Subdural Hematoma Publications (10227)
Subdural Hematoma Publications
Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen showed thickened, fibrotic dura with a sterile chronic inflammation. According to pathological examination, idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis was considered as the final diagnosis. Symptoms were improved with steroid pulse therapy.
A left C2 root tie-off, targeted epidural blood patch, and Dura seal glue resulted in resolution of patient symptomatology highlighting the importance of fused SPECT/CT images in detection of an occult cerebral spinal fluid leak.
In this clinical audit we review the use of subdural drains in our institution before and after the publication of the 2009 RCT results.
A longitudinal retrospective study was performed on all adults having burr holes for CSDH between January 2009 and January 2014. Case notes were analysed to determine subdural drain use, re-operation for CSDH recurrence and post-operative complications. The audit loop was closed with data collected from August 2015 to January 2016.
Thirty-one per cent of patients had subdural drains placed at operation. Drain placement was associated with lower reoperation rates (8% vs. 17%, p = 0.021) without increasing complication rates. Drain usage doubled after publication of the Santarius et al. (2009) trial but we observed persisting and significant variability in drain utilisation by supervising consultants. The use of drains in the department increased from 35% to 75% of all cases after presentation of these results.
The use of subdural drains in our unit reduced recurrence rates following drainage of CSDH and reproduced the results of a 2009 clinical trial. Although the use of subdural drains doubled in the post-trial epoch, significant variability remains in practice. Clinical audit provided an effective tool necessary to drive the implementation of subdural drain placement in our unit.
AimSince recent studies have demonstrated a higher incidence, we repeated our study to estimate the current incidence of CSDH amongst people above the age of 65 in North Wales.DesignWe used radiological reports to identify patients with CSDH over a one-year period.MethodsWe collected data on demographics, clinical presentations, indications for brain imaging, drug history and 30-day outcome from the case notes and electronic records.ResultsThe population of North Wales was 687,937 of which 138,325 (20%) were above 65. There were 66 cases of CSDH giving an incidence of 48 per 100,000 per year. Mean age was 81 and there were 32 males and 34 females. Falls and confusion were the commonest indications to request a CT scan (90%). Other indications were drowsiness (9%) and focal neurological deficit (4%). 17 were on antiplatelets and 20 were on warfarin. Ten underwent surgical intervention. At 30 days 28 were discharged, 22 were still in hospital and 16 died.ConclusionThe incidence of CSDH is much higher than previously reported. Reasons include a low threshold for imaging patients with recurrent falls and confusion, increasing use of anti-thrombotics and ageing population. In many older patients CSDH is a marker of underlying co-morbidities rather than a primary event.
METHODS Keyhole clipping (either supraorbital or pterional) was performed to treat 260 cases of relatively small (≤ 10 mm) anterior circulation UIAs. There were 62 cases in the nonfrail elderly group (mean age 72.9 ± 2.6 years [± SD]) and 198 cases in the nonelderly group (mean age 59.5 ± 7.6 years). The authors evaluated mortality and morbidity (modified Rankin Scale score > 2 or Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score < 24) at 3 months and 1 year after the operation, the general cognitive function by MMSE at 3 months and 1 year, anxiety and depression by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) at 3 months, and radiological abnormalities and recurrence at 1 year. RESULTS Basic characteristics including comorbidities, frailty, and BDI and HAM-D scores were not significantly different between the 2 groups, whereas the MMSE score was slightly but significantly lower in the elderly group. Aneurysm location, largest diameter, type of keyhole surgery, neck clipping rate, and hospitalization period were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The incidence of chronic subdural hematoma was not significantly higher in the elderly group than in the nonelderly group (8.1% vs 4.5%, p = 0.332); rates of other complications including stroke and epilepsy were not significantly different. Lacunar infarction occurred in 3.2% of the elderly group and 3.0% of the nonelderly group. No patient in the elderly group required re-treatment or demonstrated recurrence of clipped aneurysms. The MMSE score at 3 months significantly improved in the nonelderly group but did not change in the elderly group. The BDI and HAM-D scores at 3 months were significantly improved in both groups. No patient died in either group. The morbidity at 3 months and 1 year in the elderly group (1.6% and 4.8%, respectively) was not significantly different from that in the nonelderly group (2.0% and 1.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Keyhole clipping for nonfrail elderly patients with relatively small anterior circulation UIAs did not significantly increase the complication, mortality, or morbidity rate; hospitalization period; or aneurysm recurrence compared with nonelderly patients, and it was associated with improvement in anxiety and depression. Keyhole clipping to treat UIAs in the nonfrail elderly is an effective and long-lasting treatment.
Although recurrences are relatively common, in most cases a good outcome can be achieved even in the elderly; however, as cSDH is associated with other comorbidities, it is indicative of an increased morbidity and mortality. Controlled trials need to be carried out to determine whether pharmacological therapies can also be beneficial in addition to surgical treatment.
All patients were aged ≥65 years and were admitted with head or brain injuries meeting TARN inclusion criteria: injury resulting in immediate admission to hospital for 3 days, admitted to a high dependency area or death following trauma. We determined age, gender, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, presenting Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Mayo Score, and the association of outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)) with age and clinical presentation.
4413 patients were admitted with trauma meeting TARN criteria: 1389 were ≥65 years and 45% (624) had TBI. For patients ≥65 years with TBI, mean age was 79 (range 65-99); 56% were men. Falls accounted for 85% of all TBIs. Most TBIs were moderate/severe (80%) by the Mayo criteria. Of the 279 patients with subdural haematoma, 28% had neurosurgery. Most patients survived TBI (78%); 57% had a good outcome on GOS at discharge (not requiring care package). Mortality was associated with increased age (17% in ages 65-74 years, 19% in 75-84 years, 30% in ≥85 years, p=0.03). Outcome was significantly associated with injury severity (p=0.0001).
Patients with TBI represented 45% of all trauma cases meeting TARN inclusion criteria. Falls at home accounted for most TBIs. Most had moderate/severe TBI, yet over half made a good recovery on GOS. Our data indicate that injury prevention initiatives should focus on home safety. Further research is needed to examine rehabilitation and follow-up after hospital discharge.