Publications by authors named "Émilie Bouchard"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evidence of Arctic Fox Survival following Exposure to Rabies Virus.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

US Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 Laporte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA.

The arctic fox variant of the rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic in the circumpolar north. Reports of abortive RABV exposures motivated a retrospective analysis of sera from 41 arctic foxes captured at Karrak Lake in Nunavut, Canada, during 2011-2015. Estimated RABV antibody prevalence among foxes was 14% (95% confidence interval, 7-28%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/JWD-D-21-00071DOI Listing
November 2021

Newlavirus, a Novel, Highly Prevalent, and Highly Diverse Protoparvovirus of Foxes ( spp.).

Viruses 2021 Sep 30;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Biology, Memorial, University of Newfoundland, 232 Elizabeth Ave., St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada.

The genus (family ) includes several viruses of carnivores. We describe a novel fox protoparvovirus, which we named Newlavirus as it was discovered in samples from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Analysis of the full non-structural protein (NS1) sequence indicates that this virus is a previously uncharacterized species. Newlavirus showed high prevalence in foxes from both the mainland (Labrador, 54/137, 39.4%) and the island of Newfoundland (22/50, 44%) but was not detected in samples from other carnivores, including coyotes ( = 92), lynx ( = 58), martens ( = 146), mink ( = 47), ermines ( = 17), dogs ( = 48), and ringed ( = 4), harp ( = 6), bearded ( = 6), and harbor ( = 2) seals. Newlavirus was found at similar rates in stool and spleen (24/80, 30% vs. 59/152, 38.8%, = 0.2) but at lower rates in lymph nodes (2/37, 5.4%, < 0.01). Sequencing a fragment of approximately 750 nt of the capsid protein gene from 53 samples showed a high frequency of co-infection by more than one strain (33.9%), high genetic diversity with 13 genotypes with low sequence identities (70.5-87.8%), and no geographic segregation of strains. Given the high prevalence, high diversity, and the lack of identification in other species, foxes are likely the natural reservoir of Newlavirus, and further studies should investigate its distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13101969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8537079PMC
September 2021

Vibration of the Whole Foot Soles Surface Using an Inexpensive Portable Device to Investigate Age-Related Alterations of Postural Control.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 10;15:719502. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Laboratoire de Recherche Biomécanique & Neurophysiologique en Réadaptation Neuro-Musculo-Squelettique (Lab BioNR), Centre Intersectoriel en Santé Durable, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC, Canada.

Standing on a foam surface is used to investigate how aging affect the ability to keep balance when somatosensory inputs from feet soles become unreliable. However, since standing on foam also affects the efficacy of postural adjustments, the respective contributions of sensory and motor components are impossible to separate. This study tested the hypothesis that these components can be untangled by comparing changes of center of pressure (CoP) parameters induced by standing on a foam pad vs. a novel vibration (VIB) platform developed by our team and targeting feet soles' mechanoreceptors. Bipedal postural control of young ( = 20) and healthy elders ( = 20) was assessed while standing barefoot on a force platform through 3 randomized conditions: (1) Baseline (BL); (2) VIB; and (3) Foam. CoP Amplitude and Velocity in the antero-posterior/medio-lateral (AP/ML) directions and COP Surface were compared between conditions and groups. Both VIB and Foam increased CoP parameters compared to BL, but Foam had a significantly greater impact than VIB for both groups. Young and Old participants significantly differed for all three Conditions. However, when correcting for BL levels of postural performance, VIB-related increase of COP parameters was no longer different between groups, conversely to Foam. Although both VIB and Foam highlighted age-related differences of postural control, their combined use revealed that "motor" and "sensory" components are differently affected by aging, the latter being relatively unaltered, at least in healthy/active elders. The combined used of these methods could provide relevant knowledge to better understand and manage postural impairments in the aging population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2021.719502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461065PMC
September 2021

Host and geographic differences in prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal helminths of foxes (), coyotes () and wolves () in Québec, Canada.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2021 Dec 8;16:126-137. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

University of Saskatchewan, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Wild canids are hosts to a wide range of parasites and can play a role in transmission of zoonoses. As many parasites are transmitted through food webs, and wild canids are at high trophic levels, parasite prevalence and diversity in wild canids can serve as excellent indicators of ecosystem health. Our main objectives were to update knowledge on the composition of gastrointestinal helminths in wild canids from Québec, Canada, and to describe differences in parasite prevalence and diversity among canid species and regions. Hunters and trappers provided whole carcasses of red foxes () (N = 176), and intestinal tracts of coyotes () (N = 77) and gray wolves () (N = 23) harvested for non-research purposes over the winter of 2016-2017. A modified Stoll's centrifugation sucrose flotation on feces of 250 wild canids was used, and eggs of one family and eight genera of parasitic helminths were recovered: diphyllobothriids, spp., spp sp., sp., sp., sp., and sp. Adult spp. cestodes were recovered from 61 of 276 (22%) canids. Six different species (, , , , and -"like") were differentiated based on DNA sequenced from 65 individual adult cestodes using primers for the nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial DNA loci. sp. trematodes infected 89 of 276 canids (32%). A subset were identified as at the CO1 locus. The marine trematode was reported for the first time in foxes in the province of Québec. These results help us understand more fully the predator-prey relationships within this group of canids. This baseline data in regional parasite prevalence and intensity is critical in order to detect future changes following ecological disturbances due to climate and landscape alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2021.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441108PMC
December 2021

Copro-polymerase chain reaction has higher sensitivity compared to centrifugal fecal flotation in the diagnosis of taeniid cestodes, especially Echinococcus spp, in canids.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Apr 5;292:109400. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Prompt and reliable diagnostic tests for taeniid infection in canids are important due to the risk of zoonoses like Echinococcus spp. Current diagnostic methods relying on fecal flotation lack sensitivity and specificity, but this has rarely been quantified due to the challenges in performing adult cestode recovery (the gold standard) in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Therefore, we recovered adult Taenia and Echinococcus spp. from intestines, as well as fecal/intestinal material from 484 wild canids trapped for fur in two Canadian provinces (276 foxes - primarily Vulpes vulpes, coyotes - Canis latrans, and wolves - Canis lupus in Québec and 208 coyotes in Saskatchewan). The performances of a newly developed coproPCR for tapeworm DNA detection in dogs, and centrifugal fecal flotation using Sheather's solution, were evaluated against adult cestode recovery. Overall, adult taeniid cestode prevalence (Taenia and/or Echinococcus) was 28 % (95 % CI: 23-33 %) in Québec (62 % (CI: 51-73%) of 74 coyotes, 65 % (CI: 44-82) of 23 wolves, and 11 % (CI: 7-16%) of 179 foxes) and 79 % (CI: 73-84%) of 208 coyotes in Saskatchewan. In Québec, E. canadensis and Taenia spp. were detected in coyotes and wolves, and foxes were only infected with Taenia spp., whereas Saskatchewan coyotes were predominantly infected with E. multilocularis (at significantly higher prevalence, but not intensity, than coyotes in Québec). Compared with centrifugal fecal flotation, the new coproPCR had at least double the sensitivity (58 % vs 23 % in QC coyotes, 57 % vs 23 % in QC wolves, 24 % vs 0% in QC foxes, and 80 % vs 25 % in SK coyotes). Notably, no taeniid eggs were detected on flotations from foxes infected with Taenia spp., and the new coproPCR had highest sensitivity in Saskatchewan coyotes, which were predominantly infected with E. multilocularis. CoproPCR has promising prospects for use in Veterinary clinics and diagnostic laboratories to detect taeniid cestode infections because of its higher sensitivity than faecal flotation methods. This is particularly important for zoonotic Echinococcus spp. where, from a public health perspective, false negatives are a much greater concern than false positives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2021.109400DOI Listing
April 2021

and T6 in arctic foxes ( from northern Canada.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Dec 28;13:269-274. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Parasitic zoonotic nematodes of the genus circulate in wildlife and domestic hosts worldwide through the ingestion of infected meat. Due to their role as scavengers and predators in terrestrial and marine arctic ecosystems, Arctic foxes () are ideal sentinels for the detection of spp. In this study, we determined the prevalence, larval intensity, and species of from 91 trapped Arctic foxes collected around the northern Canadian communities of Sachs Harbour (Ikaahuk) on Banks Island (n = 23), and Ulukhaktok and Cambridge Bay (Ikaluktutiak) on Victoria Island (n = 68). Using pepsin-HCl digestion, larvae of spp. were recovered from the left forelimb muscle () in 19 of the 91 foxes (21% prevalence, 95% CI: 14-30%). For the first time in Arctic foxes in Canada, species were identified using multiplex PCR that was followed up with PCR-RFLP to distinguish between and . All infected foxes harbored and one fox was co-infected with T6; the latter is a new host record. Age of the fox was significantly associated with spp. infection and the odds of being infected were three times higher in foxes ≥2 years of age (p = 0.026), indicating cumulative exposure with age. While Arctic foxes are seldom harvested for human consumption, they serve as sentinel hosts of spp., confirming the presence of the parasite in wildlife in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720016PMC
December 2020

Hopping species and borders: detection of Bartonella spp. in avian nest fleas and arctic foxes from Nunavut, Canada.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Sep 14;13(1):469. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Background: In a warmer and more globally connected Arctic, vector-borne pathogens of zoonotic importance may be increasing in prevalence in native wildlife. Recently, Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch fever, was detected in blood collected from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) that were captured and released in the large goose colony at Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. This bacterium is generally associated with cats and cat fleas, which are absent from Arctic ecosystems. Arctic foxes in this region feed extensively on migratory geese, their eggs, and their goslings. Thus, we hypothesized that a nest flea, Ceratophyllus vagabundus vagabundus (Boheman, 1865), may serve as a vector for transmission of Bartonella spp.

Methods: We determined the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in (i) nest fleas collected from 5 arctic fox dens and (ii) 37 surrounding goose nests, (iii) fleas collected from 20 geese harvested during arrival at the nesting grounds and (iv) blood clots from 57 adult live-captured arctic foxes. A subsample of fleas were identified morphologically as C. v. vagabundus. Remaining fleas were pooled for each nest, den, or host. DNA was extracted from flea pools and blood clots and analyzed with conventional and real-time polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region.

Results: Bartonella henselae was identified in 43% of pooled flea samples from nests and 40% of pooled flea samples from fox dens. Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii was identified in 30% of pooled flea samples collected from 20 geese. Both B. vinsonii berkhoffii (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 1) were identified in the blood of foxes.

Conclusions: We confirm that B. henselae, B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae circulate in the Karrak Lake ecosystem and that nest fleas contain B. vinsonii and B. henselae DNA, suggesting that this flea may serve as a potential vector for transmission among Arctic wildlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04344-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490881PMC
September 2020

Combating Vaccine Hesitancy: Teaching the Next Generation to Navigate Through the Post Truth Era.

Front Public Health 2018 14;6:381. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Dahlem Research School, Biomedical Science, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Despite scientific evidence supporting the fact that vaccines are fundamental tools for preventing infectious diseases, a percentage of the population still refuses some or all of them. Vaccine hesitancy has become a widespread issue, and its complexity lies in the great variety of factors that can influence decisions about immunization, which are not just vaccine-related concerns, but also involve personal and societal levels. Our research group performed an extensive literature review to analyze: (1) different age groups, their relation to the problem and their characteristics; (2) the most important information (key messages) about immunization that could be used to counteract hesitancy; and (3) best approaches to transmit the messages to the target groups. We propose a long-term approach to overcome vaccine hesitancy that involves the education of children and adolescents on the basics about immunization and critical thinking, using different communication channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339919PMC
January 2019

TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS OF IN ARCTIC FOXES (): A LONG-TERM MARK-RECAPTURE SEROLOGIC STUDY AT KARRAK LAKE, NUNAVUT, CANADA.

J Wildl Dis 2019 07 28;55(3):619-626. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4, Canada.

Transmission dynamics of , a parasite of importance for wildlife and human health, are enigmatic in the Arctic tundra, where free-ranging wild and domestic felid definitive hosts are absent and rarely observed, respectively. Through a multiyear mark-recapture study (2011-17), serosurveillance was conducted to investigate transmission of in Arctic foxes () in the Karrak Lake region, Nunavut, Canada. Sera from adult foxes and fox pups were tested for antibodies to by using serologic methods, including the indirect fluorescent antibody test, direct agglutination test, and modified agglutination test. The overall seroprevalence was 39% in adults and 17% in pups. Mature foxes were more likely to be exposed (seroconvert) than young foxes (less than 1 yr old), with the highest level of seroprevalence in midaged foxes (2-4 yr old). Pups in two different litters were seropositive on emergence from the den, around 5 wk old, which could have been due to passive transfer of maternal antibody or vertical transmission of from mother to offspring. The seropositive pups were born of seropositive mothers that were also seropositive the year before they gave birth, suggesting that vertical transmission might not be limited to litters from mothers exposed to for the first time in pregnancy. All recaptured seropositive foxes remained seropositive on subsequent captures, suggesting that antibodies persist or foxes are constantly reexposed or a combination of both. The results of this study provided insights into how foxes were likely exposed to , the dynamics of antibody persistence and immune response, and how the parasite was maintained in a terrestrial Arctic ecosystem in the absence of felid definitive hosts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2018-06-144DOI Listing
July 2019

Echinococcus in wild canids in Québec (Canada) and Maine (USA).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 08 20;12(8):e0006712. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Zoonotic Echinococcus spp. cestodes (E. canadensis and E. multilocularis) infect domestic animals, wildlife, and people in regions of Canada and the USA. We recovered and quantified Echinococcus spp. cestodes from 22 of 307 intestinal tracts of wild canids (23 wolves, 100 coyotes, 184 red and arctic foxes) in the state of Maine and the province of Québec. We identified the species and genotypes of three Echinococcus spp. cestodes per infected animal by sequencing mitochondrial DNA at two loci. We further confirmed the absence of E. multilocularis by extracting DNA from pools of all cestodes from each animal and running a duplex PCR capable of distinguishing the two species. We detected E. canadensis (G8 and G10), but not E. multilocularis, which is emerging as an important human and animal health concern in adjacent regions. Prevalence and median intensity of E. canadensis was higher in wolves (35%, 460) than coyotes (14%, 358). This parasite has historically been absent in Atlantic regions of North America, where suitable intermediate hosts, but not wolves, are present. Our study suggests that coyotes are serving as sylvatic definitive hosts for E. canadensis in Atlantic regions, and this may facilitate eastward range expansion of E. canadensis in the USA and Canada. As well, compared to wolves, coyotes are more likely to contaminate urban green spaces and peri-urban environments with zoonotic parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6117095PMC
August 2018

Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of in experimentally infected reindeer ().

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2017 Dec 15;6(3):234-240. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

University of Saskatchewan, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5B4, Canada.

is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou () are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to , and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou) with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200) for antibodies to . At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for , and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2017.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573777PMC
December 2017

Parasite control in Canadian companion animal shelters and a cost-comparison of anthelmintics.

Can Vet J 2015 Sep;56(9):964-70

Department of Veterinary Microbiology (Schurer, McKenzie, Bouchard, Jenkins), Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences (Dowling), University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4.

Animal shelters have limited resources and must accommodate large numbers of animals at unpredictable intake rates. These dogs and cats are often parasitized, which can adversely affect the health of animals and expose shelter workers and adoptive owners to zoonoses. We analyzed survey responses from rural (n = 32) and urban (n = 50) companion animal shelters across Canada, and compared the wholesale cost of commercially available anthelmintics to identify cost-effective methods of managing parasites within shelters. Almost all shelters employed nematocides (98% to 99%), but cestocides and ectoparasiticides were used less frequently. Shelters identified cost as an important consideration in choosing to perform fecal diagnostic testing and administer anthelmintics, and this motivated many shelters to selectively perform testing (66%) or never to test (32%), and to use drugs extralabel (80%).
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4535514PMC
September 2015

Theoretical, psychometric, and pragmatic issues in pain measurement.

Pain Manag Nurs 2008 Sep;9(3):120-30

School of Nursing, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Measurement is essential to nursing practice and research, and adequate tool selection is crucial for both. The present paper seeks to provide an overview of key issues to consider in tool development, selection, and psychometric testing using the concept of pain. Both the classic and the contemporary approaches to validity are described and compared. Although sharing similar features, the contemporary approach seems more encompassing, because it considers measurement purposes, participants' characteristics, and conditions under which instruments are used. Strategies pertaining to reliability and validity testing are discussed and illustrated with specific pain assessment measures, including pain intensity scales, multidimensional questionnaires, and other behavioral tools. Depending on measurement purposes, the more appropriate strategies are highlighted. Cultural issues in pain measurement as well as pragmatic criteria for measure selection also are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2007.12.001DOI Listing
September 2008
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