Ultrasonography Cardiac Publications (194811)


Ultrasonography Cardiac Publications

BMC Cardiovasc Disord
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2017 Jan 14;17(1):28. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
Department of Internal Medicine, MedStar Health, 9000 Franklin square drive, Baltimore, MD, 21237, USA.

Cardiac lipomas are rare benign tumors of the heart. They are usually asymptomatic and are thus most often diagnosed on autopsies. Symptoms, when present, depend upon the location within the heart. Read More

Typical locations are the endocardium of the right atrium and the left ventricle. Diagnostic modality of choice is cardiac MRI. Treatment guidelines have not yet been established due to the very low prevalence of these tumors and are thus guided by the patient's symptomatology.
We describe a case of an invasive cardiac lipoma, wherein the initial symptom of the patient was shortness of breath. Although the echocardiogram visualized the tumor in the right atrium, a cardiac MRI was performed for better tissue characterization. The MRI revealed a large, fat containing, septated mass in the right atrium with invasion into the inter-atrial septum and inferior cavoatrial junction. There was also invasion of the coronary sinus along the inferior and left lateral aspect of the posterior atrioventricular groove. Although the mass appeared to represent a lipoma by imaging characteristics, the unusual extension into the coronary sinus led to consideration of a low-grade liposarcoma in the differential. Thus a pre-operative biopsy was performed along with MDM2 gene amplification to rule out a liposarcoma preceding surgical excision.
Cardiac lipomas are well-characterized on cardiac MRI, which is the diagnostic modality of choice. Typical locations are the right atrium and the left ventricle. However, in those with atypical features such as invasion of the coronary sinus, pre-operative biopsy for histopathologic confirmation is imperative to exclude well-differentiated liposarcoma. Our patient with a simple lipoma underwent partial resection to relieve symptoms. We discuss prognosis and treatment of symptomatic cardiac lipomas.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2017 Jan;10(1)
From the Stephenson Cardiac Imaging Centre (Y.M., B.H., C.P.L., A.G.H., J.W.) and Department of Cardiac Sciences (Y.M., B.H., M.P., C.P.L., A.G.H., J.W.), Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Canada; Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada (B.H., C.P.L., A.G.H., J.W.); and Department of Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, Ontario, Canada (U.J., F.A., M.Z., M.B., J.S., R.Y.).

Left ventricular ejection fraction remains the primary risk stratification tool used in the selection of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. However, this solitary marker fails to identify a substantial portion of patients experiencing sudden cardiac arrest. In this study, we examined the incremental value of considering right ventricular ejection fraction for the prediction of future arrhythmic events in patients with systolic dysfunction using the gold standard of cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Read More

Three hundred fourteen consecutive patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy or nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance were followed for the primary outcome of sudden cardiac arrest or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Blinded quantification of left ventricular and right ventricular (RV) volumes was performed from standard cine imaging. Quantification of fibrosis from late gadolinium enhancement imaging was incrementally performed. RV dysfunction was defined as right ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%. Among all patients (164 ischemic cardiomyopathy, 150 nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy), the mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 32±12% (range, 6-54%) with mean right ventricular ejection fraction of 48±15% (range, 7-78%). At a median of 773 days, 49 patients (15.6%) experienced the primary outcome (9 sudden cardiac arrest, 40 appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies). RV dysfunction was independently predictive of the primary outcome (hazard ratio=2.98; P=0.002). Among those with a left ventricular ejection fraction >35% (N=121; mean left ventricular ejection fraction, 45±6%), RV dysfunction provided an adjusted hazard ratio of 4.2 (P=0.02).
RV dysfunction is a strong, independent predictor of arrhythmic events. Among patients with mild to moderate LV dysfunction, a cohort greatly contributing to global sudden cardiac arrest burden, this marker provides robust discrimination of high- versus low-risk subjects.

J Clin Neurosci
J Clin Neurosci 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Neurophysiology Unit, Cardiac Electrophysiology Research and Training Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Electronic address:

Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). Read More

For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound
Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2017 Jan 13;15(1). Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cardiology, Federico II University Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Ultrasound exam as a screening test for abdominal aorta (AA) can visualize the aorta in 99% of patients and has a sensitivity and specificity approaching 100% in screening settings for aortic aneurysm. Pocket Size Imaging Device (PSID) has a potential value as a screening tool, because of its possible use in several clinical settings. Our aim was to assess the impact of demographics and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on AA size by using PSID in an outpatient screening. Read More

Consecutive patients, referring for a CV assessment in a 6 months period, were screened. AA was visualized by subcostal view in longitudinal and transverse plans in order to determine the greatest anterior-posterior diameter. After excluding 5 patients with AA aneurysm, 508 outpatients were enrolled. All patients underwent a sequential assessment including clinical history with collection of CV risk factors, physical examination, PSID exam and standard Doppler echoc exam using a 2.5 transducer with harmonic capability, both by expert ultrasound operators, during the same morning. Standard echocardiography operators were blinded on PSID exam and viceversa.
Diagnostic accuracy of AA size by PSID was tested successfully with standard echo machine in a subgroup (n = 102) (rho = 0.966, p < 0.0001). AA diameter was larger in men than in women and in ≥50 -years old subjects than in those <50 -years old (both p < 0.0001). AA was larger in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (p < 0.0001). By a multivariate model, male sex (p < 0.0001), age and body mass index (both p < 0.0001), CAD (p < 0.01) and heart rate (p = 0.018) were independent predictors of AA size (cumulative R (2) = 0.184, p < 0.0001).
PSID is a reliable tool for the screening of determinants of AA size. AA diameter is greater in men and strongly influenced by aging and overweight. CAD may be also associated to increased AA diameter.

PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0167922. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
University of Alberta and Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Obstet Gynecol
Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan 9. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Pregnancy of unknown location presents a diagnostic challenge, in rare occasions leading to the diagnosis of malignancy. We describe a case of β-hCG-secreting nongestational primary gastric choriocarcinoma presenting as a pregnancy of unknown location.
A 37-year-old woman, gravida 4 para 3013, presented with several days of vaginal bleeding and rising β-hCG level without ultrasound localization of pregnancy. Read More

The diagnosis of pregnancy of unknown location was made and methotrexate administered at a β-hCG level of 7,779 milli-international units/mL. A 40% decrease in β-hCG level was noted between days 4 and 7. One week later, an inappropriate β-hCG level rise to 10,937 milli-international units/mL was noted, prompting a second dose of methotrexate and computed tomography imaging, leading to the discovery of gastric and liver lesions. Pathology from gastric biopsies revealed nongestational choriocarcinoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, with death from cardiac arrest 7 months after diagnosis.
Malignancies that can secrete β-hCG include gestational trophoblastic disease, gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumors, and malignancies with choriocarcinoma differentiation. Although ectopic pregnancy compromises approximately 2% of first-trimester pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and gestational choriocarcinoma can be seen in 1 of 1,500 and 1 of 20,000 pregnancies, respectively. When β-hCG levels do not fall appropriately in women undergoing medical management for pregnancy of unknown location, ectopic β-hCG secretion by a malignancy must be considered.

Invest Radiol
Invest Radiol 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
From the *Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilian University; †German Center for Cardiovascular Disease Research (DZHK e.V.), Munich; ‡Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Garching; §German Heart Center of the State of Bavaria and the Technical University Munich; ∥Center for Neuropathology, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich; ¶Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf; #Research Institute Children's Cancer Center; **Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; ††Institute for Medical Information Sciences, Biometry and Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich; ‡‡Medizinische Klinik I and Poliklinik, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich; and §§Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gb-PCCT) to classify and quantify coronary vessel characteristics in comparison with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology in an ex vivo setting.
After excision from 5 heart specimens, 15 human coronary arteries underwent gb-PCCT examination using an experimental imaging setup consisting of a rotating molybdenum anode x-ray tube, a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer, and a single photon counting detector. Subsequently, all vessels were imaged by OCT and histopathologically processed. Read More

Optical coherence tomography, gb-PCCT, and histopathology images were manually matched using anatomical landmarks. Optical coherence tomography and gb-PCCT were reviewed by 2 independent observers blinded to histopathology. Vessel, lumen, and plaque area were measured, and plaque characteristics (lipid rich, calcified, and fibrous) were determined for each section. Measures of diagnostic accuracy were derived, applying histopathology as the standard of reference.
Of a total of 286 assessed cross sections, 241 corresponding sections were included in the statistical analysis. Quantitative measures derived from gb-PCCT were significantly higher than from OCT (P < 0.001) and were strongly correlated with histopathology (Pearson r ≥0.85 for gb-PCCT and ≥0.61 for OCT, respectively). Results of Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated smaller mean differences between OCT and histopathology than for gb-PCCT and histopathology. Limits of agreement were narrower for gb-PCCT with regard to lumen area, for OCT with regard to plaque area, and were comparable with regard to vessel area. Based on histopathology, 228/241 (94.6%) sections were classified as fibrous, calcified, or lipid rich. The diagnostic accuracy of gb-PCCT was excellent for the detection of all plaque components (sensitivity, ≥0.95; specificity, ≥0.94), whereas the results for OCT showed sensitivities of ≥0.73 and specificities of ≥0.66.
In this ex vivo setting, gb-PCCT provides excellent results in the assessment of coronary atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and vessel dimensions in comparison to OCT and histopathology. Thus, the technique may serve as adjunct nondestructive modality for advanced plaque characterization in an experimental setting.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis
Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2016 30;6(4):185-190. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
Department of Cardiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou 510630, China; Institute Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou 510630, China.

Tsutsugamushi disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi in which humans are accidental hosts. Infective endocarditis associated with Tsutsugamushi disease has not been previously reported. We are describing a case of Tsutsugamushi disease presenting with aortic valve endocarditis. Read More

The clinical data of a 67-year-old female with O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Treatment of O. tsutsugamushi-induced aortic valve endocarditis with chloramphenicol is recommended.

Acta Inform Med
Acta Inform Med 2016 Dec;24(6):405-408
Clinic of Cardiology, University-Clinical Center Sarajevo, Sarajevo, BiH.

Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used in the evaluation of known and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Imaging of heart in stress and rest enables the comparison of myocardial uptake of radiotracer in proportion to the needs and coronary flow, which is used for detection of perfusion defects. Exercise stress and pharmacologic agents are used for the stressing purpose. Read More

Novel pharmacologic stressor regadenoson is A2A selective adenosine agonist, which selectively binds to the adenosine receptors in coronary arteries causing coronary dilatation.
We analyzed 50 myocardial perfusion studies performed with regadenoson as a pharmacologic agent that was injected before Tc99m-sestamibi in stress imaging. Stress and rest sets of images were evaluated for relative uptake of Tc99m-sestamibi in order to detect and characterize perfusion defects. After the injection of regadenoson, hemodynamic parameters and potential side-effects were closely monitored. Side-effects were stratified per severity as mild, moderate and severe. Studies were read by nuclear medicine physicians using quantitative perfusion SPECT software. Additional diagnostic information such as wall motion and wall thickening were provided by gating.
Thirty-three patients (66%) experienced one or more side-effects upon the administration of regadenoson, most commonly warmth and chest discomfort. In all patients but one (98%), the symptoms were mild, of short duration and self-limiting. Out of all side-effects registered, 44 (96%) were mild, and 2 (4%) were moderate. Two moderate side-effects developed in one patient with a prior history of asthma, and included shortness of breath and cough. Heart rate changed by 16 +- 31 bpm. Highest increase in blood pressure was 30 mm Hg for systolic, and 10 mm Hg for diastolic. One case of significant decrease in blood pressure was noted from the hypertensive basal values, 50 mm for systolic, and 30 mm Hg for diastolic. ST segment depression of up to 1 mm occurred in 4 cases (8%), and T-wave changes in 3 cases (6%). No conduction abnormalities, significant hypotension, symptomatic bradycardia or cardiac arrest ocurred.
Our first institutional experiences proved regadenoson as A2A selective adenosine agonist as a pharmacologic stressor to be safe, tolerable and easily used. Its safety profile enabled the study to be performed in patients with respiratory disease also.

Int Heart J
Int Heart J 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

Adult heart suffering from increased workload will undergo myocardial hypertrophy, subsequent cardiomyocyte (CM) death, and eventually heart failure. However, the effect of increasing afterload on the neonatal heart remains unknown. We performed ascending aortic constriction (AAC) in neonatal rats 8-12 hours after birth (P0, P indicates postpartum). Read More

Seven days after surgery, in vivo heart function was evaluated using cardiac ultrasonography. Haematoxylineosin and Masson staining were used to assess CM diameter and collagen deposition. Moreover, expression of both EdU and Ki67 were evaluated to determine DNA synthesis levels, and pH3 and aurora B as markers for mitosis in CMs. CM isolation was performed by heart perfusion at P0, P3, P5, and P7, respectively. CM number on P0 was 1.01 ± 0.29 × 10(6). We found that CM cell cycle activation was significantly increased among constricted hearts, as demonstrated by increased Ki67, EdU, pH3, and aurora B positive cells/1000 CMs. At day 7 (P7), constriction group hearts manifested increased wall thickness (0.55 ± 0.05 mm versus 0.85 ± 0.10 mm, P < 0.01, n = 6), and improved hemodynamics as well as left ventricular ejection fraction (65.5 ± 3.7% versus 77.7 ± 4.8%, P < 0.01, n = 6). Of note, the population of CMs was also markedly increased in the constriction group (2.92 ± 0.27 × 10(6) versus 3.41 ± 0.40 × 10(6), P < 0.05, n = 6). In summary, we found that during the first week after birth significant numbers of neonatal CMs can reenter the cell cycle. Ascending aortic constriction promotes neonatal rat CM proliferation resulting in 16.7% more CMs in the heart.