Ventilation Noninvasive Publications (6254)


Ventilation Noninvasive Publications

Polygraphy (PG) remains the standard method of assessing noninvasive ventilation (NIV) effectiveness. Built-in software (BIS) of recent NIV equipment provides estimates of some ventilator parameters, but their usefulness is unclear.
To assess the reliability of BIS compared with PG in a cohort of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) patients on NIV. Read More

Thirty stable OHS patients on NIV were evaluated in an outpatient setting with simultaneous PG and BIS recordings. The automated apnea-hypopnea event index (EIAUT) provided by Rescan and manual scoring based on available traces obtained from the software (EIBIS) were compared with manual PG scoring (EIPG). Each manual scoring was separately performed by 2 trained operators. Agreement between the 2 operators was assessed using the kappa coefficient. Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate agreement between EIAUT, EIBIS, and EIPG.
Twenty-six cases were valid for analysis (age ±61 years, 17 men). All patients were ventilated in the spontaneous/timed mode (mean inspiratory positive airway pressure 17 ± 3 cm H2O, mean expiratory positive airway pressure 10 ± 3 cm H2O). Cohen's kappa agreement between the operators was 0.7 for EIBIS and 0.84 for EIPG. EIBIS showed good correlation with EIPG (r2 = 0.79 p < 0.001), better than scoring provided by the automated analysis (r2 = 0.71, p < 0.006 for EIAUT vs. EIPG).
In stable OHS patients on NIV, unattended home-based monitoring using Rescan is reproducible and reliable to assess quality of ventilation when compared with PG. In addition, manual scoring of events using data obtained with this device is more consistent than software-based automated analysis.

Respiration 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

In moderately to severely obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the effects of long-term positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment on cardiovascular risk are poorly defined.
To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on the occurrence of cardiovascular events in obese OSA patients.
We performed a noninterventional observational study in obese OSA patients recruited between 2007 and 2010 at the Sleep Center, University of Grenoble, treated with CPAP or NIV, and followed for 5. Read More

6 years by a single home care provider. Baseline clinical characteristics, blood chemistry, and respiratory and vascular function were assessed. Incident cardiovascular events were investigated by phone interviews.
A total of 103 patients (55 men, 48 women; age and body mass index [BMI] at diagnosis 54.1 ± 10.5 years and 40.3 ± 5.5, respectively [mean ± standard deviation]; CPAP: n = 75; NIV: n = 28) agreed to participate in the study. Grade I, II, and III obesity occurred in 17.5, 33.0, and 49.5% of the sample, respectively. In patients using PAP treatment (n = 69), the mean nightly use was 6.3 ± 2.4 h. Thirty-one patients stopped PAP treatment during follow-up. Three patients on NIV died. Nonfatal cardiovascular events (n = 27) occurred in 19 patients, who were older and showed higher number of comorbidities and triglyceride levels than patients without events. In the patients who interrupted treatment, the event rate was high and increased with the number of comorbidities, while BMI at baseline did not predict events.
The study suggests that regular PAP treatment may be associated with protection against cardiovascular risk in obese OSA patients, especially in the presence of multiple comorbidities.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
2 Department of Pharmaceutics, Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond, Virginia.

Nebulized aerosol drug delivery during the administration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is commonly implemented. While studies have shown improved patient outcomes for this therapeutic approach, aerosol delivery efficiency is reported to be low with high variability in lung-deposited dose. Excipient enhanced growth (EEG) aerosol delivery is a newly proposed technique that may improve drug delivery efficiency and reduce intersubject aerosol delivery variability when coupled with NPPV. Read More

A combined approach using in vitro experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to characterize aerosol delivery efficiency during NPPV in two new nasal cavity models that include face mask interfaces. Mesh nebulizer and in-line dry powder inhaler (DPI) sources of conventional and EEG aerosols were both considered.
Based on validated steady-state CFD predictions, EEG aerosol delivery improved lung penetration fraction (PF) values by factors ranging from 1.3 to 6.4 compared with conventional-sized aerosols. Furthermore, intersubject variability in lung PF was very high for conventional aerosol sizes (relative differences between subjects in the range of 54.5%-134.3%) and was reduced by an order of magnitude with the EEG approach (relative differences between subjects in the range of 5.5%-17.4%). Realistic in vitro experiments of cyclic NPPV demonstrated similar trends in lung delivery to those observed with the steady-state simulations, but with lower lung delivery efficiencies. Reaching the lung delivery efficiencies reported with the steady-state simulations of 80%-90% will require synchronization of aerosol administration during inspiration and reducing the size of the EEG aerosol delivery unit.
The EEG approach enabled high-efficiency lung delivery of aerosols administered during NPPV and reduced intersubject aerosol delivery variability by an order of magnitude. Use of an in-line DPI device that connects to the NPPV mask appears to be a convenient method to rapidly administer an EEG aerosol and synchronize the delivery with inspiration.

Ann Card Anaesth
Ann Card Anaesth 2017 Jan-Mar;20(1):76-82
Department of Anaesthesia, Postgraduate Institute for Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Advances in cardiac surgery has shifted paradigm of management to perioperative psychological illnesses. Delirium is a state of altered consciousness with easy distraction of thoughts. The pathophysiology of this complication is not clear, but identification of risk factors is important for positive postoperative outcomes. Read More

The goal of the present study was to prospectively identify the incidence, motoric subtypes, and risk factors associated with development of delirium in cardiac surgical patients admitted to postoperative cardiac intensive care, using a validated delirium monitoring instrument.
This is a prospective, observational study. This study included 120 patients of age 18-80 years, admitted to undergo cardiac surgery after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Specific preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data for possible risk factors were obtained. Once in a day, assessment of delirium was done. Continuous variables were measured as mean ± standard deviation, whereas categorical variables were described as proportions. Differences between groups were analyzed using Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, or Chi-square test. Variables with a P < 0.1 were then used to develop a predictive model using stepwise logistic regression with bootstrapping.
Delirium was seen in 17.5% patients. The majority of cases were of hypoactive delirium type (85.72%). Multiple risk factors were found to be associated with delirium, and when logistic regression with bootstrapping applied to these risk factors, five independent variables were detected. History of hypertension (relative risk [RR] =6.7857, P = 0.0003), carotid artery disease (RR = 4.5000, P < 0.0001) in the form of stroke or hemorrhage, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use (RR = 5.0446, P < 0.0001), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay more than 10 days (RR = 3.1630, P = 0.0021), and poor postoperative pain control (RR = 2.4958, P = 0.0063) was associated with postcardiac surgical delirium.
Patients who developed delirium had systemic disease in the form of hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Delirium was seen in patients who had higher postoperative pain scores, longer ICU stay, and NIV use. This study can be used to develop a predictive tool for diagnosing postcardiac surgical delirium.

J Thorac Dis
J Thorac Dis 2016 Nov;8(11):3119-3131
Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is frequent in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated with high mortality. This multi-center retrospective study was performed to investigate if secondary polycythemia is associated with in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE.
We identified COPD patients with proven PE between October, 2005 and October, 2015. Read More

Patients in risk classes III-V on the basis of the PESI score were excluded. We extracted demographic, clinical and laboratory information at the time of admission from medical records. All subjects were followed until hospital discharge to identify all-cause mortality.
We enrolled 629 consecutive patients with COPD and PE at low risk: 132 of them (21.0%) with and 497 (79.0%) without secondary polycythemia. Compared with those without polycythemia, the polycythemia group had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) level (0.9±0.3 vs. 1.4±0.5, P=0.000), lower PaO2 and SpO2 as well as higher PaCO2 (P=0.03, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively). COPD patients with polycythemia had a higher proportion of arrhythmia in electrocardiogram (ECG) (49.5% vs. 35.7%, P=0.02), a longer hospital duration time (15.3±10.1 vs. 9.7±9.1, P=0.001), a higher mechanical ventilation rate (noninvasive and invasive, 51.7% vs. 30.3%, P=0.04 and 31.0% vs. 7.9%, P=0.04, respectively), and a higher in-hospital mortality (12.1% vs. 6.6%, P=0.04). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that polycythemia was associated with mortality in COPD patients with low-risk PE (adjusted OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.66).
Polycythemia is an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital mortality in COPD patients with PE at low risk.

Crit Care
Crit Care 2017 Jan 7;21(1). Epub 2017 Jan 7.
Medical ICU, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, 1 Shuai Fu Yuan, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains a common hazardous complication in immunocompromised patients and is associated with increased mortality rates when endotracheal intubation is needed. We aimed to evaluate the effect of early noninvasive ventilation (NIV) compared with oxygen therapy alone in this patient population.
We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database up to 25 July 2016. Read More

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they reported data on any of the predefined outcomes in immunocompromised patients managed with NIV or oxygen therapy alone. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with accompanying 95% confidence interval (CI).
Five RCTs with 592 patients were included. Early NIV significantly reduced short-term mortality (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.97, p = 0.04) and intubation rate (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.85, p = 0.01) when compared with oxygen therapy alone, with significant heterogeneity in these two outcomes between the pooled studies. In addition, early NIV was associated with a shorter length of ICU stay (MD -1.71 days, 95% CI -2.98 to 1.44, p = 0.008) but not long-term mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.15, p = 0.46).
The limited evidence indicates that early use of NIV could reduce short-term mortality in selected immunocompromised patients with ARF. Further studies are needed to identify in which selected patients NIV could be more beneficial, before wider application of this ventilator strategy.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2017 Jan 3. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

This article reviews the technology and clinical data describing hemodynamic monitoring devices available to anesthesiologists and intensivists caring for patients undergoing thoracic surgical procedures, so that they may better utilize available technology to improve outcomes in this high-risk surgical population.
Noninvasive stroke volume monitors are based on several different technology platforms, all of which have distinct performance characteristics. Strong clinical outcomes data support the use of these devices in patients undergoing major surgical procedures although these studies generally do not target thoracic surgical procedures specifically. Read More

The predictive ability of respiratory variation (for measuring fluid responsiveness) is controversial in both one lung and low tidal volume ventilation. Extravascular lung water measurements are well validated, predict postoperative lung function, but require the use of transpulmonary thermodilution.
Technology that has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in major surgical procedures is likely applicable to patients undergoing thoracic surgical procedures; however, several unique features of these procedures limit or modify the way in which these devices can be used. Understanding the scientific basis of these devices is the key to using them effectively.

ERJ Open Res
ERJ Open Res 2016 Oct 28;2(4). Epub 2016 Oct 28.
Servicio de Neumología, Hospital San Pedro Alcántara, Cáceres, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), University Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Chronically critically ill patients often undergo prolonged mechanical ventilation. The role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) during weaning of these patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the value of NIV and whether a parameter can predict the need for NIV in chronically critically ill patients during the weaning process. Read More

We conducted a prospective study that included chronically critically ill patients admitted to Spanish respiratory care units. The weaning method used consisted of progressive periods of spontaneous breathing trials. Patients were transferred to NIV when it proved impossible to increase the duration of spontaneous breathing trials beyond 18 h. 231 chronically critically ill patients were included in the study. 198 (85.71%) patients achieved weaning success (mean weaning time 25.45±16.71 days), of whom 40 (21.4%) needed NIV during the weaning process. The variable which predicted the need for NIV was arterial carbon dioxide tension at respiratory care unit admission (OR 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.15), p=0.013), with a cut-off point of 45.5 mmHg (sensitivity 0.76, specificity 0.67, positive predictive value 0.76, negative predictive value 0.97). NIV is a useful tool during weaning in chronically critically ill patients. Hypercapnia despite mechanical ventilation at respiratory care unit admission is the main predictor of the need for NIV during weaning.

ERJ Open Res
ERJ Open Res 2016 Oct 24;2(4). Epub 2016 Nov 24.
Dept of Pediatrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Dept of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2017 Jan 2. Epub 2017 Jan 2.
Abteilung Pneumologie, Lungenklinik, Kliniken der Stadt Köln gGmbH, Köln, Deutschland.

Prognostic factors for clinical failure of acute exacerbation in patients with COPD (AECOPD) are of special importance in order to choose an adequate therapy and resources during inpatient treatment. Our database was analyzed to identify predictors for a negative outcome.
In a retrospective analysis medical records of 616 patients (299 women; 317 men) hospitalized for AECOPD between January 2011 and January 2016 were analyzed in order to evaluate demographic and clinical parameters leading to adverse events. Read More

Only the first admission was considered. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relative risk (odds ratio (OR) leading to severe adverse events such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation (invasive or noninvasive), early readmission to ICU and hospital and death).
An increased risk of an ICU admission was found for patients with a coronary heart disease (OR = 5.734; p = 0.009) and for patients requiring an antibiotic therapy (OR = 11.721; p = 0.003). An increased risk for rehospitalisation and mortality was found for age (OR = 1.034; p = 0.028) and a longer duration of the hospital stay (OR = 1.063; p = 0.042). A lower C‑reactive protein (CRP) level was associated with a lower risk of readmission to the hospital (OR = 0.991; p = 0.03). An increased risk of ventilator therapy was found for patients with chronic heart failure (OR = 6.166; p = 0.02) and sleep apnea syndrome (OR = 6.698; p = 0.003), diabetes (OR = 3.754; p = 0.041) and a long stay in the ICU (OR = 2.018; p = 0.000).
Comorbidities in patients with AECOPD were found to be a major risk factor for ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. Elderly patients and patients with prolonged hospital stay showed a higher risk for readmission and mortality. Patients with a low CRP blood level seemed to have a lower risk for rehospitalisation.