Review of Cardiac Tests Publications (8832)


Review of Cardiac Tests Publications

JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2017 Jan;15(1):86-118
1Joanna Briggs Institute, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia 2School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Australian Catholic University, Canberra, Australia.

Global cerebral ischemia occurs due to reduced blood supply to the brain. This is commonly caused by a cessation of myocardial activity associated with cardiac arrest and cardiac surgery. Survival is not the only important outcome because neurological dysfunction impacts on quality of life, reducing independent living. Read More

Magnesium has been identified as a potential neuroprotective agent; however, its role in this context is not yet clear.
The objective of this review was to present the best currently available evidence related to the neuroprotective effects of magnesium during a period of global cerebral ischemia in adults with cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery.
The current review considered adults aged over 18 years who were at risk of global cerebral ischemia associated with cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery. Studies of patients with existing neurological deficits or under the age of 18 years were excluded from the review.
The intervention of interest was magnesium administered in doses of at least of 2 g compared to placebo to adult patients within 24 hours of cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery.
The current review considered experimental designs including randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs.
The outcome of interest were neurological recovery post-cardiac arrest or cardiac surgery, as measured by objective scales, such as but not limited to, cerebral performance category, brain stem reflexes, Glasgow Coma Score and independent living or dependent living status. To enable assessment of the available data, neuroprotection was examined by breaking down neurological outcomes into three domains - functional neurological outcomes, neurophysiological outcomes and neuropsychological outcomes.
The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies between January 1980 and August 2014, utilizing the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) three-step search strategy. Databases searched included PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Australian Clinical Trials Register, Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register, Clinical Trials, European Clinical Trials Register and ISRCTN Registry.
The studies included in this review were of moderate-to-good-quality randomized controlled trials. Studies included measured neurological outcome using functional neurological assessment, neuropsychiatric assessment or neurophysiological assessment.
Data were extracted using standardized templates provided by the JBI Meta-analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument software.
Quantitative data were, where possible, pooled in statistical meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane; Copenhagen, Denmark). Where statistical pooling was not possible, the findings were presented in narrative form, including tables and figures, to aid in data presentation, where appropriate.
Seven studies with a total of 1164 participants were included in this review. Neurological outcome was categorized into three domains: functional neurological, neurophysiological and neuropsychological outcomes. Meta-analysis of three studies assessing the neuroprotective properties of magnesium administration post cardiac arrest found improved functional neurological outcome (odds ratio 0.44; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.81).
Magnesium may improve functional neurological outcome in patients who suffer global cerebral ischemia associated with cardiac surgery and cardiac arrest. Magnesium does not decrease neuropsychological decline.Further testing of neurological outcomes in the domains of functional outcomes, neurophysiological markers and neuropsychological tests are required to further understanding of the neuroprotective effects of magnesium. Suitable dosing regimens should be investigated prior to introduction into clinical practice. Further research is required to investigate the optimal magnesium dose.

Cardiol Young
Cardiol Young 2017 Jan;27(S1):S19-S24
Departments of Cardiovascular Diseases,Pediatrics and Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics,Divisions of Heart Rhythm Services and Pediatric Cardiology,Windland Smith Rice Sudden Death Genomics Laboratory,Mayo Clinic,Rochester,Minnesota,United States of America.

The molecular millennium has bestowed clinicians and researchers with the essential tools to identify the underlying genetic substrates for thousands of genetic disorders, most of which are rare and follow Mendelian inheritance patterns. The genetic basis of potentially lethal and heritable cardiomyopathies and cardiac channelopathies has been identified and are now better understood. Genetic testing for several of these heritable conditions has made its transition from discovery through translation and have been commercially available clinical tests for over a decade. Read More

Now that clinical genetic testing is available more readily and delivers a disease-specific impact across the triad of medicine - diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic - it is important for the community of cardiologists to not only be familiar with the language of genomic medicine but to also be wiser users and even wiser interpreters of genetic testing so that wise decisions can be rendered for those patients and their families being evaluated with respect to the presence or absence of one of these potentially lethal yet highly treatable genetic disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a foundational understanding of genetic testing in clinical cardiology. Here, we will present some benefits of genetic testing: indications for either post-mortem genetic testing for the major cardiomyopathies and channelopathies or pre-mortem genetic testing among the decedent's surviving relatives; the need for careful interpretation of genetic testing results; the importance of genetic counselling; and some points on the ethical and societal implications of genetic testing.

Sleep Med Rev
Sleep Med Rev 2016 Nov 10. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
Sleep Disorder Unit, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, APHP, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Most people with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) have an underlying synucleinopathy, mainly Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies, with median conversion time of 4-9 y from iRBD diagnosis and of 11-16 y from symptom onset. Subtle signs and imaging tests indicate concomitant neurodegeneration in widespread brain areas. Risk factor studies suggest that iRBD patients may have prior head injury, occupational farming, pesticide exposure, low education level and possibly more frequent family history of dream-enactment behavior (but not of PD), plus unexpected risk factors (smoking, ischemic heart disease and inhaled corticosteroid use). Read More

Unlike PD, caffeine and smoking appear not to have a protective role. Prior depression and antidepressant use may be early neurodegenerative signs rather than exclusively causative factors. Age, hyposmia, impaired color vision, abnormal dopaminergic imaging, mild cognitive impairment and possibly sleepiness, may identify patients at greater risk of more rapid conversion. The consensus is to generally disclose the neurodegenerative risk to patients (with the caveat that phenoconversion and its temporal course remain uncertain in individuals without "soft neurodegenerative signs" and those under 50 y of age), to suggest a healthy lifestyle and to take part in prospective cohort studies in anticipation of eventual neuroprotective trials.

Clin. Chem.
Clin Chem 2017 Jan;63(1):186-195
TIMI Study Group, Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

As the worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases, it is even more important to develop cost-effective methods to predict and diagnose the onset of diabetes, monitor progression, and risk stratify patients in terms of subsequent cardiovascular and diabetes complications.
Nonlaboratory clinical risk scores based on risk factors and anthropomorphic data can help identify patients at greatest risk of developing diabetes, but glycemic indices (hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and oral glucose tolerance tests) are the cornerstones for diagnosis, and the basis for monitoring therapy. Although family history is a strong predictor of T2DM, only small populations of patients carry clearly identifiable genetic mutations. Read More

Better modalities for detection of insulin resistance would improve earlier identification of dysglycemia and guide effective therapy based on therapeutic mechanisms of action, but improved standardization of insulin assays will be required. Although clinical risk models can stratify patients for subsequent cardiovascular risk, the addition of cardiac biomarkers, in particular, high-sensitivity troponin and natriuretic peptide provide, significantly improves model performance and risk stratification.
Much more research, prospectively planned and with clear treatment implications, is needed to define novel biomarkers that better identify the underlying pathogenic etiologies of dysglycemia. When compared with traditional risk features, biomarkers provide greater discrimination of future risk, and the integration of cardiac biomarkers should be considered part of standard risk stratification in patients with T2DM.

World J Transplant
World J Transplant 2016 Dec;6(4):620-631
Aparna Dalal, Department of Anesthesiology, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, United States.

Patients listed for organ transplant frequently have severe coronary artery disease (CAD), which may be treated with drug eluting stents (DES). Everolimus and zotarolimus eluting stents are commonly used. Newer generation biolimus and novolimus eluting biodegradable stents are becoming increasingly popular. Read More

Patients undergoing transplant surgery soon after the placement of DES are at increased risk of stent thrombosis (ST) in the perioperative period. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor such as clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor is instated post stenting to decrease the incident of ST. Cangrelor has recently been approved by Food and Drug Administration and can be used as a bridging antiplatelet drug. The risk of ischemia vs bleeding must be considered when discontinuing or continuing DAPT for surgery. Though living donor transplant surgery is an elective procedure and can be optimally timed, cadaveric organ availability is unpredictable, therefore, discontinuation of antiplatelet medication cannot be optimally timed. The type of stent and timing of transplant surgery can be of utmost importance. Many platelet function point of care tests such as Light Transmittance Aggregrometry, Thromboelastography Platelet Mapping, VerifyNow, Multiple Electrode Aggregrometry are used to assess bleeding risk and guide perioperative platelet transfusion. Response to allogenic platelet transfusion to control severe intraoperative bleeding may differ with the antiplatelet drug. In stent thrombosis is an emergency where management with either a drug eluting balloon or a DES has shown superior outcomes. Post-transplant complications often involved stenosis of an important vessel that may need revascularization. DES are now used for endovascular interventions for transplant orthotropic heart CAD, hepatic artery stenosis post liver transplantation, transplant renal artery stenosis following kidney transplantation, etc. Several antiproliferative drugs used in the DES are inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin. Thus they are used for post-transplant immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection in recipients with heart, liver, lung and kidney transplantation. This article describes in detail the various perioperative challenges encountered in organ transplantation surgery and patients with drug eluting stents.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
Department of Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. Electronic address:

For most of Medicine's past, the best that physicians could do to cope with disease prevention and treatment was based on the expected response of an average patient. Currently, however, a more personalized/precise approach to cardiology and medicine in general is becoming possible, as the cost of sequencing a human genome has declined substantially. As a result, we are witnessing an era of precipitous advances in biomedicine and bourgeoning understanding of the genetic basis of cardiovascular and other diseases, reminiscent of the resurgence of innovations in physico-mathematical sciences and biology-anatomy-cardiology in the Renaissance, a parallel time of radical change and reformation of medical knowledge, education and practice. Read More

Now on the horizon is an individualized, diverse patient-centered, approach to medical practice that encompasses the development of new, gene-based diagnostics and preventive medicine tactics, and offers the broadest range of personalized therapies based on pharmacogenetics. Over time, translation of genomic and high-tech approaches unquestionably will transform clinical practice in cardiology and medicine as a whole, with the adoption of new personalized medicine approaches and procedures. Clearly, future prospects far outweigh present accomplishments, which are best viewed as a promising start. It is now essential for pluridisciplinary health care providers to examine the drivers and barriers to the clinical adoption of this emerging revolutionary paradigm, in order to expedite the realization of its potential. So, we are not there yet, but we are definitely on our way.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
Cardiology Department, Centre for Heart Diseases, Military Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland.

In patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) correlates with decreased exercise capacity and poor health-related quality of life, and predicts worse outcomes. Both absolute (depleted iron stores) and functional (where iron is unavailable for dedicated tissues) ID can be easily evaluated in patients with HF using standard laboratory tests (assessment of serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Intravenous iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction has been shown to alleviate HF symptoms and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Read More

In this paper, we provide information on how to diagnose ID in HF. Further we discuss pros and cons of different iron preparations and discuss the results of major trials implementing iron supplementation in HF patients, in order to provide practical guidance for clinicians on how to manage ID in patients with HF.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 2017 Jan;20:9-15
Jarvik Heart, Inc., New York, NY.

The Infant Jarvik ventricular assist device (VAD; Jarvik Heart, Inc., New York, NY) has been developed to support the circulation of infants and children with advanced heart failure. The first version of the device was determined to have elevated hemolysis under certain conditions. Read More

The objective of this work was to determine appropriate modifications to the Infant Jarvik VAD that would result in acceptably low hemolysis levels. In vitro hemolysis testing revealed that hemolysis was related to the shape of the pump blade tips and a critical speed over which hemolysis would occur. Various design modifications were tested and a final design was selected that met the hemolysis performance goal. The new version was named the Jarvik 2015 VAD. Chronic in vivo tests, virtual fit studies, and a series of other performance tests were carried out to assess the device's performance characteristics. In vivo test results revealed acceptable hemolysis levels in a series of animals and virtual fit studies showed that the device would fit into children 8 kg and above, but could fit in smaller children as well. Additional FDA-required testing has been completed and all of the data are being submitted to the FDA so that a clinical trial of the Jarvik 2015 VAD can begin. Development of a Jarvik VAD for use in young children has been challenging for various reasons. However, with the hemolysis issue addressed in the Jarvik 2015 VAD, the device is well-poised for the start of the PumpKIN clinical trial in the near future.

Int Med Case Rep J
Int Med Case Rep J 2016 8;9:385-387. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
Department of Pathology, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine-Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

While blood transfusions are commonly used for prophylaxis and treatment for acute chest syndromes and strokes in sickle cell patients, accumulation of excess iron resulting in secondary hemochromatosis remains a rare disease. Chelation is the mainstay for preventing and treating iron overload to deter potential end-organ damages; it is rare when therapy fails.
A 52-year-old African American woman with chronic anemia secondary to sickle cell anemia and history of multiple blood transfusions presented with elevated serum ferritin (8000 ng/mL) and bilirubin (16. Read More

8 mg/dL). She had no previous personal or family history of liver disease. A magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and a liver biopsy confirmed the secondary hemochromatosis with marked fibrosis and 4+ iron deposits, but since she was therapeutically on deferasirox, her treatment regimen involved only closer monitoring. Her hemochromatosis led to readmission within a year for rapid progression of cardiac and hepatic failure.
Since chronically transfused sickle cell patients are at a significantly higher risk of mortality due to the secondary hemochromatosis and end-stage organ damage, knowledge of prophylactic iron chelation is important. Minimizing unnecessary transfusions should be strongly emphasized to reduce the sequelae as iron burden remains a threat. The effectiveness of iron-chelating therapy is best monitored via periodic magnetic resonance imaging, liver transaminases, bilirubin, creatinine, ferritin, and cardiac function tests. Despite the prophylactic treatment and quarterly blood work, in this case the initial presentation did not correlate with the severity of end-stage liver failure. The damage was not discovered until proven by liver biopsy and MRCP, too late to deter the sequelae and the mortality exactly 1 year after diagnosis of the secondary hemochromatosis.