Treponematosis Endemic Syphilis Publications (121)


Treponematosis Endemic Syphilis Publications

Indian J. Med. Res.
Indian J Med Res 2015 May;141(5):608-13
Epidemiology & Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Delhi, India.

Yaws, a non-venereal treponematosis, affecting primarily the tribal populations, has been considered historically as one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In 1996, India piloted an initiative to eradicate yaws based on a strategy consisting of active case finding through house-to-house search and treatment of cases and their contacts with long acting penicillin. Thereafter, the campaign implemented in all 51 endemic districts in 10 states of the country led to the achievement of a yaws-free status in 2004. Read More

In the post-elimination phase, surveillance activities accompanied by serological surveys were continued in the erstwhile endemic districts. These surveys carried out among children between the age of 1-5 yr, further confirmed the absence of community transmission in the country. The experience of India demonstrates that yaws can be eradicated in all endemic countries of Africa and Asia, provided that political commitment can be mobilized and community level activities sustained until the goal is achieved.

Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
Am J Phys Anthropol 2015 Jan 6;156(1):90-101. Epub 2014 Oct 6.
Museum of London Archaeology, London, N1 7ED, UK.
J Sex Med
J Sex Med 2014 Dec 4;11(12):3112-8. Epub 2014 Sep 4.
University Department for Forensic Sciences, University of Split, Split, Croatia.

Due to the existence of a variety of types of non-venereal syphilis caused by the related T. pallidum, regular serological testing such as Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) and Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay Technique (CMIA) are often unable to differentiate venereal syphilis from the non- venereal one, hence, the interest in the use of molecular biology testing for a confirmation diagnosis of syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
The study is designed to assess the effectiveness of PCR testing and serological methods in the diagnosis of Treponema pallidum subsp pallidum among blood donors in Burkina Faso. Read More

The study included 6375 samples of volunteer blood donors from the regional blood transfusion center of Ouagadougou (CRTS/O). Among samples, 183 positive and 59 negative in RPR were analyzed to detect antibodies anti-T. pallidum subsp pallidum with a immunoassay method (CMIA) and were confirmed using the Polymerase Chain Reaction testing.
In RPR, we obtained a prevalence rate of 2.9% (183/6375) for treponematosis. From the 183 RPR+ specimen, 108 (59%) were found CMIA+ and 11 (6%) were confirmed PCR+. While the 59 pattern RPR-; 31 (52.5%) were CMIA + including 3 (5.1%) tested PCR+. Seventy-five (75) samples RPR + /CMIA-; 2 (2.7%) were confirmed positive by PCR. All 28 samples RPR-/CMIA- were confirmed negative by PCR.
PCR testing confirmed a low distribution of T. pallidum subsp pallidum in comparison to serological methods. Cross-reactions, existence of non-venereal treponemal or immunological scars could account for the discrepancy between the results obtained.

Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
Am J Phys Anthropol 2013 Feb 24;150(2):273-85. Epub 2012 Dec 24.
Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, England. c.a.roberts@

Treponematosis has been one of the most studied and debated infectious diseases in paleopathology, particularly from the standpoint of its origin, evolution, and transmission. This study links evidence for treponematosis in skeletons from the 14th-16th century AD cemetery of the Augustinian friary of Hull Magistrates Court, England, with data from stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis that the people with treponemal disease buried at this site were not locally born and raised. The objective is to explore the potential of using stable isotope data to track the place of origin and extent of mobility of individuals with an infectious disease. Read More

Dental enamel samples of 12 skeletons were selected for strontium ((87) Sr/(86) Sr ratio) and oxygen (δ(18) O) stable isotope analysis based on the presence (six - diseased) or absence (six - controls) of bone changes associated with treponemal disease. The oxygen isotope ratios of all but three individuals (1047, 1121, 823) overlapped at two standard deviations with the inferred local precipitation range, and only one individual (1216) had a strontium isotope ratio outside the regional range. Two of the four had probable/possible treponemal bone changes. Those with treponemal bone changes were not demonstrably more likely to be migrants than those without such lesions. However, because of extensive documentary evidence for trade with the Baltic Sea area, and for merchants from towns such as Stralsund, Danzig and Elbing being in Hull, it is very plausible that the four migrants came from the Baltic area or even southern Sweden.

Yaws--an endemic treponematosis and, as such, a neglected tropical disease--is re-emerging in children in rural, tropical areas. Oral azithromycin is effective for syphilis. We assessed the efficacy of azithromycin compared with intramuscular long-acting penicillin to treat patients with yaws. Read More

We did an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial at Lihir Medical Centre, Papua New Guinea, between Sept 1, 2010, and Feb 1, 2011. Children aged 6 months to 15 years with a serologically confirmed diagnosis of yaws were randomly allocated, by a computer-generated randomisation sequence, to receive either one 30 mg/kg oral dose of azithromycin or an intramuscular injection of 50,000 units per kg benzathine benzylpenicillin. Investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was treatment efficacy, with cure rate defined serologically as a decrease in rapid plasma reagin titre of at least two dilutions by 6 months after treatment, and, in participants with primary ulcers, also by epithelialisation of lesions within 2 weeks. Non-inferiority was shown if the upper limit of the two-sided 95% CI for the difference in rates was lower than 10%. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with, number NCT01382004.
We allocated 124 patients to the azithromycin group and 126 to the benzathine benzylpenicillin group. In the per-protocol analysis, after 6 months of follow-up, 106 (96%) of 110 patients in the azithromycin group were cured, compared with 105 (93%) of 113 in the benzathine benzylpenicillin group (treatment difference -3·4%; 95% CI -9·3 to 2·4), thus meeting prespecified criteria for non-inferiority. The number of drug-related adverse events (all mild or moderate) was similar in both treatment groups (ten [8%] in the azithromycin group vs eight [7%] in the benzathine benzylpenicillin group).
A single oral dose of azithromycin is non-inferior to benzathine benzylpenicillin and avoids the need for injection equipment and medically trained personnel. A change to the simpler azithromycin treatment regimen could enable yaws elimination through mass drug administration programmes.
International SOS and Newcrest Mining.

Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
Wien Klin Wochenschr 2008 ;120(19-20 Suppl 4):20-3
Institut für Nuklearmedizin, Wagner-Jauregg Krankenhaus, Linz, Osterreich.
Med Trop (Mars)
Med Trop (Mars) 2008 Apr;68(2):111-8
Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital d'instruction des armées Laveran, BP 50, 13998, Marseille.

The foot is particularly exposed to injury and infection in the tropical areas. This article provides a review of the main diseases affecting the foot in the tropics including leprosy, ainhum, ulceration due to Mycobacterium ulcerans, mycetoma, chromomycosis, Kaposi's sarcoma, elephantiasis, podoconiasis, dracunculosis, tungiasis, syphilis and endemic treponematosis, larva migrans, scytalidiosis, and envenomation. Prevention is essential. Read More