Wellens Syndrome Publications (227)

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Wellens Syndrome Publications

2016Dec
Am J Emerg Med
Am J Emerg Med 2016 Dec 24. Epub 2016 Dec 24.
Stony Brook University Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, 101 Nicolls Road, Stony Brook, NY 11794, United States; Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, United States. Electronic address:

We illustrate the case a patient with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes consistent with those described in Wellens' syndrome. The characteristic ECG findings of Wellens' syndrome identify patients who have a particularly high rate of important coronary events in the near future, however these findings have previously been described only in the setting of normal conduction. A review of Wellens' syndrome, its criteria and pathophysiology, and its proposed appearance in the setting of LBBB is presented. Read More

2016Dec
Cardiology
Cardiology 2016 Dec 13;137(1):9-13. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

We report the case of a woman in her 70s presenting to the emergency department with syncope, troponemia, and an electrocardiogram with deep symmetric T-wave inversions in V2 and V3 and prolonged QTc. Her presentation was concerning for acute coronary syndrome, Wellens syndrome in particular, given the elevated troponin levels, lack of ST segment changes, and characteristic T-wave findings. The diagnosis was confirmed with angiography that showed a critical left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion. Read More

Since myocardial infarction does not typically present with syncope, we explored the differential diagnoses for T-wave inversions, which include electrolyte abnormalities, medications, intracranial hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, and other cardiac diseases that were ruled out in our patient. We also explored the pathophysiology leading to syncope in the setting of acute myocardial infarction including arrhythmias and exaggerated neurally mediated response. Our patient received two drug-eluting stents to the LAD artery and was started on dual antiplatelet therapy, beta-blockers, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

2016Nov
Am J Emerg Med
Am J Emerg Med 2016 Nov 3. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
Department of Cardiology, Aerospace Center Hospital, 15 Yuquan road, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China.

Negative T waves in electrocardiography have been widely studied. We presents a case of Wellens' syndrome which is a pattern of global inverted T waves with QT prolongation on ECG due to transient proximal LAD occlusion and pointed out other differential diagnosis. Read More

2017Jan
Am J Emerg Med
Am J Emerg Med 2017 Jan 5;35(1):175-176. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
Department of Cardiology, Aerospace Center Hospital, 15 Yuquan Rd, Haidian District, Beijing 100049, PR China.
2016Oct
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2016 Oct 18. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
Zentrale Notaufnahme, Klinikum Herford, Schwarzenmoorstr. 70, 32049, Herford, Deutschland.
2016Sep
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2016 7;6(4):32011. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
Department of Internal Medicine, Easton Hospital, Easton, PA, USA.

Wellens' syndrome is characterized by T-wave changes in electrocardiogram (EKG) during pain-free period in a patient with intermittent angina chest pain. It carries significant diagnostic and prognostic value because this syndrome represents a pre-infarction stage of coronary artery disease involving proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, which can subsequently lead to extensive anterior myocardial infarctions (MIs) and even death without coronary angioplasty. Therefore, it is crucial for every physician to recognize EKG features of Wellens' syndrome in order to take appropriate immediate intervention to reduce mortality and morbidity for MI. Read More

Here, we report a case of an overweight man with 35 pack-year of smoking history who presented to Easton Hospital with intermittent pressing chest pain of 5/6 times within 10 day-period and was found to have type A Wellens' sign, which was biphasic T-waves in precordial leads V2 and V3 during pain-free period with no cardiac enzymes elevation. He was given therapeutic lovenox and subsequently underwent coronary angioplasty and had 95-99% occlusion in proximal LAD artery. The unique feature of our case was that Wellens' type B EKG changes were seen after reduction of stenosis with LAD artery stent, which was likely explained by the reperfusion of the ischemic myocardium. Therefore, it is important for physicians to recognize EKG features of Wellens' syndrome in order to take appropriate therapy to reducing mortality and morbidity form impending MI.

A proband of Brugada syndrome (BrS) is the first patient diagnosed in a family. There are no data regarding this specific, high-risk population.
This study sought to investigate the Brugada probands diagnosed from 1986 through the next 28 years. Read More


We included 447 probands belonging to families with a diagnostic type 1 electrocardiogram Brugada pattern. The database was divided into 2 periods: the first period identified patients who were part of the initial cohort that became the consensus document on BrS in 2002 (early group); the second period reflected patients first diagnosed from 2003 to January 2014 (latter group).
There were 165 probands in the early group and 282 in the latter group. Aborted sudden death as the first manifestation of the disease occurred in 12.1% of the early group versus 4.6% of the latter group (p = 0.005). Inducibility during programmed electrical stimulation was achieved in 34.4% and 19.2% of patients, respectively (p < 0.001). A spontaneous type 1 electrocardiogram pattern at diagnosis was present in 50.3% early versus 26.2% latter patients (p = 0.0002). Early group patients had a higher probability of a recurrent arrhythmia during follow-up (19%) than those of the latter group (5%) (p = 0.007). The clinical suspicion and use of a sodium-channel blocker to unmask BrS has allowed earlier diagnoses in many patients.
Since being first described, the presentation of BrS has changed. There has been a decrease in aborted sudden cardiac death as the first manifestation of the disease among patients who were more recently diagnosed. These variations in initial presentation have important clinical consequences. In this setting, the value of inducibility to stratify individuals with BrS has changed.

2017Feb
Emerg Med J
Emerg Med J 2017 Feb 29;34(2):119-123. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Reperfusion after coronary occlusion (myocardial infarction, MI), as in Wellens' syndrome, is often represented on ECG as T-wave inversion in the leads overlying the affected myocardial wall(s). As an extension of this logic, reperfusion of the posterior wall should manifest on right precordial leads (which are opposite the posterior wall) as enlarged T-waves.
We sought to determine whether T-wave amplitude (TWa) in leads V2 and V3 after reperfusion in posterior MI (PMI) is greater than in patients without PMI. Read More


Review of ECGs from patients with ST elevation MI of the left circumflex or right coronary artery with post-procedure thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) flow >0 between 2007 and 2009. Blinded experts reviewed admission ECGs to determine the presence of PMI and measure TWa before and after reperfusion. Maximum TWa in V2 and V3 and the difference between maximum and admission V2 and V3 TWa were compared between those with and without PMI.
Of 72 patients, 48 had PMI. Values expressed are medians and IQRs. Maximum TWa after reperfusion was greater in PMI than in non-PMI in V2 (5.00 mm (3.5 to 8.25) vs 3.9 mm (2.75 to 5.5), p=0.04), but not in V3 (4.0 mm (2 to 5.5) vs 3.0 mm (1.75 to 4), p=0.09). The increase in TWa in V2 and V3 after reperfusion was greater in PMI compared with non-PMI: (V2, 3.4 mm (2 to 5.25) vs 1.25 mm (-0.25 to 2), p=0.0005; V3, 2 mm (-0.5 to 3.25) vs 0.25 mm (-1 to 1.75), p=0.03).
Reperfusion of the posterior wall results in higher right precordial TWa, and an even greater increase in TWa, as measured in leads V2 and V3. This observation has important implications for emergency physicians to accurately identify recent posterior infarction in patients who may be symptom free on presentation but at risk of reocclusion.

2016Jun
Clin Case Rep
Clin Case Rep 2016 Jun 26;4(6):558-60. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
Department of internal cardiology Guangzhou Overseas Chinese Hospital Guangzhou Guangdong 510632 China.

The case is a 52-year-old male admitted to cardiology department with chest tightness. Admission ECG showed nontypical T-wave changes in V2-V4 leads in pain peroids, and increasing severe narrowing of proximal LAD. Cardiac enzymes were abnormal. Read More

Emergency coronary angiography showed severe stenosis (99%) in proximal LAD.