Trench Fever Publications (321)


Trench Fever Publications

Insect Mol. Biol.
Insect Mol Biol 2017 Jan 20. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
Department of Veterinary & Animal Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.
Int J Mol Sci
Int J Mol Sci 2016 Dec 1;17(12). Epub 2016 Dec 1.
State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing 102206, China.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Jan 21;8(1):25-30. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
Vector Control Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Indira Nagar, Pondicherry 605 006, India.

Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic fever and has been endemic to Karnataka State, India. Outbreaks of KFD were reported in new areas of Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India during 2014-2015. Investigation of the outbreaks was carried out in these districts during May 2015. Read More

The line-list data of KFD cases available with District Medical Office, Wayanad were analysed. Case investigation was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak and possible site of contraction infections. Ticks from the forest floor were collected in areas associated with monkey deaths by flagging method to estimate species abundance. Of 102 confirmed cases of KFD reported in Wayanad, 91% were adults aged >15years. About 43% of the cases were from the areas of Poothady Primary Health Centre (PHC) followed by Chethalayam PHC (22%). Most of the affected individuals belong to Kattunayakan tribe, dependent on forest for their livelihood. Those tribes are engaged in trench digging and fire line works in summer months and hence are at a higher risk. In Malappuram, the Cholanaickan tribe, are under high risk of exposure to infected ticks as they live deep in the forest and trap monkeys for game meat. High abundance of Haemaphysalis spinigera and H. turturis, the established vectors of KFD virus was recorded in all affected areas. Incidence of KFD cases/monkey deaths and high abundance of Haemaphysalis vectors in the forest ranges of Wayanad and Malappuram districts indicate that the area has become receptive for KFD outbreaks. Preventive measures (vaccination of high risk groups) coupled with intensive health education should be carried out prior to transmission season.

Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2016 27;2016:8962685. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
Research Unit on Emerging Infectious and Tropical Diseases (URMITE), UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France.

Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Read More

Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance.

Lancet Infect Dis
Lancet Infect Dis 2016 Aug 30;16(8):e164-72. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
Medicine Service, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address:
J R Army Med Corps
J R Army Med Corps 2016 Aug 15;162(4):310-5. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
Stoke History Group, Stoke sub Hamdon, UK.

Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Read More

On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar 21;10(3):e0004509. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. Read More

In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion.

G Ital Nefrol
G Ital Nefrol 2016 Feb;33 Suppl 66:33.S66.19