Respiratory Failure Publications (95019)


Respiratory Failure Publications

Heart Lung
Heart Lung 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
University of Kentucky College of Nursing, 751 Rose St, Lexington, KY 40536-0232, United States.

Blood component (packed red blood cells [PRBC], fresh frozen plasma [FFP], platelets [PLT]) ratios transfused in a 1:1:1 fashion are associated with survival after trauma; the relationship among blood component ratios and inflammatory complications after trauma is not fully understood.
To evaluate the relationship among blood component ratios (1:1 vs other for PRBC:FFP and PRBC:PLT) and inflammatory complications (primary outcome) in patients with major trauma.
Secondary analysis of a multi-institution database (N = 1538). Read More

Survival methods were used to determine the relationship among blood component ratios and inflammatory complications.
Patients were primarily male (68%), Caucasians (89%), aged 39 ± 14 years, involved in a motor vehicle collision (53%). Eighty-six percent of patients developed an inflammatory complication; 76% developed organ failure, 27% ventilator-associated pneumonia, and 24% acute respiratory distress syndrome. Injury severity, sex, and total PRBC transfusion volume, not blood component ratio, predicted inflammatory complications.
Increased understanding of factors associated with inflammation after trauma and PRBC transfusion is needed.

J. Pediatr.
J Pediatr 2017 Jan 12. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, The Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare diffuse lung disease in the pediatric population. There are currently few cases documenting hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis as a cause for secondary PAP. We describe an ex-preterm child with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, complicated by PAP and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Read More

J. Pediatr.
J Pediatr 2017 Jan 12. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
Digestive Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado, Section of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

To assess the accuracy of blood lactate and lactate: pyruvate molar ratio (L:P) as a screen for mitochondrial, respiratory chain, or fatty acid oxidation disorders in children with pediatric acute liver failure (PALF); to determine whether serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L or L:P  ≥ 25 correlated with biochemical variables of clinical severity; and to determine whether lactate or L:P is associated with clinical outcome at 21 days.
Retrospective review of demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data for PALF study group participants who had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day. Read More

Of 986 participants, 110 had lactate and pyruvate levels collected on the same day. Of the 110, the etiology of PALF was a mitochondrial disorder in 8 (7%), indeterminate in 65 (59%), and an alternative diagnosis in 37 (34%). Lactate, pyruvate, and L:P were similar among the 3 etiologic groups. There was no significant association between the initial lactate or L:P and biochemical variables of clinical severity or clinical outcome at 21 days.
A serum lactate ≥ 2.5 mmol/L and/or elevated L:P was common in all causes of PALF, not limited to those with a mitochondrial etiology, and did not predict 21-day clinical outcome. NCT00986648.

Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
Int J Dev Neurosci 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland; Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland; Foundation for nerve cells regeneration, Olsztyn, Poland.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an unusual, fatal, neurodegenerative disorder leading to the loss of motor neurons. After diagnosis, the average lifespan ranges from 3 to 5 years, and death usually results from respiratory failure. Although the pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear, multiple factors are thought to contribute to the progression of ALS, such as network interactions between genes, environmental exposure, impaired molecular pathways and many others. Read More

The neuroprotective properties of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the paracrine signaling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been examined in multiple pre-clinical trials of ALS with promising results. The data from these initial trials indicate a reduction in the rate of disease progression. The mechanism through which stem cells achieve this reduction is of major interest. Here, we review the to-date pre-clinical and clinical therapeutic approaches employing stem cells, and discuss the most promising ones.

Presse Med
Presse Med 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Hôpital Trousseau, centre de référence des histiocytoses, service d'hémato-oncologie pédiatrique, 26, avenue du Dr-Netter, 75012 Paris, France.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is defined by the association of a clinical and radiological involvement and a biopsy of a pathological tissue. Extension: it can affect any organ or system of the body but most commonly the bone (80% of cases), the skin (33%) and the pituitary (25%). Other organs are concerned such as liver, spleen, hematopoietic system and the lungs (15% each), lymph nodes (5-10%) and central nervous system (CNS) excluding the pituitary (2-4%). Read More

Natural history: the natural history of the disease is very heterogeneous, ranging from auto-regressive lesions to a disease affecting multiple organs with fatal consequences, while some lesions may be responsible for permanent sequels. A multidisciplinary approach: the perception of disease from physicians varies greatly depending on their speciality and experience, as well as the presentation of the disease or the short-term treatment outcomes. But whatever the initial view of the treating physician, a multidisciplinary approach to the LCH is recommended as well as the coordination of the necessary care of this systemic disease and its associated morbidity.
current treatment protocols, adapted to the situation of each patient, provide a survival of 98% in children. The sequels, such as diabetes insipidus, hormonal deficits, deafness and even more rarely respiratory failure and sclerosing cholangitis are seen in up to 30% of children.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2017 Jan 5. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
Internal Medicine Department, Clinical Hospital of Valencia, Research Institute of the Clinical Hospital of Valencia (INCLIVA), Valencia, Spain.

To analyse the characteristics of hospitalized patients for AHF, with special attention to the clustering of morbidities.
Clinical records of patients, admitted in Internal Medicine due to AHF, during three years, were reviewed. The characteristics of patients-episodes were registered and key indicators of performance. Read More

Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to assess the distribution of morbidities. LR models were used to study clinical variables related with death or readmission. The median age was 80y, predominantly women and with multiple morbidities. As it was expected, CVRF were the main associated comorbidities followed by respiratory diseases, CKD and chronic anaemia. In the MCA, all the CVRF clustered around the origin so they explained little of the total inertia. Male sex, young age, IHD, obesity and lung disease were more common in reduced EF whereas female, older age and thyroid disease were more common in preserved EF. The confidence ellipses for death in hospitalization or during the follow-up or for readmissions overlapped, so it was not possible to identify clusters of morbidities to predict outcomes. The main causes for AHF were infections, anaemia and RVR in AF. Nearly 16% died during the hospitalization whereas 25.6% died and 56.3% were re-hospitalized during the following year after the discharge. Previous or repeated admissions to the hospital were the best single predictors for death or readmission.
Strategies to control infections, anaemia and AF, in the outpatient settings, might help to reduce the burden of AHF, although this remains to be proven.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol
Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Jan 13:1-7. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
e Children's Hospital Augsburg, Swabian Children's Cancer Center , Augsburg , Germany.

Neuroblastoma (NBL) stage 4s is an incompletely understood phenomenon with variable clinical course. While the majority of patients may undergo spontaneous regression and achieve complete resolution without intensive therapy, a small proportion is at increased risk of developing secondary complications. One such situation is liver insufficiency due to diffuse metastases. Read More

We report a patient suffering from NBL 4S who required double lifesaving liver transplantation. Abdominal and respiratory complications due to hepatomegaly are crucial determinants for treatment intensity and duration in 4S NBL [1,2] . We provide an algorithm in order to facilitate the clinical decision when dealing with similar potentially life-threatening events.

Progressive, restrictive, respiratory insufficiency is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Congenital Muscular Dystrophy (CMD). Nocturnal hypoventilation precedes daytime alveolar hypoventilation, and if untreated, may lead to respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. CMD consensus care guidelines recommend screening for respiratory insufficiency by conventional and dynamic (sitting to supine) pulmonary function testing (PFT) and evaluating for sleep disordered breathing if there is more than 20% relative reduction from sitting to supine FVC(L) (ΔFVC). Read More

The objective of this retrospective study was to explore and characterize dynamic FVC measures in 51 individuals with two common subtypes of CMD, COL6-RD, and LAMA2-RD.
We compared sitting and supine FVC in patients with confirmed mutation(s) in either COL6 or LAMA2. We investigated influences of age, CMD subtype, gender, race, ambulatory status, and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) status on FVC percent predicted (FVCpp) and ΔFVC.
COL6-RD participants exhibited a significant difference between sitting and supine mean FVCpp (sitting 66.1, supine 55.1; P < 0.0001) and were 5.4 times more likely to have -ΔFVC >20% than those with LAMA2-RD when controlling for ambulant status. FVCpp sitting correlated inversely with age in individuals ≤18 years.
FVCpp sitting decreases progressively in childhood in both CMD subtypes. However, our results point to a difference in diaphragmatic involvement, with COL6-RD individuals having more disproportionate diaphragmatic weakness than LAMA2-RD. A ΔFVC of greater than -20% should continue to be used to prompt evaluation of sleep-disordered breathing. Timely initiation of NIPPV may be indicated to treat nocturnal hypoventilation. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Int J Artif Organs
Int J Artif Organs 2017 Jan 12. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
Department of Intensive Care Medicine and Neuroinfectology, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Dr. Fran Mihaljević University Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Zagreb - Croatia.

We report on the challenges of establishing a successful adult respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) center in a developing country like Croatia under emergency conditions. We further introduce measures that would improve the outcome of patients treated with ECMO for respiratory failure at the national level.
100 consecutive adult patients treated with venovenous (VV) ECMO for acute respiratory failure were enrolled to the database prospectively from October 2009 until June 2016. Read More

A review of methodology in establishing an adult respiratory ECMO center is provided.
7 years after the establishment of the first respiratory ECMO center in Croatia the hospital mortality was 44% and ECMO procedure survival was 71%. With this data, our results are comparable to an average extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) center.
Our results demonstrate that a successful adult respiratory ECMO center can be established under emergency conditions even in less developed countries like Croatia. Today Croatia's respiratory ECMO network is insufficiently organized and the Ministry of Health should provide a comprehensive, national, ECMO network strategy. Currently, and contrary to the opinion of the world's leading experts, any hospital in Croatia is allowed to perform the ECMO procedure without any control or validation. Only if health-policy makers in Croatia reconsider this issue will we be able to provide the best care possible for respiratory ECMO patients at the national level.

Ann Intensive Care
Ann Intensive Care 2017 Dec 6;7(1). Epub 2017 Jan 6.
Department of Critical Care, ATTIKON University Hospital, University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece.

Invasive fungal tracheobronchitis (IFT) is a severe form of pulmonary fungal infection that is not limited to immunocompromised patients. Although respiratory failure is a crucial predictor of death, information regarding IFT in critically ill patients is limited.
In this retrospective, multicenter, observational study, we enrolled adults diagnosed as having IFT who had been admitted to the intensive care unit between January 2007 and December 2015. Read More

Their demographics, clinical imaging data, bronchoscopic and histopathological findings, and outcomes were recorded.
This study included 31 patients who had been diagnosed as having IFT, comprising 24 men and 7 women with a mean age of 64.7 ± 13.7 years. All patients developed respiratory failure and received mechanical ventilation before diagnosis. Eighteen (58.1%) patients had diabetes mellitus, and 12 (38.7%) had chronic lung disease. Four (12.9%) patients had hematologic disease, and none of the patients had neutropenia. Twenty-five (80.6%) patients were diagnosed as having proven IFT, and the remaining patients had probable IFT. Aspergillus spp. (61.3%) were the most common pathogenic species, followed by Mucorales (25.8%) and Candida spp. (6.5%). The diagnoses in six (19.4%) patients were confirmed only through bronchial biopsy and histopathological examination, whereas their cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were negative for fungi. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 93.5%.
IFT in critically ill patients results in a high mortality rate. Diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent underlying disease, followed by chronic lung disease. In addition to Aspergillus spp., Mucorales is another crucial pathogenic species. Bronchial lesion biopsy is the key diagnostic strategy.