Tracheal Intubation Medications Publications (932)
Tracheal Intubation Medications Publications
Methods. Surgical patients undergoing general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were recruited from a medical center. Patients were randomly assigned to group K (treated with 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray) or group D (treated with distilled water spray). Before intubation, each endotracheal tube was sprayed with the appropriate solution by physicians over the 20 cm length of the cuff. Each group comprised 95 patients fitting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for whom complete data sets were collected. The intensity of the sore throat was measured at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after surgery, and data were compared. Results. The two groups had similar characteristics. Postoperative sore throat was significantly less frequent in group K than in group D (p < 0.001) and the pain intensity was significantly lower in group K than in group D at each time point (all p < 0.001). Conclusions. This study demonstrated that preanesthesia 5% ketorolac tromethamine spray could effectively decrease postendotracheal-intubation-induced sore throat in patients undergoing general anesthesia.
METHODS In this retrospective multicenter cohort study including 5 regional pediatric trauma centers affiliated with academic medical centers, the authors examined data from 236 children (age < 18 years) with severe TBI (admission Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8, ICD-9 diagnosis codes of 800.0-801.9, 803.0-804.9, 850.0-854.1, 959.01, 950.1-950.3, 995.55, maximum head Abbreviated Injury Scale score ≥ 3) who received tracheal intubation for ≥ 48 hours in the ICU between 2007 and 2011. RESULTS Of 236 patients, 187 (79%) received seizure prophylaxis. In 2 of the 5 centers, 100% of the patients received seizure prophylaxis medication. Use of seizure prophylaxis was associated with younger patient age (p < 0.001), inflicted TBI (p < 0.001), subdural hematoma (p = 0.02), cerebral infarction (p < 0.001), and use of electroencephalography (p = 0.023), but not higher Injury Severity Score. In 63% cases in which seizure prophylaxis was used, the patients were given the first medication within 24 hours of injury, and 50% of the patients received the first dose in the prehospital or emergency department setting. Initial seizure prophylaxis was most commonly with fosphenytoin (47%), followed by phenytoin (40%). CONCLUSIONS While fosphenytoin was the most commonly used medication for seizure prophylaxis, there was large variation within and between trauma centers with respect to timing and choice of seizure prophylaxis in severe pediatric TBI. The heterogeneity in seizure prophylaxis use may explain the previously observed lack of relationship between seizure prophylaxis and outcomes.
Since then, he felt itchy sensation around his inguinal region. After he came to the operating room, he felt itchy sensation all over the body. Initially, his vatal signs were stable. We started to give extracellular fluid including ulinastatin 300,000 U, methylprednisolone 2 g, and ranitidine 50 mg. A few minutes later, he had nettle rash all over the body and his blood pressure decreased to 40/20 mmHg, and the heart rate increased to 120 beats x min(-1). Soon after, he had pulseless electric activity (PEA). We started chest compression and tracheal intubation. We injected adrenaline 1 mg. After doing the continuous chest compression for 2 min, he revived. He had continuous medications including dopamine 5 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1), dobutamine 5 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1), noradrenaline 0.05 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1). We cancelled the operation, and he was transfered to the high care unit (HCU), where his blood pressure was 120/65 mmHg, and heart rate 120 beats x min(-1). After 24 hours, we extubated his trachea. In this case, morphine was considered to be the most likely cause for anaphylaxis.
We studied 188 patients hospitalized with alcohol withdrawal syndrome from 2008 through 2012 at one medical center. The mean age (SD) of the subjects was 50.8 ± 9.0 years and their mean ICU admission APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score was 6.2 ± 3.4. Thirty subjects (16%) developed pneumonia, and 38 (20.2%) required intubation. All of the 188 patients received lorazepam (median total dose, 42.5 mg), and 170 of 188 received midazolam, all but 2 by continuous intravenous infusion (median total dose, 527 mg; all administered in ICU); 19 received propofol (median total dose, 6,000 mg); and 19 received dexmedetomidine (median total dose, 1,075 mg). Intubated patients received substantially more benzodiazepine (median total dose, 761 mg of lorazepam equivalent vs. 229 mg for subjects in the nonintubated group; P < 0.0001). Endotracheal intubation was associated with pneumonia and higher acuity of illness (APACHE II score, >10). Intubated patients had a longer duration of hospital stay (median, 15 d vs. 6 d; P ≤ 0.0001). One patient did not survive hospitalization.
In this single-center, observational study, where endotracheal intubation was deferred until aspiration or cardiopulmonary decompensation, treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome with high-dose, continuously infused sedating medications was not associated with excess morbidity or mortality.
Patients were randomly allocated to two groups of 29 patients that received 1200 mg of gabapentin in two dosages (600 mg, 8 hours before anesthesia induction and 600 mg, 2 hours before anesthesia induction) as gabapentin group or received talc powder as placebo (placebo group). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured immediately before intubation, during intubation, immediately after intubation, 1 and 2 minutes after tracheal intubation. Inter-group comparisons significantly showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and heart rate immediately before intubation, during intubation, immediately after intubation, 1 and 2 minutes after tracheal intubation in the placebo group in comparison to gabapentin group. The median of anxiety verbal analog scale (VAS) at the pre-induction room in gabapentin and placebo groups were 2 and 4, respectively that was significantly lower in the former group (P. value =0.04 ); however, regarding median of pain score no difference was observed between them (P. value =0.07). Gabapentin (1200 mg) given preoperatively can effectively attenuate the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy, intubation and also reduce preoperative related anxiety in patients who were a candidate for CABG.
In the updated review, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and five trial registers in November 2014, together with reference checking to identify additional studies.
We included all randomized controlled trials comparing postoperative epidural analgesia and postoperative systemic opioid-based analgesia for adults who underwent elective open abdominal aortic surgery.
Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information and data when required. We assessed the level of evidence according to the scale provided by the GRADE working group.
We included 15 trials published from 1987 to 2009 with 1498 participants in this updated review. Participants had a mean age between 60.5 and 71.3 years. The percentage of women in the included studies varied from 0% to 28.1%. Adding an epidural to general anaesthesia for people undergoing abdominal aortic repair reduced myocardial infarction (risk ratio (RR) 0.54 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.97); I(2) statistic = 0%; number needed to treat for one additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 28 (95% CI 19 to 1423), visual or verbal analogical scale (VAS) scores up to three days after the surgery (mean difference (MD) -1.78 (95% CI -2.32 to -1.25); I(2) statistic = 0% for VAS scores on movement at postoperative day one), time to tracheal extubation (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.42 (95% CI -0.70 to -0.15); I(2) statistic = 83%; equivalent to a mean reduction of 36 hours), postoperative respiratory failure (RR 0.69 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.85); I(2) statistic = 0%; NNTB 8 (95% CI 6 to 16)), gastrointestinal bleeding (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); I(2) statistic = 0%; NNTB 32 (95% CI 27 to 74)) and time spent in the intensive care unit (SMD -0.23 (95% CI -0.41 to -0.06); I(2) statistic = 0%; equivalent to a mean reduction of six hours). We did not demonstrate a reduction in the mortality rate up to 30 days (RR 1.06 (95% CI 0.60 to 1.86); I(2) statistic = 0%). The level of evidence was low for mortality and time before tracheal extubation; moderate for myocardial infarction, respiratory failure and intensive care unit length of stay; and high for gastrointestinal bleeding and VAS scores.
Epidural analgesia provided better pain management, reduced myocardial infarction, time to tracheal extubation, postoperative respiratory failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and intensive care unit length of stay compared with systemic opioid-based drugs. For mortality, we did not find a difference at 30 days.
Baseline hemodynamic measurements were obtained after a 30-minute stabilization period. An intravenous bolus injection of 20% lipid emulsion at 1.5 ml/kg was administered. Additional hemodynamic measurements were made after 1 minute, followed by a continuous intravenous lipid infusion of 0.25 ml/kg/min. Further measurements were carried out at 10, 20 and 30 minutes, when the infusion was doubled to 0.5 ml/kg/min. Assessment of hemodynamic changes were then made at 40, 50 and 60 minutes.
Lipid infusion did not influence cardiac output or heart rate, but caused an increase in arterial blood pressure, mainly pulmonary blood pressure due to increased vascular resistance. Ventricular systolic stroke work consequently increased with greater repercussions on the right ventricle.
In doses used for drug-related toxicity, lipid emulsion cause significant hemodynamic changes with hypertension, particularly in the pulmonary circulation and increase in vascular resistance, which is a factor to consider prior to use of these solutions.
No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5.
Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041).
Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat.
Continuous monitoring of cuff pressure and regular cuff palpation are necessary to minimize the incidence of tracheal stenosis. If the patients have concomitant local or systemic infection, adequate preventive measures should be taken to reduce the incidence of post-intubation tracheal stenosis. Tracheal cryotherapy is recommendable for the management of post-intubation tracheal stenosis.
25 and 2.5 mg) on QTc interval, and the interaction among droperidol, propofol and sevoflurane.
Patients received either 1.25 mg (group L : n = 25) or 2.5 mg (group H : n = 25) droperidol, and fentanyl (3 μg x kg(-1)) was administered 2.5 min later. One minute after fentanyl administration, anesthesia was induced using propofol (1.5 mg x kg(-1)) and vecuronium. One minute after propofol administration, sevoflurane (3%) was started. Tracheal intubation was performed 3 min after propofol administration, and then sevoflurane was reduced to 1%.
Compared to baseline, the QTc interval in group L was unchanged by droperidol. In group H, the QTc interval was significantly prolonged after droperidol injection, but recovered after propofol injection. After tracheal intubation, QTc interval was significantly prolonged in both groups.
Droperidol's effect on QTc prolongation was shown at the dose of 2.5 mg but not 1.25 mg. This prolongation effect was offset by propofol, and was unchanged by sevoflurane.