Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Publications (7557)
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Publications
In this study, we demonstrate that lysosomal adenosine is elevated by deleting adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme responsible for adenosine degradation. We also show that lysosomal adenosine accumulation inhibits TRPML1, which is rescued by overexpressing ENT3, the adenosine transporter situated in the lysosome membrane. Moreover, ADA deficiency results in lysosome enlargement and dysfunction. These are rescued by activating TRPML1. Importantly, ADA deficient B-lymphocytes are more vulnerable to oxidative stress, and this was rescued by TRPML1 activation. Our data suggest that lysosomal adenosine accumulation impairs lysosome function by inhibiting TRPML1, and subsequently leads to cell death in B-lymphocytes. Activating TRPML1 could be a new therapeutic strategy for those diseases.
In our patients two different types of variants in RAG1 gene were detected. The first of the mutation was the deletion of AA dinucleotide at position c.256_257 (p.Lys86ValfsTer33), the second gene variant was substitution c.2867T>C (p.Ile956Thr). In Patient 1 we detected that compound heterozygous mutations involved both of the mentioned variants. Whereas, in Patients 2, 3 and 4, we confirmed the presence of the dinucleotide deletion but in a homozygous state. In all described patients, sequence analysis of RAG2 gene did not reveal any nucleotide changes. Our data show that mutation c.256_257delAA in RAG1 gene seems to occur quite frequently in the polish patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and may result in classical OS as well as in severe combined immunodeficiency without clinical and laboratory features of OS when occurred in homozygous state. The same mutation but in heterozygous state, in combination with other mutation in RAG1 gene, may result in incomplete OS.
Loss of ARTEMIS function therefore results in radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency (RS-SCID). The hairpin-opening activity is dependent on the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), which can bind to and phosphorylate ARTEMIS. The ARTEMIS C-terminus is dispensable for cellular V(D)J recombination and in vitro nuclease assays with C-terminally truncated ARTEMIS show DNA PKcs-independent hairpin-opening activity. Therefore it has been postulated that ARTEMIS is regulated via autoinhibition by its C-terminus. To obtain evidence for the autoinhibition model, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments with combinations of ARTEMIS mutants. We show that an N-terminal fragment comprising the catalytic domain can interact both with itself and with a C-terminal fragment. Amino acid exchanges N456A+S457A+E458Q in the C-terminus of full-length ARTEMIS resulted in unmasking of the N-terminus and in increased ARTEMIS activity in cellular V(D)J recombination assays. Mutations in ARTEMIS-deficient patients impaired the interaction with the C-terminus and also affected protein stability. The interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains was not DNA-PKcs dependent and phosphomimetic mutations in the C-terminal domain did not result in unmasking of the catalytic domain. Our experiments provide strong evidence that a physical interaction between the C-terminal and catalytic domains mediates ARTEMIS autoinhibition.
Transplant of gene-repaired X-CGD HSPCs into NOD (nonobese diabetic) SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) γc(-/-) mice resulted in efficient engraftment and production of functional mature human myeloid and lymphoid cells for up to 5 months. Whole-exome sequencing detected no indels outside of the CYBB gene after gene correction. CRISPR-mediated gene editing of HSPCs may be applicable to other CGD mutations and other monogenic disorders of the hematopoietic system.
Diagnosis relies on testing for FOXN1 mutations, which allows genetic counselling and guides therapeutic management. Options for treating the underlying immune deficiency include HLA-matched genoidentical haematopoietic cell transplantation containing mature donor T-cells or thymus tissue transplantation. Experience from other severe combined immune deficiency syndromes suggests that early diagnosis, supportive care and definitive management result in better patient outcomes. Without these the prognosis is poor due to early-onset life threatening infections.
These included motor dysfunction, EEG alterations, sensorineural hypoacusia, white matter and ventricular alterations in MRI as well as a low mental development index or IQ. Ada-deficient mice were significantly less active and showed anxiety-like behavior. Molecular and metabolic analyses showed that this phenotype coincides with metabolic alterations and aberrant adenosine receptor signaling. PEG-ADA treatment corrected metabolic adenosine-based alterations, but not cellular and signaling defects, indicating an intrinsic nature of the neurological and behavioral phenotype in ADA deficiency.
Seven patients were homozygous for the c.C5134A, p.S1711X mutation, and the remaining three patients were their siblings manifesting hyper IgE syndrome features without a genetic diagnosis. Prior to the genetic diagnosis, the clinical diagnosis was "hyper IgE syndrome" in six patients and "anti-pneumococcal antibody deficiency," "recurrent pneumonia with bronchiectasis," and "asthma with hypereosinophilic syndrome" each diagnosed once. One additional patient was diagnosed due to family history. The age of presentation varied from 1 to 16 months. Eczema was diagnosed in all patients, food allergies in three, and severe herpes keratitis or malignancy or autoimmunity in two patients. Elevated IgE was recorded in nine patients; however, in six patients, the initial serum IgE concentration was equal to or less than three times the normal concentration for age, and in these patients, the median age at IgE evaluation was 7.5 months compared with 21.5 months in patients with an initial IgE concentration above three times the normal concentration for age (P = 0.067). The spectrum of disease manifestations in patients with a unique mutation in DOCK8 is variable. The genotype-phenotype correlations may be modified by genetic and/or epigenetic modifiers beyond the monogenic effect. Younger patients tend to have lower IgE concentrations at the initial measurement of IgE.
5 months of life; however, in the rest of the world, the lack of NBS means that most infants with SCID still present with infections. The average survival for SCID patients who have undergone transplantation currently is >70% at 3 years after transplantation, although this can vary significantly based on multiple factors, including age and infection status at the time of transplantation, type of donor source utilized, manipulation of graft before transplantation, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, type of conditioning (if any) utilized, and underlying genotype of SCID. In at least 1 study of SCID patients who received no conditioning, long-term survival was 77% at 8.7 years (range out to 26 years) after transplantation. Although a majority of patients with SCID will engraft T cells without any conditioning therapy, depending on genotype, donor source, HLA match, and presence of circulating maternal cells, a sizable percentage of these will fail to achieve full immune reconstitution. Without conditioning, T cell reconstitution typically occurs, although not always fully, whereas B cell engraftment does not, leaving some molecular types of SCID patients with intrinsically defective B cells, in most cases, dependent on regular infusions of immunoglobulin. Because of this, many centers have used conditioning with alkylating agents including busulfan or melphalan known to open marrow niches in attempts to achieve B cell reconstitution. Thus, it is imperative that we understand the potential late effects of these agents in this patient population. There are also nonimmunologic risks associated with HCT for SCID that appear to be dependent upon the genotype of the patient. In this report, we have evaluated the published data on late effects and attempted to summarize the known risks associated with conditioning and alternative donor sources. These data, while informative, are also a clear demonstration that there is still much to be learned from the SCID population in terms of their post-HCT outcomes. This paper will summarize current findings and recommend further research in areas considered high priority. Specific guidelines regarding a recommended approach to long-term follow-up, including laboratory and clinical monitoring, will be forthcoming in a subsequent paper.
Late testers (LTs) were defined as people with AIDS (PWA) whose first HIV-positive test preceded AIDS diagnosis by 3 months or less. Odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to examine factors associated with being LTs. Joinpoint analysis was used to estimate annual percent changes (APCs) of LTs' proportion over time.
Among 20,753 adult PWA, 50.8% were LTs. Italian PWA showed a lower proportion of LTs than non-Italian PWA (46.5% vs 68.2%). Among Italian PWA, the odds of being LTs was higher in men than in women (OR = 2.62, 95% CI: 2.38-2.90); in the age groups below 35 years and over 49 years at diagnosis (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37 and OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.38-1.67, respectively) vs PWA aged 35-49 years; and in those infected through sexual contact as compared with injecting drug use (OR = 13.34, 95% CI: 12.06-14.76 for heterosexual contact and OR = 8.13, 95% CI: 7.30-9.06 for male-to-male sexual contact). The proportion of LTs increased over time among Italians, especially in the latest period (APC2006-2013 = 5.3, 95% CI: 3.8-6.9). The LTs' proportion resulted higher, though stable, among PWA aged ≥50 years. Conversely, an increasing trend was observed among PWA aged 18-34 years (APC = 5.3, 95% CI: 4.5-6.1). The LTs' proportion was persistently higher among PWA who acquired HIV infection through sexual contact, even if a marked increase among injecting drug users was observed after 2005 (APC = 11.4, 95% CI: 5.7-17.5).
The increasing trend of LTs' proportion in the late cART era highlights the need of new strategies tailored to groups who may not consider themselves to be at a high risk of infection. Active promotion of early testing and continuous education of infection, especially among young people, need to be implemented.