Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Publications (2488)
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Publications
Results In the case, we observed an unusual DSA compressing the lower plexus trunk, that resulted in intermittent radiating pain and paresthesia. In the cadavers, the DSA originated most commonly from the subclavian artery (71%), with 35% from the thyrocervical trunk. Nine sides of eight cadavers (seven females) had two DSA branches per side, with one branch from each origin. The most typical DSA path was a subclavian artery origin before passing between upper and middle brachial plexus trunks (40% of DSAs), versus between middle and lower trunks (23%), or inferior (4%) or superior to the plexus (1%). Following a thyrocervical trunk origin, the DSA passed most frequently superior to the plexus (23%), versus between middle and lower trunks (6%) or upper and middle trunks (4%). Bilateral symmetry in origin and path through the brachial plexus was observed in 13 of 35 females (37%) and 6 of 17 males (35%), with the most common bilateral finding of a subclavian artery origin and a path between upper and middle trunks (17%). Conclusion Variability in the relationship between DSA and trunks of the brachial plexus has surgical and clinical implications, such as diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome.
The patient's symptoms resolved after en bloc resection. To our knowledge there have been no other reports in the literature of thoracic outlet syndrome due to aneurysmal bone cyst arising from the first rib.
Thus, some categorize disputed TOS as cervicoscapular pain syndrome rather than as a type of TOS. To better understand these disorders, their distinctions, and the reasoning underlying the categorical change of disputed TOS from a form of TOS to a cervicoscapular pain syndrome, a thorough understanding of the pertinent anatomy, pathology, pathophysiology, and the electrodiagnostic manifestations of these pathophysiologies is required. This review of the TOSs is provided in two parts. The first part covered general information pertinent to all 5 TOSs and reviewed true neurogenic TOS in detail.(1) Part 2 reviews the arterial, venous, traumatic neurovascular, and disputed forms of TOS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Thus, some categorize disputed TOS as a cervicoscapular pain syndrome rather than as a type of TOS. To better understand these disorders, their distinctions, and the reasoning underlying the categorical change of disputed TOS from a form of TOS to a cervicoscapular pain syndrome, a thorough understanding of the pertinent anatomy, pathology, pathophysiology, and the electrodiagnostic manifestations of their pathophysiologies is required. This review of the TOSs is provided in two parts. The first part discusses information pertinent to all 5 TOSs and reviews true neurogenic TOS. The second part will review the other 4 TOSs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This review discusses the mechanism of action, best practices, and current indications of BTX injections in the musculoskeletal system. We also discuss the state of the science regarding BTX injections for musculoskeletal disorders and the available evidence supporting its use.
in this work we address the efficacy and safety of a modification to the supraclavicular approach for resection of symptomatic cervical ribs.
The surgical team in collaboration with anatomist performed cadaveric dissections of the posterior triangle of the neck in the anatomy department, Ain Shams University. A prospective study was done on twenty five patients with moderate to severe neck or upper limb pain; this pain was resistant to medical treatment for at least six months. Pre-operative cervical X-Rays showed cervical ribs. Pain was assessed by using the visual analogue scale (VAS). Electrophysiological tests were performed to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, we performed a modified supraclavicular interscalene approach with resection of the symptomatic rib and without resecting either of the scalene muscles or the first thoracic rib.
A total of 25 patients were included in this study, the mean age was 36 years (±12 SD), and the mean follow up period was 12.3 months. All patients had a preoperative moderate (28%) to severe (72%) pain. Motor deficits were present in six cases (24%); Sensory manifestations were present in (80%). All patients had a relief of the severe pain at the first post-operative visit in the first week. There were improvements in the motor power in five out of the six patients who had pre-operative motor deficit.
Modified supraclavicular interscalene approach for resection of symptomatic cervical ribs has shown to be effective in the treatment of neuralgic pain. In comparison to other approaches, it proved to be less invasive, with small transverse incision and without resection of scalenus anterior muscle.
While some experts believe that TOS is underrated, overlooked and very frequent, others even doubt its existence as a nosological entity. In the attempt to shed more light on this condition, we performed a systematic review of the literature and report evidence and opinions around this controversial subject. Only articles focused on neurogenic TOS were considered. Understanding the status of the art and the underlying reasons of doubts and weaknesses could help clinical practice and set the stage for future research.
We performed a retrospective review of a prospective practice database of 224 operations for TOS performed in 172 patients from March 2000 to March 2014. We excluded 10 patients with missing operative reports, 3 reoperations on the same patient, and 8 non-transaxillary resections. We recorded vascular anomalies identified in operative reports and reviewed computed tomography imaging to delineate the nature of these abnormalities.
The overall incidence of vascular anomalies was 11% (22 of 203 TAFRRS). Most patients with anomalies had venous TOS (vTOS) (9 patients, 41%), followed by 7 (32%) with neurogenic TOS (nTOS). The remainder of the patients had arterial TOS (aTOS) (6 patients, 27%). Seven patients (32%) had an abnormal subclavian artery (SCA) with 5 (23%) having an abnormal arterial course in the anterior scalene muscle (ASM); 6 patients (27%) had an abnormal internal mammary artery (IMA) originating from distal SCA; 4 (18%) had abnormalities in the supreme thoracic artery (bifurcation or duplication); 2 (9%) had an abnormal branch from the SCA with anomalous location in the operative field; and 3 (14%) had an abnormal large venous branch penetrating the ASM. In the 19 patients with arterial anomalies, 8 (42%) were recognized as arterial branches penetrating the ASM, and 11 (58%) were noticed as they had anomalous arterial locations within the operative field. Most arterial anomalies were seen in vTOS (9, 45%), followed by nTOS (7, 35%). No intraoperative vascular complications occurred. Perioperative complications included 1 occurrence of postoperative transfusion for bleeding following axillary drain discontinuation and 2 Horner's syndromes. One aberrant IMA was electively ligated to allow complete thoracic outlet decompression.
Arterial anomalies during TAFRRS are encountered in 11% of operations, and may present with vessel locations in unusual areas within the operative field, or as abnormal vessels penetrating the ASM, thus making scalenectomy precarious. Careful attention must be paid to possible abnormal locations of vessels in the thoracic outlet to avoid bleeding complications.
Although thoracic outlet decompression by means of first rib resection is the standard of care, timing of first rib resection after thrombolysis is debated. With respect to the active duty service member, the optimal timing of additional postoperative interventions for residual venous defects and duration of anticoagulation remain in question. A more streamlined perioperative treatment regimen may benefit the military patient without jeopardizing the quality of care and allow more expeditious return to full duty.