Renal Failure Chronic and Dialysis Complications Publications (19731)


Renal Failure Chronic and Dialysis Complications Publications

Med. Hypotheses
Med Hypotheses 2017 Feb 7;99:1-14. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
Nephrology Klinik Im Park, Zurich, Switzerland.

The CK/PCr-system, with creatine (Cr) as an energy precursor, plays a crucial role in cellular physiology. In the kidney, as in other organs and cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, energy-charged phospho-creatine (PCr) acts as an immediate high-energy source and energy buffer, and as an intracellular energy transport vehicle. A maximally filled total Cr (Cr plus PCr) pool is a prerequisite for optimal functioning of the body and its organs, and health. Read More

Skeletal- and cardiac muscles of dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are depleted of Cr in parallel with the duration of dialysis. The accompanying accumulation of cellular damage seen in CKD patients lead to a deterioration of musculo-skeletal and neurological functioning and poor quality of life (QOL). Therefore, to counteract Cr depletion, it is proposed to supplement CKD patients with Cr. The anticipated benefits include previously documented improvements in the musculo-skeletal system, brain and peripheral nervous system, as well as improvements in the common comorbidities of CKD patients (see below). Thus, with a relatively simple, safe and inexpensive Cr supplementation marked improvements in quality of life (QOL) and life span are likely reached. To avoid Cr and fluid overload by oral Cr administration, we propose intradialytic Cr supplementation, whereby a relatively small amount of Cr is added to the large volume of dialysis solution to a final concentration of 1-10mM. From there, Cr enters the patient's circulation by back diffusion during dialysis. Because of the high affinity of the Cr transporter (CRT) for Cr affinity for Cr (Vmax of CRT for Cr=20-40μM Cr), Cr is actively transported from the blood stream into the target cells and organs, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, brain, proximal tubules of kidney epithelial cells, neurons, and leukocytes and erythrocytes, which all express CRT and depend on the CK/PCr system. By this intradialytic strategy, only as much Cr is taken up by the body as is needed to fill the tissue Cr pools and no excess Cr has to be excreted, as is the case with oral Cr. Because aqueous solutions of Cr are not very stable, Cr must be added immediately before dialysis either as solid Cr powder or from a frozen Cr stock solution to the dialysate, or alternatively, Cr could become an additional component of a novel dry dialysate mixture in a cartridge device.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
Kaufman Center for Heart Failure, Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States. Electronic address:
Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery
Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery 2017 Jan;5(1):13-21
Department of Nephrology, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have the highest diabetes prevalence among any racial/ethnic group in the United States. Among AI/AN, diabetes accounts for 69% of new cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), defined as kidney failure treated with dialysis or transplantation. During 1982-1996, diabetes-related ESRD (ESRD-D) in AI/AN increased substantially and disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Read More

Data from the U.S. Renal Data System, the Indian Health Service (IHS), the National Health Interview Survey, and the U.S. Census were used to calculate ESRD-D incidence rates by race/ethnicity among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during 1996-2013 and in the diabetic population during 2006-2013. Rates were age-adjusted based on the 2000 U.S. standard population. IHS clinical data from the Diabetes Cares and Outcomes Audit were analyzed for diabetes management measures in AI/AN.
Among AI/AN adults, age-adjusted ESRD-D rates per 100,000 population decreased 54%, from 57.3 in 1996 to 26.5 in 2013. Although rates for adults in other racial/ethnic groups also decreased during this period, AI/AN had the steepest decline. Among AI/AN with diabetes, ESRD-D incidence decreased during 2006-2013 and, by 2013, was the same as that for whites. Measures related to the assessment and treatment of ESRD-D risk factors also showed more improvement during this period in AI/AN than in the general population.
Despite well-documented health and socioeconomic disparities among AI/AN, ESRD-D incidence rates among this population have decreased substantially since 1996. This decline followed implementation by the IHS of public health and population management approaches to diabetes accompanied by improvements in clinical care beginning in the mid-1980s. These approaches might be a useful model for diabetes management in other health care systems, especially those serving populations at high risk.

Iran. J. Public Health
Iran J Public Health 2016 Oct;45(10):1270-1275
Dept. of Clinical Laboratory, Women and Children Hospital of Qingdao, Shandong Province 266034, Shandong, China.

We aimed to analyze the effect of nursing strategies on patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment by puncturing on arteriovenous fistula (AVF).
Ninety-two patients with chronic renal failure undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) between Jan 2014 and Jan 2015 were included in the study (all undergoing AVF, dialysis for 2-3 sessions per week, 4-5 h per session) and randomly divided into control group and observation group. Patients in control group were given standard nursing care and patients in observation group were given professional nursing of internal fistula. Read More

The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period, fistula usage time and effect on life quality of patients of these two groups were compared (during 18-month follow-up).
The complication rate and dysfunction rate during internal fistula perioperative period of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The median time of internal fistula usage was significantly prolonged, and the health index, emotion index and psychology index quality-of-life in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).
Professional nursing strategies of internal fistula can prolong service time, decrease complications and improve life quality for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment via arteriovenous fistula.

Mymensingh Med J
Mymensingh Med J 2016 Oct;25(4):751-758
Dr Shireen Afroz, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Bangladesh institute of Child Health & Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The lifespan and outcome of end stage renal disease (ESRD) children have dramatically improved since the development of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), it offers several advantages over hemodialysis. Percutaneous placement of CAPD catheters in children is minimally invasive, reliable, safe and cost-effective method. Percutaneous method of CAPD catheter insertion can be used in children to avoid the complications of general anesthesia and surgery. Read More

This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of CAPD in children, to find out the complication profile of CAPD & to compare the advantages of surgical versus percutaneously placed CAPD catheters in children. This prospective longitudinal comparative study was carried out in the department of Pediatric Nephrology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2014. A total of 8 children with ESRD were included (Age 5-14 year, M: F=1: 1). All underwent CAPD, Group I = surgically placed CAPD catheter (N=5), Group II = percutaneously placed CAPD catheter (N=3). Average duration of CAPD in Group I and Group II were 31.6 vs. 9 (months) with a total of 158 vs. 27 patient months of CAPD respectively. The rate of complications of the 2 groups and their outcome were compared. Common complications being observed were peritonitis 1 episode per 12.1 vs. 1.8 patient months (p<0.001), catheter obstruction by omental capture 1 vs. 3 in Group I and Group II respectively. Catheter tip dislocation was commonly found in all Group II children (p<0.01) and all needed laparotomy and omentectomy. Three out of 5 in Group I is still on CAPD, 1 transferred to HD and another 1 expired due to uncontrolled hypertension with congestive heart failure. Among 3 of Group II, 2 died of repeated peritonitis and hypertensive complications and rest 1 is transferred to HD after 1year due to exit site fluid leaking. Satisfactory level of improvement of mean weight, mean serum albumin and declining of serum creatinine in both groups has been found after CAPD. Although CAPD is an effective modality of renal replacement therapy for children, but percutaneous method of catheter insertion is associated with higher rate of complications. Placement of catheter by surgical method with elective omentectomy will reduce catheter related complications. Early detection of peritonitis and prompt therapy is essential for a favourable outcome.


The aim of this study was to determine the preoperative predictors of in-hospital and medium-term mortality in patients with dialysis-dependent chronic renal failure (DD CRF) undergoing cardiac operations.
Between January 1996 and June 2014, 483 consecutive patients with DD CRF underwent cardiac surgical procedures. The mean age was 65 ± 11 years, and 32. Read More

3% were women. Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or isolated valve operations were performed in 39.8% and 32.3%, of patients, respectively. Combined surgical procedures (CABG with valve operations) were necessary in 20.3% of patients. Endocarditis was an indication for surgical intervention in 11% of patients. Urgent or emergent operations were performed in 49.3% of patients.
The in-hospital mortality was 15.3%. Postoperative respiratory failure, gastrointestinal complications, low cardiac output, stroke, and sepsis occurred in 25.7%, 12.4%, 11.8%, 5.6%, and 5.2% of patients, respectively. The independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were combined mitral and aortic valve pathologic conditions (odds ratio [OR], 3.7, 95% CI, 1. 5-9; p = 0.003), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-5.9; p = 0. 03), peripheral vascular disease (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.04-4; p = 0.003), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <30% (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6. 4; p = 0.008), and active endocarditis (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.04-4.6; p = 0.04). The estimated 2-, 4-, and 6-year survival was 50.1% ± 2%, 34.3% ± 2%, and 20.3% ± 2%, respectively. Previous cerebrovascular accident, active endocarditis, previous cardiac operations, and combined aortic/mitral valve pathologic conditions were independent predictors of medium-term mortality.
Patients with DD CRF undergoing cardiac operations have high perioperative and medium-term mortality, particularly in the presence of combined aortic and mitral valve pathologic conditions, active endocarditis, and poor left ventricular function.

Kidney Dis (Basel)
Kidney Dis (Basel) 2016 Oct 9;2(3):95-102. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, and Key Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment, Peking University, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. Read More

In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries. Epidemiological studies have revealed the huge medical and economic burden of AKI in Eastern Asian countries, whereas the true epidemiological picture of AKI in the tropical areas is still not well understood. In high-income Asian regions, the presentation of AKI resembles that in other developed countries in Europe and North America. In low-income regions and tropical areas, infections, environmental toxins, and obstetric complications remain the major culprits in most cases of AKI. Preventive opportunities are missed because of failure to recognize the risk factors and early signs of AKI. Patients often present late for treatment or are recognized late by physicians, which leads to more severe kidney injury, multiorgan involvement, and increased mortality. There is significant undertreatment of AKI in many regions, and medical resources for renal replacement therapy are not universally available.
More efforts should be made to increase public awareness, establish preventive approaches in communities, educate health-care practitioner entities to achieve better recognition, and form specialist renal teams to improve the treatment of AKI. The choice of renal replacement therapy should fit patients' needs, and peritoneal dialysis can be practiced more frequently in the treatment of AKI patients.
(1) More than 90% of the patients recruited in AKI studies using KDIGO-equivalent criteria originate from North America, Europe, or Oceania, although these regions represent less than a fifth of the global population. However, the pooled incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients reaches 20% globally with moderate variance between regions. (2) The lower incidence rates observed in Asian countries (except Japan) may be due to a poorer recognition rate, for instance because of less systematically performed serum creatinine tests. (3) AKI patients in South and Southeastern Asia are younger than in East Asia and Western countries and present with fewer comorbidities. (4) Asian countries (and to a certain extent Latin America) face specific challenges that lead to AKI: nephrotoxicity of traditional herbal and less strictly regulated nonprescription medicines, environmental toxins (snake, bee, and wasp venoms), and tropical infectious diseases (malaria and leptospirosis). A higher incidence and less efficient management of natural disasters (particularly earthquakes) are also causes of AKI that Western countries are less likely to encounter. (5) The incidence of obstetric AKI decreased globally together with an improvement in socioeconomic levels particularly in China and India in the last decades. However, antenatal care and abortion management must be improved to reduce AKI in women, particularly in rural areas. (6) Earlier nephrology referral and better access to peritoneal dialysis should improve the outcome of AKI patients.

We explore the association between short- and long- term adverse outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and the degree of preoperative renal dysfunction classified on glomerular fraction estimated with Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation (eGFRCKD-EPI). We also try to identify cut-off values of eGFRCKD-EPI able to predict post-CABG unfavorable events and assess whether a reclassification with new thresholds is necessary.
One-thousand-one-hundred-eighty-six consecutive patients undergoing CABG between 2005 and 2014 were categorized in 4 groups according to the eGFRCKD-EPI: Group 1 (≥60ml/min/1. Read More

73m(2); n=1199), Group 2 (45-59ml/min/1.73m(2); n=358), Group 3 (30-44ml/min/1.73m(2); n=171) and Group 4 (≤29ml/min/1.73m(2); n=126). Median follow-up was 66months [IQR 46-84].
eGFRCKD-EPI ≤30ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤41ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤27ml/min/1.73m(2) and ≤29ml/min/1.73m(2) were strong predictors of early mortality (OR 5.88 [95% CI 2.59-11.25]), stroke (2.59 [1.43-3.71]), prolonged length of stay (3.49 [1.24-5.92]) and postoperative dialysis (3.68 [1.34-4.91]), respectively. In addition, eGFRCKD-EPI ≤26ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤25ml/min/1.73m(2), ≤35ml/min/1.73m(2) and ≤29ml/min/1.73m(2) predicted all-cause death (hazard ratio 2.74 [95% CI 2.10-3.92] cardiovascular death (sub-hazard ratio 2.11 [95% CI 1.42-3.90]), myocardial infarction (2.01 [1.32-3.70]) and heart failure (2.24 [1.41-3.93]), respectively. Analyses corrected by age and left ventricular ejection fraction confirmed these findings.
In our experience, the use of the eGFRCKD-EPI equation led to categorization with a significantly lower number of patients at risk for post-CABG complications. This might have important clinical repercussions on allocation of healthcare resources and more targeted prevention and management of CABG complications.