Use of Cardiac Markers in the Emergency Department Publications (719)

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Use of Cardiac Markers in the Emergency Department Publications

A multimarker strategy may help determine the prognosis of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MRproADM), copeptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) combined with conventional clinical and biochemical markers to predict the 30-day mortality of patients with AHF.
We performed an observational, multicenter, prospective study of patients attended in the emergency department (ED) for AHF. Read More

We collected clinical and biochemical data as well as comorbidities and biomarker values. The endpoint variable was mortality at 7, 14, 30, 90 and 180days. The clinical model included: gender, age, blood pressure values, hemoglobin, sodium <135mmol/L and estimated glomerular filtration <60mL/min/1.73m2. We made receiver operating curves (ROC) curves, and areas under the curve (AUC) and survival analysis for each model and calculated the hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval.
A total of 547 individuals were included: 55.6% were women with a mean age of 79.9 (9.5) years. Copeptin alone showed greater discriminatory power for 30-mortality [AUC 0.70 (0.62-0.78)]. The AUC for 30-day mortality of the clinical model plus copeptin and NTproBNP was 0.75 (0.67-0.83), being better than the clinical model alone with 0.67 (0.58-0.76; p=0.19). The discriminatory power of the different biomarkers alone, in combination or together with the clinical model decreased over time.
The combination of a clinical model with copeptin and NTproBNP, which are available in the ED, is able to prognose early mortality in patients with an episode of AHF.

Early rule-in/rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) is important for patient care and resource allocation. Given that dysglycemia is a strong risk factor for MI, we sought to explore and compare different combinations of cardiac troponin (cTn) cutoffs with glycemic markers for the early rule-in/rule-out of MI.
We included ED patients (n = 1137) with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who had cTnI, high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI), hs-cTnT, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) measurements. Read More

We derived rule-in/rule-out algorithms using different combinations of ROC-derived and literature cutoffs for rule-in and rule-out of MI within 7 days after presentation. These algorithms were then tested for MI/cardiovascular death and ACS/cardiovascular death at 7 days. ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), and CIs were determined for various biomarker combinations.
MI was diagnosed in 133 patients (11.7%; 95% CI, 9.8-13.8). The algorithms that included cTn and glucose produced the greatest number of patients ruled out/ruled in for MI and yielded sensitivity ≥99%, NPV ≥99.5%, specificity ≥99%, and PPV ≥80%. This diagnostic performance was maintained for MI/cardiovascular death but not for ACS/cardiovascular death. The addition of hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) (≥6.5%) to these algorithms did not change these estimates; however, 50 patients with previously unknown diabetes may have been identified if Hb A1c was measured.
Algorithms incorporating glucose with cTn may lead to an earlier MI diagnosis and rule-out for MI/cardiovascular death. Addition of Hb A1c into these algorithms allows for identification of diabetes. Future studies extending these findings are needed for ACS/cardiovascular death. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01994577.

2016Jan
Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2016 12;2016:2106342. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.
2016Oct
J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016 Oct 11. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Department of Emergency Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

To investigate whether an elevated preoperative renal resistive index (RRI) predicts acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Prospective cohort study.
University hospital. Read More


Cohort of 96 adult cardiac surgical patients.
Resistive index was measurement the day before surgery.
Renal Doppler was used to measure the resistive index in renal cortical or arcuate arteries the day before surgery. An elevated RRI was defined as≥0.7. AKI was defined as an absolute increase in postoperative compared with preoperative serum creatinine levels by≥26 µmol/L or a relative increase by≥50% or a postoperative urine output<0.5 mL/kg for 6 hours or longer. The relative risk of AKI in patients with an elevated RRI compared with those without an elevated RRI was analyzed using logistic regression. Among patients with an RRI<0.7, 6 (16%) developed AKI compared with 21 (36%) with an RRI≥0.7. The mean increases in postoperative serum creatinine levels were 12 μmol/L in those with an RRI<0.7 and 30 μmol/L in those with an RRI≥0.7. The crude odds ratio for AKI in patients with an RRI≥0.7 was 3.03 (1.09-8.42) compared with those with an RRI<0.7. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio was 2.95 (0.97-9.00).
Patients with an elevated preoperative RRI have an increased risk of developing AKI after cardiac surgery. In combination with other markers, the RRI might be a tool for identifying patients with an increased risk of developing AKI.

2016Dec
J Crit Care
J Crit Care 2016 Dec 7;38:289-294. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
1969Dec
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 12 22;12:CD010378. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, Geneva, Switzerland, CH-1211.

Pregnant women with sickle cell disease (HbSS, HbSC and HbSβThal) may require blood transfusion to prevent severe anaemia or to manage potential medical complications. Preventive blood transfusion in the absence of complications starting from the early weeks of pregnancy or blood transfusion only for medical or obstetric indications have been used as management policies. There is currently no consensus on the blood transfusion policy that guarantees optimal clinical benefits with minimal risks for such women and their babies. Read More

This is an update of a Cochrane review that was published in 2013.
To assess the benefits and harms of a policy of prophylactic versus selective blood transfusion in pregnant women with sickle cell disease.
We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We did not apply any language or date restrictions.
Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effects of prophylactic versus selective (emergency) blood transfusion in pregnant women with sickle cell disease (SCD). Quasi-randomised trials and trials using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.
Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach.
Out of six relevant reports identified by the search strategy, one trial involving 72 women with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) met our inclusion criteria. The trial was at unclear risk of bias. Overall, there were few events for most of the reported outcomes and the results were generally imprecise. The included trial reported no maternal mortality occurring in women who received either prophylactic or selective blood transfusion. Very low-quality evidence indicated no clear differences in maternal mortality, perinatal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 2.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 13.22; very low-quality evidence) or markers of severe maternal morbidity (pulmonary embolism (no events); congestive cardiac failure (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.07 to 15.38; very low-quality evidence); acute chest syndrome (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.12 to 3.75)) between the treatment groups (prophylactic blood transfusion versus selective blood transfusion). Low-quality evidence indicated that prophylactic blood transfusion reduced the risk of pain crisis compared with selective blood transfusion (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.67, one trial, 72 women; low-quality evidence), and no differences in the occurrence of acute splenic sequestration (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.92; low-quality evidence), haemolytic crises (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.06) or delayed blood transfusion reaction (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.54 to 7.39; very low-quality evidence) between the comparison groups.Other relevant maternal outcomes pre-specified for this review such as cumulative duration of hospital stay, postpartum haemorrhage and iron overload, and infant outcomes, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and haemolytic disease of the newborn, were not reported by the trial.
Evidence from one small trial of very low quality suggests that prophylactic blood transfusion to pregnant women with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS) confers no clear clinical benefits when compared with selective transfusion. Currently, there is no evidence from randomised or quasi-randomised trials to provide reliable advice on the optimal blood transfusion policy for women with other variants of sickle cell disease (i.e. HbSC and HbSβThal). The available data and quality of evidence on this subject are insufficient to advocate for a change in existing clinical practice and policy.

2016Oct
Can J Cardiol
Can J Cardiol 2016 Oct 11. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada; Department of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

The ability to differentiate patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells in cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-CM) offers novel perspectives for cardiovascular research. A number of studies, that reported mainly on current-voltage curves used hiPSC-CM to model voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Nav) dysfunction. However, the expression patterns and precise biophysical and pharmacological properties of Nav channels from hiPSC-CM remain unknown. Read More

Our objective was to study the characteristics of Nav channels from hiPSC-CM and assess the appropriateness of this novel cell model.
We generated hiPSC-CM using the recently described monolayer-based differentiation protocol.
hiPSC-CM expressed cardiac-specific markers, exhibited spontaneous electrical and contractile activities, and expressed distinct Nav channels subtypes. Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular characterizations revealed that, in addition to the main Nav1.5 channel, the neuronal tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Nav1.7 channel was also significantly expressed in hiPSC-CM. Most of the Na(+) currents were resistant to TTX block. Therapeutic concentrations of lidocaine, a class I antiarrhythmic drug, also inhibited Na(+) currents in a use-dependent manner. Nav1.5 and Nav1.7 expression and maturation patterns of hiPSC-CM and native human cardiac tissues appeared to be similar. The 4 Navβ regulatory subunits were expressed in hiPSC-CM, with β3 being the preponderant subtype.
The findings indicated that hiPSC-CM robustly express Nav1.5 channels, which exhibited molecular and pharmacological properties similar to those in native cardiac tissues. Interestingly, neuronal Nav1.7 channels were also expressed in hiPSC-CM and are likely to be responsible for the TTX-sensitive Nav current.

2016Oct
Resuscitation
Resuscitation 2016 Oct 27. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
Emergency Medical Center, Kagawa University Hospital, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan.

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with poor prognosis. Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) is an efficient sampling technique to detect neurochemical changes in brain interstitial tissue. In this retrospective study, we hypothesised that there are different CMD levels between patients with favourable and unfavourable neurological outcomes. Read More


Data of patients with OHCA admitted to Kagawa University Hospital and administered therapeutic hypothermia (TH) were collected. Using a CMD probe, extracellular glucose, lactate and pyruvate levels were measured hourly along with intracranial perfusion pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for the initial 72h during TH. The lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio was calculated. Patients were divided into favourable [Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category 1-2 at 30days after cardiac arrest] or unfavourable neurological outcome groups. CMD biochemical markers and blood lactate and glucose levels were compared between two groups.
Ten patients were included. ICP was significantly higher in the unfavourable than in the favourable neurological outcome group; there were no significant differences with respect to CPP. The CMD LP ratio in the unfavourable outcome group progressively increased; significant differences were observed on days 2, 3 and 4 (p<0.01). Significant differences in blood lactate levels were observed between the groups only on day 3.5. CMD and blood glucose levels were higher in the unfavourable than in the favourable outcome group during TH.
The association of CMD levels with long-term outcomes would be better defined in a large randomised prospective study.

2017Jan
Resuscitation
Resuscitation 2017 Jan 27;110:26-31. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
Emergency Medical Center, Kagawa University Hospital, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Kita, Miki, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan.

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with poor prognosis. Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) is an efficient sampling technique to detect neurochemical changes in brain interstitial tissue. In this retrospective study, we hypothesised that there are different CMD levels between patients with favourable and unfavourable neurological outcomes. Read More


Data of patients with OHCA admitted to Kagawa University Hospital and administered therapeutic hypothermia (TH) were collected. Using a CMD probe, extracellular glucose, lactate and pyruvate levels were measured hourly along with intracranial perfusion pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) for the initial 72h during TH. The lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio was calculated. Patients were divided into favourable [Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance category 1-2 at 30days after cardiac arrest] or unfavourable neurological outcome groups. CMD biochemical markers and blood lactate and glucose levels were compared between two groups.
Ten patients were included. ICP was significantly higher in the unfavourable than in the favourable neurological outcome group; there were no significant differences with respect to CPP. The CMD LP ratio in the unfavourable outcome group progressively increased; significant differences were observed on days 2, 3 and 4 (p<0.01). Significant differences in blood lactate levels were observed between the groups only on day 3.5. CMD and blood glucose levels were higher in the unfavourable than in the favourable outcome group during TH.
The association of CMD levels with long-term outcomes would be better defined in a large randomised prospective study.

2016Jun
Neurobiol Stress
Neurobiol Stress 2016 Jun 4;3:61-67. Epub 2016 Feb 4.
Inserm, U1061, Montpellier, F-34093, France; Université Montpellier, Montpellier, F-34000, France.

Few studies have prospectively examined risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of a traumatic exposure. The aim of this study is to identify the concurrent influence of psychological and biological diatheses on PTSD onset and maintenance, taking into account socio-demographic factors and psychiatric antecedents.
A total of 123 civilians (61. Read More

8% of women) recruited in emergency units, were assessed using validated instruments during the first week and then at 1, 4, and 12 months post-trauma. Baseline assessment included evaluation of the psychological diathesis (i.e. psychiatric history and peritraumatic distress and dissociation), and the biological diathesis [i.e. cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, c-reactive protein, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate].
Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated both psychological and biological diatheses to be independent risk factors for PTSD. Peritraumatic distress and dissociation predicted onset (1-month) and mid-term PTSD (4-months), respectively. PTSD risk was associated positively with SBP and negatively with WHR, throughout the follow-up. In addition, a higher level of 12 h-overnight urinary norepinephrine independently predicted mid-term PTSD (4-months).
This prospective study shows that peritraumatic psychological and biological markers are independent predictors of PTSD onset with specificities according to the stage of PTSD development; the psychological diathesis, i.e. peritraumatic distress and dissociation, being a better predictor of short-term dysfunction whereas biological diathesis was also predictive of development and maintenance of PTSD.