy regimen, aged 18-75 years, WHO Performance Status 0-2, no clinical signs of brain metastases and measurable disease were eligible. Patients received pemetrexed 900 mg/m(2) IV every 3 weeks. Four courses were planned for all patients. Patients with relapse later than 3 months since last course of first-line chemotherapy were defined as "sensitive", those with relapse within 3 months as "refractory". Toxicity was graded using the CTCAE v3.0.

Results: 36 patients were accrued, 34 received study treatment. Median age was 61 (range 43-74), 18 (53%) males and 16 (47%) females. Mean number of courses administered was 2.5. One patient (3%) had partial response, three (9%) had stable disease and 29 (85%) progressed. One patient (3%) was not evaluable for response. Median TTP (n=33) was 7.7 weeks ("sensitive": 8.4 weeks, "refractory": 5.1 weeks). Median OS (n=34) was 17.6 weeks ("sensitive": 22.6 weeks, "refractory": 15.3 weeks). Of grade 3-4 haematological toxicity, anemia was observed in 2 (6%) patients, leukopenia in 6 (18%), granulocytopenia in 9 (27%) and thrombocytopenia in 3 (9%). Febrile neutropenia occurred in 6 (18%) patients. There were no treatment related deaths.

Conclusion: High-dose pemetrexed monotherapy to patients with recurrent SCLC yielded moderate toxicity, but limited treatment efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2008.04.003DOI Listing
January 2009

[Electronic medical record].

Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2002 Nov;122(28):2728

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November 2002