Venous Air Embolism Publications (2451)
Venous Air Embolism Publications
8 m surface oxygenator. Vascular access is usually established via a 19F/21cm bilumen cannula in the right internal jugular vein. For this work we screened patient registries from two German centers for patients who underwent ECCO2R with the Homburg lung due to hypercapnic lung failure since 2013. Patients who underwent ECMO prior to ECCO2R were excluded. Patients who underwent ECCO2R more than one time were only included once. In total, 24 patients (age 53.86 ± 12.49 years. 62.5% male) were included in the retrospective data analysis. Ventilatory failure occurred due to COPD (50%), cystic fibrosis (16.7%), ARDS (12.5%), and other origins (20.8%). The system generated a blood flow of 1.18 ± 0.23 lpm. Sweep gas flow was 3.87 ± 2.97 lpm. Within four hours, PaCO2 could be reduced significantly from 82.05 ± 15.57 mmHg to 59.68 ± 12.27 mmHg, pH thereby increasing from 7.23 ± 0.10 to 7.36 ± 0.09. Cannulation-associated complications were transient arrhythmia (1/24 patients) and air embolism (1/24). Fatal complications did not occur. In conclusion, the Homburg Lung provides effective carbon dioxide removal in hypercapnic lung failure. The cannulation is a safe procedure with complication rates comparable to those in central venous catheter implantation.
We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for articles about complications related to the use of portacaths. "Similar articles" feature of PubMed and reference list of the existing literature were also reviewed for additional relevant studies.
In this review, we provide the latest evidence regarding the most common ones of these adverse events and how to diagnose and treat them. Immediate complications including pneumothorax, hemothorax, arterial puncture, and air embolism as well as late complications such as port infection, malfunction, and thrombosis are covered in detail.
Physicians should be familiar with port complications and their diagnosis and management.
This report analyzes 7 cases of VAE, which occurred at the University Hospitals Leuven, in patients undergoing hysteroscopic myomectomy from April 2009 to April 2011. Patient and myoma characteristics were compared to a control group of 27 patients who underwent uneventful hysteroscopic myomectomy during the same period of time. Analysis of baseline data including myoma size failed to identify predisposing factors. Clinical events in this series were classified according to their severity as minor (causing respiratory symptoms in 2 cases), moderate (accompanied by hemodynamic instability in 5 cases), or severe (requiring resuscitation in no cases). Case characteristics and therapeutic strategies in all cases were compared to reports from recent literature.
In rare cases, it could lodge in the heart and cause cardiac arrest. We present a case of an 82-year-old white female who underwent computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy of right lung pulmonary nodule. When she was turned over after the lung biopsy, she became unresponsive and developed cardiopulmonary arrest. She underwent successful resuscitation and ultimately was intubated. CT chest was performed immediately after resuscitation which showed frothy air dense material in the left atrium and one of the right pulmonary veins suggesting a Broncho venous fistula with air embolism. Although very rare, air embolism could be catastrophic resulting in cardiac arrest. Supportive care including mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, volume resuscitation, and supplemental oxygen is the initial management. Patients with cardiac, neurological, or respiratory complications benefit from hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Resuscitation was started by placing the patient in the right-side up position, and emplacement of central venous catheter, but it was unsuccessful. The decision was then made to bypass the patient's cardiopulmonary system to effectively treat the MAE. Cannulation was done via femoral vein and artery. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the MAE was quickly eliminated, oxygen saturation was normalized, and the patient was hemodynamically stabilized. The surgical repair was successfully completed and the patient was decannulated and recovered without any incident.
Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Neurointensive care unit (NICU) length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS were the intermediate endpoints. Neurological outcome was the primary endpoint as determined by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score at 6 months after surgery. RESULTS Four hundred twenty-five patients were included in the analysis. VAE occurred in 90 cases (21%) and it made no significant statistical difference in NICU LOS, hospital LOS, and neurological outcome. No complication was directly related to the semisitting position, although 46 patients (11%) experienced at least 1 surgery-related complication and NICU LOS and hospital LOS were significantly prolonged in this group. Neurological outcome was significantly worse for patients with complications (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Even in the presence of intraoperative VAE, the semisitting position was not related to an increased risk of postoperative deficits and can represent a safe additional option for the benefit of specific surgical and patient needs.
This was attributed to inadvertent injection of air owing to improper connection of the injector and the catheter. The patient was managed with 100% oxygen in the Trendelenburg and left lateral decubitus position. Repeat imaging demonstrated resorption of the emboli. In another case, air was introduced during CABG in the left atrium and ventricle. Immediate suction of air was attempted however, the patient developed cardiogenic shock requiring vasopressors, and subsequently seizures and coma due to diffuse ischaemic stroke. The patient eventually expired.