Tracheal Intubation Rapid Sequence Intubation Publications (754)

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Tracheal Intubation Rapid Sequence Intubation Publications

2016Dec
Anaesthesia
Anaesthesia 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Pre-oxygenation is an essential part of rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia for emergency surgery, in order to increase the oxygen reservoir in the lungs. We performed a randomised controlled trial of transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) pre-oxygenation or facemask pre-oxygenation in patients undergoing emergency surgery. Twenty patients were allocated to each group. Read More

No patient developed arterial oxygen saturation < 90% during attempted tracheal intubation. Arterial blood gases were sampled from an arterial catheter immediately after intubation. The mean (SD) PaO2 was 43.7 (15.2) kPa in the THRIVE group vs. 41.9 (16.2) kPa in the facemask group (p = 0.722); PaCO2 was 5.8 (1.1) kPa in the THRIVE group vs. 5.6 (1.0) kPa in the facemask group (p = 0.631); arterial pH was 7.36 (0.05) in the THRIVE group vs. 7.34 (0.06) in the facemask group (p = 0.447). No airway rescue manoeuvres were needed, and there were no differences in the number of laryngoscopy attempts between the groups. In spite of this, patients in the THRIVE group had a significantly longer apnoea time of 248 (71) s compared with 123 (55) s in the facemask group (p < 0.001). Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange is a practicable method for pre-oxygenating patients during rapid sequence induction of general anaesthesia for emergency surgery; we found that it maintained an equivalent blood gas profile to facemask pre-oxygenation, in spite of a significantly longer apnoea time.

Tracheal intubation (TI) is a routine procedure in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and is often life-saving. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room, critically ill patients with respiratory failure and shock are physiologically unstable. These factors, along with a suboptimal evaluation of the airway and limited oxygen reserves despite adequate pre-oxygenation, are responsible for a high incidence of life-threatening complications such as severe hypoxaemia and cardiovascular collapse during TI in the ICU. Read More

The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for safe management of the airway in critically ill patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation during pre-oxygenation improves oxygen stores in patients with respiratory pathology. Nasal insufflation of oxygen at 15 L/min can increase the duration of apnoea before the occurrence of hypoxaemia. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation at 60-70 L/min may also increase safety during TI in critically ill patients. Stable haemodynamics and gas exchange must be maintained during rapid sequence induction. It is necessary to implement an intubation protocol during routine airway management in the ICU. Adherence to a plan for difficult airway management incorporating the use of intubation aids and airway rescue devices and strategies is useful.

The various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives (mother and foetus). Thus tracheal intubation in the pregnant patient poses unique challenges, and necessitates meticulous planning, ready availability of equipment and expertise to ensure maternal and foetal safety. Read More

The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for the safe management of the airway in obstetric patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists (ISA). Modified rapid sequence induction using gentle intermittent positive pressure ventilation with pressure limited to ≤20 cm H2O is acceptable. Partial or complete release of cricoid pressure is recommended when face mask ventilation, placement of supraglottic airway device (SAD) or tracheal intubation prove difficult. One should call for early expert assistance. Maternal SpO2 should be maintained ≥95%. Apnoeic oxygenation with nasal insufflation of 15 L/min oxygen during apnoea should be performed in all patients. If tracheal intubation fails, a second- generation SAD should be inserted. The decision to continue anaesthesia and surgery via the SAD, or perform fibreoptic-guided intubation via the SAD or wake up the patient depends on the urgency of surgery, foeto-maternal status and availability of resources and expertise. Emergency cricothyroidotomy must be performed if complete ventilation failure occurs.

2016Dec
World J Emerg Med
World J Emerg Med 2016 ;7(4):285-289
Department of Anesthesia, Kitakyushu General Hospital, 5-10-10 Yugawa, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu 800-0295, Japan.

Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during tracheal intubation is a life-threatening complication in emergency patients. Rapid sequence intubation is commonly performed to prevent aspiration but is not associated with low risk of intubation related complications. Although it has been considered that aspiration can be prevented in the lateral position, few studies have evaluated the ability to prevent aspiration. Read More

Moreover, this position is not always a favorable position for tracheal intubation. If aspiration can be prevented in a clinically relevant semi-lateral position, it may be advantageous. We assessed the ability to prevent aspiration in the lateral position and various degrees of the semi-lateral position using a vomiting-regurgitation manikin model.
A manikin's head was placed in the neutral, simple extension, or sniffing position. The amount of aspirated saline into the bronchi during simulated vomiting was measured at semi-lateral position angles of 0º to 90º in 10º increments. The difference in the vertical height between the mouth corner and the inferior border of the vocal cord was measured radiologically at each semi-lateral position in the three head-neck positions.
Pulmonary aspiration was prevented at the ≥70º, ≥80º, and 90º semi-lateral positions in the neutral, simple extension, and sniffing positions, respectively. The mouth was lower than the vocal cord in the semi-lateral position in which aspiration was prevented.
The lateral or excessive semi-lateral position was necessary to protect the lung from aspiration in the head-neck positions commonly used for tracheal intubation. Prevention of aspiration was difficult within clinically relevant semi-lateral positions.

2016Nov
Anaesthesia
Anaesthesia 2016 Nov 30. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
Department of Anesthesiology, Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
2016Dec
J Clin Anesth
J Clin Anesth 2016 Dec 18;35:465-474. Epub 2016 Oct 18.
Department of Anesthesia, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care Medicine, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Opioids are integral part of anesthesia induction, but information on optimal dosing is limited. We aimed to determine doses of alfentanil needed to eliminate increases in 5 autonomic response variables (plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine and vasopressin, arterial blood pressure [ABP], and heart rate) during rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Read More


Prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, interventional clinical study.
Large academic institution.
Eighty-four healthy patients, aged 18 to 55 years, received 1 of 7 assessor-blinded doses of alfentanil (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 μg/kg) together with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, administered in rapid succession (15 seconds). Laryngoscopy was initiated 40 seconds after rocuronium, and tracheal intubation was concluded within 15 seconds thereafter.
An indwelling radial artery catheter was used for hemodynamic monitoring and blood sampling. Relationships between alfentanil dose and response variables were tested with linear regression, and the influence of covariates (sex, body weight, and age) was determined. Alfentanil dose needed to prevent increases in ABP >10% above baseline with 95% probability was estimated with logistic regression.
Significant relationships were determined between alfentanil dose and response variables. Clinically interesting influence of covariates was not found. Alfentanil 55 μg/kg was needed to prevent increases in ABP postintubation >10% above baseline with 95% probability. One individual needed a bolus of vasopressor postintubation.
Optimal control of autonomic responses during rapid-sequence induction was achieved with clinically relevant doses of alfentanil in healthy patients anesthetized with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg.

2016Nov
Saudi J Anaesth
Saudi J Anaesth 2016 Oct-Dec;10(4):379-383
Department of Anesthesiology, ESIC Medical College and Hospital, Parippally, Kollam, Kerala, India.

The effects of rocuronium at two different doses, that is, 0.6 mg/kg (2 × ED95) and 0.9 mg/kg (3 × ED95), were compared with succinylcholine (2 mg/kg) when used for endotracheal intubation in adult patients for elective surgeries under general anesthesia. Read More


Ninety patients were divided into three groups of 30 each. Groups A, B received injection rocuronium at 0.6 mg/kg, 0.9 mg/kg respectively and Group C received succinylcholine at 2 mg/kg. Onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate and duration of action were compared.
To compare the statistical difference in the age, weight, height of the study subjects, onset of action of relaxant, intubation conditions, time taken to intubate, and duration of action analysis of variance and unpaired t-test were used.
The onset time was considerably shorter with rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg than 0.6 mg/kg. The onset time of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be significantly longer than succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. Time taken to intubate was shortest with succinylcholine 2 mg/kg. The time taken to intubate with the rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was found to be comparable to that of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Intubation score of rocuronium 0.9 mg/kg was the best (17.75), which was comparable with succinylcholine. However, the intubation score obtained with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was inferior. Duration of action was shortest with succinylcholine. The duration of action is prolonged when the dose of rocuronium is increased from 0.6 to 0.9 mg/kg.
Rapid sequence induction of anesthesia with propofol and fentanyl, succinylcholine allowed a more rapid endotracheal intubation sequence and created superior intubation conditions than rocuronium. However, the technique of using a large dose of rocuronium to achieve perfect conditions for tracheal intubation may have application whenever succinylcholine is relatively contraindicated.

2016Dec
Eur J Anaesthesiol
Eur J Anaesthesiol 2016 Dec;33(12):943-948
From the Institute of Anaesthesiology, University and University Hospital Zurich (SS, DU, MS, MB, DRS, KR), Institute of Physiology, University Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (MS), Department of Internal Medicine 2, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria (GG), Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Biostatistics, University of Zurich, Switzerland (BS), and Department of Outcomes Research; Department of General Anaesthesiology, Anaesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA (KR) *Simon Sulser and Dirk Ubmann contributed equally to the writing of this article.

Airway management in the emergency room can be challenging when patients suffer from life-threatening conditions. Mental stress, ignorance of the patient's medical history, potential cervical injury or immobilisation and the presence of vomit and/or blood may also contribute to a difficult airway. Videolaryngoscopes have been introduced into clinical practice to visualise the airway and ultimately increase the success rate of airway management. Read More


The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the C-MAC videolaryngoscope improves first-attempt intubation success rate compared with direct laryngoscopy in patients undergoing emergency rapid sequence intubation in the emergency room setting.
A randomised clinical trial.
Emergency Department of the University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.
With approval of the local ethics committee, we prospectively enrolled 150 patients between 18 and 99 years of age requiring emergency rapid sequence intubation in the emergency room of the University Hospital Zurich. Patients were randomised (1 : 1) to undergo tracheal intubation using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope or by direct laryngoscopy.
Owing to ethical considerations, patients who had sustained maxillo-facial trauma, immobilised cervical spine, known difficult airway or ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation were excluded from our study. All intubations were performed by one of three very experienced anaesthesia consultants.
First-attempt success rate served as our primary outcome parameter. Secondary outcome parameters were time to intubation; total number of intubation attempts; Cormack and Lehane score; inadvertent oesophageal intubation; ease of intubation; complications including violations of the teeth, injury/bleeding of the larynx/pharynx and aspiration/regurgitation of gastric contents; necessity of using further alternative airway devices for successful intubation; maximum decrease of oxygen saturation and technical problems with the device.
A total of 150 patients were enrolled, but three patients had to be excluded from the analysis, resulting in 74 patients in the C-MAC videolaryngoscopy group and 73 patients in the direct laryngoscopy group. Tracheal intubation was achieved successfully at the first attempt in 73 of 74 patients in the C-MAC group and all patients in the direct laryngoscopy group (P = 1.0). Time to intubation was similar (32 ± 11 vs. 31 ± 9 s, P = 0.51) in both groups. Visualisation of the vocal cords, represented as the Cormack and Lehane score, was significantly better using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope (P < 0.001).
Our study demonstrates that visualisation of the vocal cords was improved by using the C-MAC videolaryngoscope compared with direct laryngoscopy. Better visualisation did not improve first-attempt success rate, which in turn was probably based on the high level of experience of the participating anaesthesia consultants.
Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02297113.

2016Oct
Braz J Anesthesiol
Braz J Anesthesiol 2016 Nov - Dec;66(6):657-660. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
Centro de Ensino e Treinamento em Anestesiologia (CET-SBA) da Clínica de Anestesiologia de Ribeirão Preto (CARP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

HELLP syndrome, characterized by hemolysis, high levels of liver enzyme, and low platelet count, is an advanced clinical stage of pre-eclampsia, progressing to high maternal (24%) and perinatal (up 40%) mortality, despite childbirth care in a timely manner. The goal is to describe the anesthetic management of a case with indication to emergency cesarean.
Female patient, 36 years old, gestational age of 24 weeks, with hypertensive crisis (BP 180/100mmHg) and severe headache, was admitted to the operating room for a cesarean section after diagnosis of HELLP syndrome. Read More

Indicated for general anesthesia, we opted for total intravenous with intubation after rapid sequence induction with propofol and remifentanil in continuous target-controlled infusion, and rocuronium at a dose of 1.2mg/kg. Maintenance was achieved with propofol and remifentanil. The surgical procedure was uneventful, the child was born with APGAR 1/5 and transferred to the NICU. At the end of surgery, the patient was extubated in the operating room and taken to the ICU. The postoperative period was uneventful with no changes worthy of note and the patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day.
When general anesthesia is the choice in parturient with HELLP syndrome, tracheal intubation with rapid sequence induction due to possible difficult airway, as well as the use of drugs to control the hemodynamic response can minimize the complications associated with the procedure, as occurred in this case.

2016Aug
Rev Bras Anestesiol
Rev Bras Anestesiol 2016 Nov - Dec;66(6):657-660. Epub 2014 Nov 27.
Centro de Ensino e Treinamento em Anestesiologia (CET-SBA) da Clínica de Anestesiologia de Ribeirão Preto (CARP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

HELLP syndrome, characterized by hemolysis, high levels of liver enzyme, and low platelet count, is an advanced clinical stage of pre-eclampsia, progressing to high maternal (24%) and perinatal (up 40%) mortality, despite childbirth care in a timely manner. The goal is to describe the anesthetic management of a case with indication to emergency caesarean.
Female patient, 36 years old, gestational age of 24 weeks, with hypertensive crisis (BP 180/100 mmHg) and severe headache, was admitted to the operating room for a cesarean section after diagnosis of HELLP syndrome. Read More

Indicated for general anesthesia, we opted for total intravenous with intubation after rapid sequence induction with propofol and remifentanil in continuous target-controlled infusion, and rocuronium at a dose of 1.2 mg/kg. Maintenance was achieved with propofol and remifentanil. The surgical procedure was uneventful, the child was born with APGAR 1/5 and transferred to the NICU. At the end of surgery, the patient was extubated in the operating room and taken to the ICU. The postoperative period was uneventful with no changes worthy of note and the patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day.
When general anesthesia is the choice in parturient with HELLP syndrome, tracheal intubation with rapid sequence induction due to possible difficult airway, as well as the use of drugs to control the hemodynamic response can minimize the complications associated with the procedure, as occurred in this case.