Ventilation Graphics Publications (151)
Ventilation Graphics Publications
Proper delivery considers all 3 phases and uses clinical data, ventilator graphics, and sometimes a trial-and-error approach to optimize patient-ventilator interactions. Newer modes optimize interactions but await good clinical outcome data before routine use.
A clear understanding of these graphics provides a lot of information about the mechanics of the respiratory system and the patient ventilator interaction in a dynamic fashion. Using this information will facilitate tailoring the support provided and the manner in which it is provided to best suit the dynamic needs of the patient. This paper starts with a description of the scalars and loops followed by a discussion of the information that can be obtained from each of these graphics. A review will follow, on the common types of dyssynchronous interactions and how each of these can be detected on the ventilator graphics. The final section discusses how graphics can be used to optimize the ventilator support provided to patients.
One hundred ninety-one 2-dimensional measurements using different delivery sequences of a single-layer uniform pattern were obtained with a detector array on a 1-dimensional moving platform. Intensity modulated proton therapy plans were generated for 10 lung cancer patients, and dose uncertainties for different delivery sequences were evaluated by simulation.
Without delivery sequence optimization, the maximum absolute dose error can be up to 97.2% in a single measurement, whereas the optimized delivery sequence results in a maximum absolute dose error of ≤11.8%. In patient simulation, the optimized delivery sequence reduces the mean of fractional maximum absolute dose error compared with the regular delivery sequence by 3.3% to 10.6% (32.5-68.0% relative reduction) for different patients.
Optimizing the delivery sequence can reduce dose uncertainty due to respiratory motion in spot-scanning proton therapy, assuming the 4-dimensional CT is a true representation of the patients' breathing patterns.
A highly accelerated compressed-sensing multi-slice cine sequence (CS-cineCMR) was combined with a non-model-based 3D reconstruction method to measure LA volumes with high temporal and spatial resolution during a single breath-hold. This approach was validated in LA phantoms of different shapes and applied in 3 patients. In addition, the influence of slice orientations on accuracy was evaluated in the LA phantoms for the new approach in comparison with a conventional model-based biplane area-length reconstruction. As a reference in patients, a self-navigated high-resolution whole-heart 3D dataset (3D-HR-CMR) was acquired during mid-diastole to yield accurate LA volumes.
Phantom studies. LA volumes were accurately measured by CS-cineCMR with a mean difference of -4.73 ± 1.75 ml (-8.67 ± 3.54%, r2 = 0.94). For the new method the calculated volumes were not significantly different when different orientations of the CS-cineCMR slices were applied to cover the LA phantoms. Long-axis "aligned" vs "not aligned" with the phantom long-axis yielded similar differences vs the reference volume (-4.87 ± 1.73 ml vs. -4.45 ± 1.97 ml, p = 0.67) and short-axis "perpendicular" vs. "not-perpendicular" with the LA long-axis (-4.72 ± 1.66 ml vs. -4.75 ± 2.13 ml; p = 0.98). The conventional bi-plane area-length method was susceptible for slice orientations (p = 0.0085 for the interaction of "slice orientation" and "reconstruction technique", 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures). To use the 3D-HR-CMR as the reference for LA volumes in patients, it was validated in the LA phantoms (mean difference: -1.37 ± 1.35 ml, -2.38 ± 2.44%, r2 = 0.97). Patient study: The CS-cineCMR LA volumes of the mid-diastolic frame matched closely with the reference LA volume (measured by 3D-HR-CMR) with a difference of -2.66 ± 6.5 ml (3.0% underestimation; true LA volumes: 63 ml, 62 ml, and 395 ml). Finally, a high intra- and inter-observer agreement for maximal and minimal LA volume measurement is also shown.
The proposed method combines a highly accelerated single-breathhold compressed-sensing multi-slice CMR technique with a non-model-based 3D reconstruction to accurately and reproducibly measure LA volumes and function.
We formulated the proposed co-segmentation problem as a coupled continuous min-cut model and showed that this combinatorial optimization problem can be solved globally and exactly by means of convex relaxation. In particular, we introduced a dual coupled continuous max-flow model to study the convex relaxed coupled continuous min-cut model under a primal and dual perspective. This gave rise to an efficient duality-based convex optimization algorithm. We implemented the proposed algorithm in parallel using general-purpose programming on graphics processing unit (GPGPU), which substantially increased its computational efficiency. Our experiments explored a clinical dataset of 25 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) across a wide range of disease severity. The results showed that the proposed co-segmentation approach yielded superior performance compared to single-channel image segmentation in terms of precision, accuracy and robustness.
While proprietary software is available to perform basic statistical analysis as part of machine's bundled software, it is desirable to be able to incorporate these analyses into high-throughput pipelines and integrate them with other data types, as well as leverage the wealth of analytic and visualization approaches provided by the R statistical computing environment.
This manuscript describes the plethy package which is an R/Bioconductor framework for pre-processing and analysis of plethysmography data with emphasis on larger scale longitudinal experiments. The plethy package was designed to facilitate quality control and exploratory data analysis. We provide a demonstration of the features of plethy using a dataset assessing the respiratory effects over time of SARS and Influenza infection in mice.
The plethy package provides functionality for users to import, perform quality assessment and exploratory data analysis in a manner that allows interoperability with existing modelling tools. Our package is implemented in R and is freely available as part of the Bioconductor project http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/plethy.html .
5% with no tube to 43.1-47.2%, depending on tube position. Ventilation mode and tube distance from the carina had no effect on flow. Lateral displacement and deflection of the tube increased ventilation to the ipsilateral lung; for example, when deflected 10° to the left of centre, flow to the left lung increased from 43.8 to 53.7%. Because of the small diameter of a tracheal tube relative to the trachea, gas exits a tube at high velocity such that regional ventilation may be affected by changes in the position and angle of the tube.
This paper proposes a novel augmented reality framework for intra-operative planning: the approach co-registers pre-operative CT with stereo laparoscopic images using cone beam CT and fluoroscopy as bridging modalities. It does not require fiducials or manual alignment and compensates for tissue deformation from insufflation and respiration while allowing the laparoscope to be navigated. The paper's theoretical and practical contributions are validated using simulated, phantom, ex vivo, in vivo and non medical data.