Typhoid Fever Publications (12464)
Typhoid Fever Publications
In Taiwan, the dry seeds for the variety spinosa (Suan Zao Ren) are the second most commonly prescribed and used phytomedicine for insomnia. Its popularity and production have increased worldwide in recent years, especially in Europe. The European Pharmacopoeia Commission has been unable to elaborate upon the EP monograph on Ziziphi spinosae semen as was planned. The EMA has not made its recommendations yet. Is it still a gap in the scientific knowledge? Or is difficult for traditional Chinese medicinal herbs to fulfill the style and quality parameters that are required? Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The study was conducted using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 29 institutions by conducting face to face interview and administration of questionnaire to two hundred and thirty-five (235) institutional food-handlers. The questionnaire was peer-reviewed and pilot tested in three institutions in the Upper East Region of Ghana, before the final version was distributed to food-handlers. The questionnaire was structured into five distinctive parts to collect information on (i) demographic characteristics, (ii) employees' work satisfaction, (iii) knowledge on food safety, (iv) attitudes towards food safety and (v) food hygiene practices.
Majority of the food-handlers were between 41-50 years (39.1%). Female respondents were (76.6%). In our study, the food-handlers were knowledgeable about hygienic practices, cleaning and sanitation procedures. Almost all of the food-handlers were aware of the critical role of general sanitary practices in the work place, such as hand washing (98.7% correct answers), using gloves (77.9%), proper cleaning of the instruments/utensils (86.4%) and detergent use (72.8%). On disease transmission, the results indicates that 76.2% of the food- handlers did not know that Salmonella is a food borne pathogens and 70.6% did not know that hepatitis A is a food borne pathogen. However, 81.7% handlers agreed that typhoid fever is transmitted by food and 87.7% agreed that bloody diarrhea is transmitted by food. Logistic regression analysis testing four models showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05), for models in which the explanatory variable was the level of education.
In generally, the institutional food-handlers have satisfactory knowledge in food safety but this does not translate into strict hygienic practices during processing and handling food products.
Here we have used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterise 44 historical bacterial isolates collected before and after a national typhoid immunization program that was implemented in Thailand in 1977 in response to a large outbreak; the program was highly effective in reducing typhoid case numbers. Thai isolates were highly diverse, including 10 distinct phylogenetic lineages or genotypes. Novel prophage and plasmids were also detected, including examples that were previously only reported in Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli. The majority of S. Typhi genotypes observed prior to the immunization program were not observed following it. Post-vaccine era isolates were more closely related to S. Typhi isolated from neighbouring countries than to earlier Thai isolates, providing no evidence for the local persistence of endemic S. Typhi following the national immunization program. Rather, later cases of typhoid appeared to be caused by the occasional importation of common genotypes from neighbouring Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. These data show the value of WGS in understanding the impacts of vaccination on pathogen populations and provide support for the proposal that large-scale typhoid immunization programs in endemic areas could result in lasting local disease elimination, although larger prospective studies are needed to test this directly.
5 °C) for more than 3 days with abdominal pain, headache, negative malaria test or failed anti-malaria treatment, and at least 2 of the following: diarrhea, nausea or vomiting, constipation, fatigue. A probable case was defined as a suspected case with a positive TUBEX® TF test. A confirmed case had blood culture yielding Salmonella Typhi. We conducted a case-control study to compare exposures of 33 suspected case-patients and 78 controls, and tested water and juice samples.
From 17 February-12 June, we identified 10,230 suspected, 1038 probable, and 51 confirmed cases. Approximately 22.58% (7/31) of case-patients and 2.56% (2/78) of controls drank water sold in small plastic bags (ORM-H = 8.90; 95%CI = 1.60-49.00); 54.54% (18/33) of case-patients and 19.23% (15/78) of controls consumed locally-made drinks (ORM-H = 4.60; 95%CI: 1.90-11.00). All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Water and juice samples exhibited evidence of fecal contamination.
Contaminated water and street-vended beverages were likely vehicles of this outbreak. At our recommendation authorities closed unsafe water sources and supplied safe water to affected areas.
This is a prospective observational study in which 67 consecutive patients who had exploratory laparotomy for typhoid perforation between August 2009 and October 2012 in the main operating theatre of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were studied. The attending anaesthetists had the freedom of choosing the appropriate anaesthetic drugs depending on the patients' clinical condition. The reason for admission into the ICU, the types of organ support required and outcomes were recorded.
Twenty-five patients (37.3%) out of 67 required critical care. Reasons for admission among others included poor respiratory effort, hypotension, septic shock and delayed recovery from anaesthesia. Twenty-one patients (84%) required mechanical ventilation with a mean duration of 2.14 days (range 1-5 days). Fourteen patients required ionotropic support and the length of ICU stay ranged from 1 to 15 days (mean 4.32 days). Nineteen patients (76%) were successfully managed and discharged to the ward while 24% (6 patients) mortality rate was recorded.
This study showed high rate of post-operative ICU admission in patients with typhoid perforation with a high demand for critical care involving mechanical ventilation and ionotropic support. In centres that manage patients presenting with typhoid ileitis and perforation, post-operative critical care should be available.
(3) Classical symptoms include sudden onset of blurred vision with floaters and photopsiae. Fundus examination shows widespread perivascular translucent sheathing affecting both arterioles and venules, more commonly latter. Fluorescein angiography shows late staining of vessels with no obstruction of blood flow. Electroretinogram shows reduced amplitude and visual fields show generalized constriction. Medline search did not show any case of frosted branch angiitis in a patient with typhoid fever.
The G2/M cell cycle arrest was dependent on CdtB, the active subunit of S-CDT, as infection with isogenic ΔcdtB mutants abolished their ability to induce a G2/M cell cycle arrest. Infection with S-CDT-encoding serotypes was significantly associated with activation of the host cell's DNA damage response (DDR), a signaling cascade that is important for detecting and repairing damaged DNA. HeLa cell populations infected with S-CDT-positive serotypes had a significantly higher proportion of cells with DDR protein 53BP1 and γH2AX foci than cells infected with either S-CDT-negative serotypes or isogenic ΔcdtB strains. Intoxication with S-CDT occurred via autocrine and paracrine pathways, as uninfected HeLa cells among populations of infected cells also had an activated DDR. Overall, we show that S-CDT plays a significant role in the cellular outcome of infection with NTS serotypes.
The recent discovery that multiple serotypes encode S-CDT, which was previously established as an important virulence factor for serotype Typhi, suggested that this toxin may also contribute to the outcome of infection with nontyphoidal serotypes. In this study, we demonstrate that at a cellular level, S-CDT significantly alters the outcome of infection by inducing DNA damage which is associated with a cell cycle arrest and activation of the host cell's DDR. Importantly, these results contribute valuable information for assessing the public health implications of S-CDT in infections with NTS serotypes. Our data suggest that infection with Salmonella strains that encode S-CDT has the potential to result in DNA damage, which may contribute to long-term sequelae.
In this study, genomic comparison of S. Typhi with other enteric pathogens was performed, and 6 S. Typhi genes, that is, STY0201, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, were found to be specific in silico. Six PCR assays each targeting a unique gene were developed to test the specificity of these genes in vitro. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of each assay were determined using 39 S. Typhi, 62 non-Typhi Salmonella, and 10 non-Salmonella clinical isolates. The results showed that 5 of these genes, that is, STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, demonstrated 100% sensitivity (39/39) and 100% specificity (0/72). The detection limit of the 5 PCR assays was 32 pg for STY0322, 6.4 pg for STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021, and 1.28 pg for STY0307. In conclusion, 5 PCR assays using STY0307, STY0322, STY0326, STY2020, and STY2021 were developed and found to be highly specific at single-gene target resolution for diagnosis of typhoid fever.
The internal channel formed by the injectisome allows for the direct delivery of partially unfolded virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm. The structural foundation of the injectisome is the basal body, a molecular lock-nut structure composed predominantly of three proteins that form highly oligomerized concentric rings spanning the inner and outer membranes. Here we present the structure of the prototypical Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pathogenicity island 1 basal body, determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, with the inner-membrane-ring and outer-membrane-ring oligomers defined at 4.3 Å and 3.6 Å resolution, respectively. This work presents the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution structural characterization of the major components of the basal body in the assembled state, including that of the widespread class of outer-membrane portals known as secretins.
We review here the histopathological features and ancillary testing required for diagnosis of all illnesses preventable by vaccines that are currently approved for use by the United States Food and Drug Administration, organized into three sections: viral infections preventable by routine vaccination (measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, rotavirus, polio, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, influenza, and human papillomavirus), bacterial infections preventable by routine vaccination (diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and meningococcus), and infections with specific vaccine indications (anthrax, typhoid, tuberculosis, rabies, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, smallpox, and adenovirus). Histopathology for the less common diseases is illustrated in this review. Awareness of a patient's immune and/or vaccine status is a crucial component of the infectious disease work-up, especially for rare diseases that may not otherwise be seen.