Renal Failure Chronic and Dialysis Complications Publications (19731)
Renal Failure Chronic and Dialysis Complications Publications
Skeletal- and cardiac muscles of dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are depleted of Cr in parallel with the duration of dialysis. The accompanying accumulation of cellular damage seen in CKD patients lead to a deterioration of musculo-skeletal and neurological functioning and poor quality of life (QOL). Therefore, to counteract Cr depletion, it is proposed to supplement CKD patients with Cr. The anticipated benefits include previously documented improvements in the musculo-skeletal system, brain and peripheral nervous system, as well as improvements in the common comorbidities of CKD patients (see below). Thus, with a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive Cr supplementation marked improvements in quality of life (QOL) and life span are likely reached. To avoid Cr and fluid overload by oral Cr administration, we propose intradialytic Cr supplementation, whereby a relatively small amount of Cr is added to the large volume of dialysis solution to a final concentration of 1-10mM. From there, Cr enters the patient's circulation by back diffusion during dialysis. Because of the high affinity of the Cr transporter (CRT) for Cr affinity for Cr (Vmax of CRT for Cr=20-40μM Cr), Cr is actively transported from the blood stream into the target cells and organs, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain, proximal tubules of kidney epithelial cells, neurons, and leukocytes and erythrocytes, which all express CRT and depend on the CK/PCr system. By this intradialytic strategy, only as much Cr is taken up by the body as is needed to fill the tissue Cr pools and no excess Cr has to be excreted, as is the case with oral Cr. Because aqueous solutions of Cr are not very stable, Cr must be added immediately before dialysis either as solid Cr powder or from a frozen Cr stock solution to the dialysate, or alternatively, Cr could become an additional component of a novel dry dialysate mixture in a cartridge device.
It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience.
The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis.
This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach.
One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was "uncertainty", which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis.
The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.
Data from the U.S. Renal Data System, the Indian Health Service (IHS), the National Health Interview Survey, and the U.S. Census were used to calculate ESRD-D incidence rates by race/ethnicity among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during 1996-2013 and in the diabetic population during 2006-2013. Rates were age-adjusted based on the 2000 U.S. standard population. IHS clinical data from the Diabetes Cares and Outcomes Audit were analyzed for diabetes management measures in AI/AN.
Among AI/AN adults, age-adjusted ESRD-D rates per 100,000 population decreased 54%, from 57.3 in 1996 to 26.5 in 2013. Although rates for adults in other racial/ethnic groups also decreased during this period, AI/AN had the steepest decline. Among AI/AN with diabetes, ESRD-D incidence decreased during 2006-2013 and, by 2013, was the same as that for whites. Measures related to the assessment and treatment of ESRD-D risk factors also showed more improvement during this period in AI/AN than in the general population.
Despite well-documented health and socioeconomic disparities among AI/AN, ESRD-D incidence rates among this population have decreased substantially since 1996. This decline followed implementation by the IHS of public health and population management approaches to diabetes accompanied by improvements in clinical care beginning in the mid-1980s. These approaches might be a useful model for diabetes management in other health care systems, especially those serving populations at high risk.
The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period, fistula usage time and effect on life quality of patients of these two groups were compared (during 18-month follow-up).
The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median time of internal fistula usage was significantly prolonged, and the health index, emotion index and psychology index quality-of-life in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).
Professional nursing strategies of internal fistula can prolong service time, decrease complications and improve life quality for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment via arteriovenous fistula.
This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of CAPD in children, to find out the complication profile of CAPD & to compare the advantages of surgical versus percutaneously placed CAPD catheters in children. This prospective longitudinal comparative study was carried out in the department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2014. A total of 8 children with ESRD were included (Age 5-14 year, M: F=1: 1). All underwent CAPD, Group I = surgically placed CAPD catheter (N=5), Group II = percutaneously placed CAPD catheter (N=3). Average duration of CAPD in Group I and Group II were 31.6 vs. 9 (months) with a total of 158 vs. 27 patient months of CAPD respectively. The rate of complications of the 2 groups and their outcome were compared. Common complications being observed were peritonitis 1 episode per 12.1 vs. 1.8 patient months (p<0.001), catheter obstruction by omental capture 1 vs. 3 in Group I and Group II respectively. Catheter tip dislocation was commonly found in all Group II children (p<0.01) and all needed laparotomy and omentectomy. Three out of 5 in Group I is still on CAPD, 1 transferred to HD and another 1 expired due to uncontrolled hypertension with congestive heart failure. Among 3 of Group II, 2 died of repeated peritonitis and hypertensive complications and rest 1 is transferred to HD after 1year due to exit site fluid leaking. Satisfactory level of improvement of mean weight, mean serum albumin and declining of serum creatinine in both groups has been found after CAPD. Although CAPD is an effective modality of renal replacement therapy for children, but percutaneous method of catheter insertion is associated with higher rate of complications. Placement of catheter by surgical method with elective omentectomy will reduce catheter related complications. Early detection of peritonitis and prompt therapy is essential for a favourable outcome.
3% were women. Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or isolated valve operations were performed in 39.8% and 32.3%, of patients, respectively. Combined surgical procedures (CABG with valve operations) were necessary in 20.3% of patients. Endocarditis was an indication for surgical intervention in 11% of patients. Urgent or emergent operations were performed in 49.3% of patients.
The in-hospital mortality was 15.3%. Postoperative respiratory failure, gastrointestinal complications, low cardiac output, stroke, and sepsis occurred in 25.7%, 12.4%, 11.8%, 5.6%, and 5.2% of patients, respectively. The independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were combined mitral and aortic valve pathologic conditions (odds ratio [OR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1. 5-9; p = 0.003), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-5.9; p = 0. 03), peripheral vascular disease (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-4; p = 0.003), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30% (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6. 4; p = 0.008), and active endocarditis (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.04-4.6; p = 0.04). The estimated 2-, 4-, and 6-year survival was 50.1% ± 2%, 34.3% ± 2%, and 20.3% ± 2%, respectively. Previous cerebrovascular accident, active endocarditis, previous cardiac operations, and combined aortic/mitral valve pathologic conditions were independent predictors of medium-term mortality.
Patients with DD CRF undergoing cardiac operations have high perioperative and medium-term mortality, particularly in the presence of combined aortic and mitral valve pathologic conditions, active endocarditis, and poor left ventricular function.
In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries. Epidemiological studies have revealed the huge medical and economic burden of AKI in Eastern Asian countries, whereas the true epidemiological picture of AKI in the tropical areas is still not well understood. In high-income Asian regions, the presentation of AKI resembles that in other developed countries in Europe and North America. In low-income regions and tropical areas, infections, environmental toxins, and obstetric complications remain the major culprits in most cases of AKI. Preventive opportunities are missed because of failure to recognize the risk factors and early signs of AKI. Patients often present late for treatment or are recognized late by physicians, which leads to more severe kidney injury, multiorgan involvement, and increased mortality. There is significant undertreatment of AKI in many regions, and medical resources for renal replacement therapy are not universally available.
More efforts should be made to increase public awareness, establish preventive approaches in communities, educate health-care practitioner entities to achieve better recognition, and form specialist renal teams to improve the treatment of AKI. The choice of renal replacement therapy should fit patients' needs, and peritoneal dialysis can be practiced more frequently in the treatment of AKI patients.
(1) More than 90% of the patients recruited in AKI studies using KDIGO-equivalent criteria originate from North America, Europe, or Oceania, although these regions represent less than a fifth of the global population. However, the pooled incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients reaches 20% globally with moderate variance between regions. (2) The lower incidence rates observed in Asian countries (except Japan) may be due to a poorer recognition rate, for instance because of less systematically performed serum creatinine tests. (3) AKI patients in South and Southeastern Asia are younger than in East Asia and Western countries and present with fewer comorbidities. (4) Asian countries (and to a certain extent Latin America) face specific challenges that lead to AKI: nephrotoxicity of traditional herbal and less strictly regulated nonprescription medicines, environmental toxins (snake, bee, and wasp venoms), and tropical infectious diseases (malaria and leptospirosis). A higher incidence and less efficient management of natural disasters (particularly earthquakes) are also causes of AKI that Western countries are less likely to encounter. (5) The incidence of obstetric AKI decreased globally together with an improvement in socioeconomic levels particularly in China and India in the last decades. However, antenatal care and abortion management must be improved to reduce AKI in women, particularly in rural areas. (6) Earlier nephrology referral and better access to peritoneal dialysis should improve the outcome of AKI patients.
73m(2); n=1199), Group 2 (45-59ml/min/1.73m(2); n=358), Group 3 (30-44ml/min/1.73m(2); n=171) and Group 4 (≤29ml/min/1.73m(2); n=126). Median follow-up was 66months [IQR 46-84].
eGFRCKD-EPI ≤30ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤41ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤27ml/min/1.73m(2) and ≤29ml/min/1.73m(2) were strong predictors of early mortality (OR 5.88 [95% CI 2.59-11.25]), stroke (2.59 [1.43-3.71]), prolonged length of stay (3.49 [1.24-5.92]) and postoperative dialysis (3.68 [1.34-4.91]), respectively. In addition, eGFRCKD-EPI ≤26ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤25ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤35ml/min/1.73m(2) and ≤29ml/min/1.73m(2) predicted all-cause death (hazard ratio 2.74 [95% CI 2.10-3.92] cardiovascular death (sub-hazard ratio 2.11 [95% CI 1.42-3.90]), myocardial infarction (2.01 [1.32-3.70]) and heart failure (2.24 [1.41-3.93]), respectively. Analyses corrected by age and left ventricular ejection fraction confirmed these findings.
In our experience, the use of the eGFRCKD-EPI equation led to categorization with a significantly lower number of patients at risk for post-CABG complications. This might have important clinical repercussions on allocation of healthcare resources and more targeted prevention and management of CABG complications.