Plant Poisoning Hypoglycemics Publications (19)


Plant Poisoning Hypoglycemics Publications

J Med Toxicol
J Med Toxicol 2015 Mar;11(1):141-3
Department of Internal Medicine, VCA All-Care Animal Referral Center, 18440 Amistad Street, Fountain Valley, CA, 92708, USA,

Clausena lansium (Fool's Curry Leaf) is used for various ethnomedical conditions in some countries, including bronchitis, malaria, viral hepatitis, acute and chronic gastro-intestinal inflammation, and as a spicy substitute of the popular Curry leaf tree (Murraya koenigii).
This study was to evaluate the ethnomedical uses of the stem bark in inflammatory conditions, hepatotoxicity and to determine the anti-diabetic and anti-trichomonal properties of the plant.
Anti-trichomonal, in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic and insulin stimulating, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities using Trichomonas gallinae, glucose loaded rats and in vitro insulin secreting cell line (INS-1 cell), carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema, CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and DPPH scavenging ability methods respectively for the extracts and some isolates were determined. Read More

A dichloromethane extract was superior over methanolic extract with respect to an anti-trichomonal activity which was measured after 24 and 48 h. The isolated compounds imperatorin and 3-formylcarbazole had the main anti-trichomonal activity (LC(50)s of 6.0, 3.0 and 3.6, 9.7 microg/mL after 24 and 48 h, respectively). Methanolic extract (100 mg/kg) induced maximum and significant (p<0.05) anti-hyperglycaemic activity of 15.8% at 30 min and a 38.5% increase in plasma insulin at 60 min, compared to control. The increase in plasma insulin after 60 min, compared to 0 min, was 62.0% (p<0.05). The significant 174.6% increase of insulin release from INS-1 cells (in vitro) at 0.1 mg/ml indicates that it mediates its antidiabetic action mainly by stimulating insulin release. Imperatorin and chalepin were the major active constituents increasing in vitro insulin release to 170.3 and 137.9%, respectively. 100 mg/kg of the methanolic extract produced an anti-inflammatory activity after 4 h. A sedative effect was not observed. 100 and 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract administered i.p., reduced CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity firstly by 5.3 and 8.4% reduction in phenobarbitone-sleeping time respectively, secondly by reversing the reduction in serum liver proteins by 7.0-8.8%, serum AST, ALT and ALP activities by 27.7-107.9% and thirdly by diminishing increased values of plasma AST, ALT and ALP activities by 13.2-83.8%. The extract exhibited antioxidant activities.
The hepatoprotective activity of C. lansium is partly due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and confirms its folkloric use in the treatment of gastro-intestinal inflammation, bronchitis and hepatitis. In addition the use of C. lansium stem bark would be useful in diabetes and trichomoniasis.

Clin Toxicol (Phila)
Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2008 Sep;46(8):745-8
Scottish Poisons Information Bureau, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, and Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Self-poisoning with plant seeds or fruits is a common method of self-harm in South Asia. While most deaths follow ingestion of Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) seeds, other plants are locally common. During review of fatal injuries seen in a teaching hospital in eastern Sri Lanka, we noted cases of fatal self-poisoning with Cerbera manghas (sea mango, pink eyed cerbera, odollam tree) fruits. Read More

We reviewed the post-mortem records of the Batticaloa Teaching Hospital and extracted data on all cases of fatal injury.
During 2001 and 2002, 315 post mortems for injury were performed in Batticaloa Teaching Hospital. Intentional self-harm was responsible for 48.6% of cases. While T. peruviana was responsible for 33 deaths, C. manghas self-poisoning caused seven deaths. C. manghas cases had typical features of cardenolide poisoning with cardiac dysrhythmias and hyperkalemia. In the absence of pacing facilities and anti-digoxin Fab, management involved administration of atropine and of insulin and dextrose to lower serum potassium concentrations.
C. manghas self-poisoning has only previously been reported from Kerala and Tamil Nadu in south India. While uncommon in other parts of Sri Lanka, it has become a common method of self-harm in one east coast district, accounting for 20% of fatal self-harm with plants in one hospital. Management was inadequate with the available resources, emphasising the need for an affordable antitoxin for plant cardenolide poisoning.

Toxicol Pathol
Toxicol Pathol 2008 Jul 22;36(5):651-9. Epub 2008 May 22.
USDA-ARS, Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, Utah 84321, USA.

To study various polyhydroxy-alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors, 16 groups of 3 mice were dosed using osmotic minipumps with swainsonine (0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg/day), castanospermine, and calystegines A(3), B(2), and C(1) (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg/day). After 28 days, the mice were euthanized, necropsied, and examined using light and electron microscopy. Read More

The high-dose swainsonine-treated mice developed neurologic disease with neuro-visceral vacuolation typical of locoweed poisoning. Castanospermine- and calystegines-treated mice were clinically normal; however, high-dose castanospermine-treated mice had thyroid, renal, hepatic, and skeletal myocyte vacuolation. Histochemically, swainsonine- and castanospermine-induced vacuoles contained mannose-rich oligosaccharides. High-dose calystegine A(3)-treated mice had increased numbers of granulated cells in the hepatic sinusoids. Electron microscopy, lectin histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry suggest these are pit cells (specialized NK cells). Histochemically, the granules contain glycoproteins or oligosaccharides with abundant terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues. Other calystegine-treated mice were histologically normal. These findings indicate that swainsonine produced lesions similar to locoweed, castanospermine caused vacuolar changes with minor changes in glycogen metabolism, and only calystegine A(3) produced minimal hepatic changes. These also suggest that in mice calystegines and castanospermine are less toxic than swainsonine, and as rodents are relatively resistant to disease, they are poor models to study such induced storage diseases.

Br. J. Nutr.
Br J Nutr 2002 Dec;88 Suppl 3:S287-92
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.

This review evaluates the potential health benefits of three legume sources that rarely appear in Western diets and are often overlooked as functional foods. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) and isolated fenugreek fractions have been shown to act as hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolaemic agents in both animal and human studies. The unique dietary fibre composition and high saponin content in fenugreek appears to be responsible for these therapeutic properties. Read More

Faba beans (Vicia faba) have lipid-lowering effects and may also be a good source of antioxidants and chemopreventive factors. Mung beans (Phaseolus aureus, Vigna radiatus) are thought to be beneficial as an antidiabetic, low glycaemic index food, rich in antioxidants. Evidence suggests that these three novel sources of legumes may provide health benefits when included in the daily diet.

Vet Hum Toxicol
Vet Hum Toxicol 2002 Jun;44(3):149-54
Cooperative Agricultural Research Program, Tennessee State University, Nashville 37209-1561, USA.

Ergot alkaloids are considered causative agents of fescue toxicosis, a syndrome experienced by cattle consuming tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) infected with the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. One sign of fescue toxicosis in cattle is severe hyperthermia. This study assessed hormonal responses to ergotamine in heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant cattle. Read More

Seven Hereford (heat-sensitive, Bos taurus) and 7 Brahman (heat-tolerant, Bos indicus) steers on a fescue-free diet received ergotamine tartrate iv. Blood was sampled every 15 min for 2 h before and 4 h after dosing for determination of circulating hormonal changes. Respiration rates were recorded hourly. Ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 31C and 48%, respectively, during sampling. A breed x time interaction existed (p < 0.01) for plasma prolactin, LH, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, triiodothyronine and glucose concentrations. The breed x time interaction tended to affect (p = 0.14) growth hormone and influenced (p < 0.01) respiration rates. Ergotamine reduced (p < 0.01) plasma LH and increased (p < 0.01) growth hormone concentrations in Brahman. Both breeds responded to ergotamine with increased (p < 0.01) plasma cortisol, glucagon, and glucose and reduced (p < 0.01) insulin concentrations. The magnitude of response for cortisol, insulin, and glucose were greater for the Brahman. Ergotamine increased (p < 0.01) plasma triiodothyronine and respiration rates in Hereford, whereas these traits were unaltered in Brahman. Acute ergotamine exposure generally resulted in similar effects on Brahman and Hereford steers. The triiodothyronine and respiratory comparisons revealed modified responses in Brahman that suggest a potential benefit of using heat-tolerant genetics to reduce the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis in cattle.

Vet. Pathol.
Vet Pathol 1995 May;32(3):289-98
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, UT, USA.

To better characterize and compare the toxicity of and lesions produced by locoweed (Astragalus mollissimus) with those of swainsonine and a related glycoside inhibitor, castanospermine, 55 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 11 groups of five animals each. The first eight groups were dosed via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps with swainsonine at 0, 0.1, 0. Read More

7, 3.0, 7.4, or 14.9 mg/kg/day or with castanospermine at 12.4 or 143.6 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The last three groups were fed alfalfa or locoweed pellets with swainsonine doses of 0, 0.9, or 7.2 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Swainsonine- and locoweed-treated rats gained less weight, ate less, and showed more signs of nervousness than did controls. Histologically, these animals developed vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, the thyroid follicular cells, and the macrophage-phagocytic cells of the lymph nodes, spleen, lung, liver, and thymus. Some rats also developed vacuolation of neurons, ependyma, adrenal cortex, exocrine pancreas, myocardial epicytes, interstitial cells, and gastric parietal cells. No differences in lesion severity or distribution were detected between animals dosed with swainsonine and those dosed with locoweed. Rats dosed with castanospermine were clinically normal; however, they developed mild vacuolation of the renal tubular epithelium, the thyroid follicular epithelium, hepatocytes, and skeletal myocytes. Special stains and lectin histochemical evaluation showed that swainsonine- and castanospermine-induced vacuoles contained mannose-rich oligosaccharides. Castanospermine-induced vacuoles also contained glycogen. These results suggest that 1) swainsonine causes lesions similar to those caused by locoweed and is probably the primary locoweed toxin; 2) castanospermine at high doses causes vacuolar changes in the kidney and thyroid gland; and 3) castanospermine intoxication results in degenerative vacuolation of hepatocytes and skeletal myocytes, similar to genetic glycogenosis.

J. Anim. Sci.
J Anim Sci 1991 Sep;69(9):3699-705
Dept. of Anim. and Range Sci., New Mexico State University, Las Cruces 88003.

Kochia hay that had elicited mild toxicosis in sheep and cattle when fed for 21 d was fed to young, growing steers to evaluate the efficacy of metoclopramide for preventing kochia toxicosis. Twelve steers (271 +/- 39 kg) were given ad libitum access to Kochia hay for 38 d. Six steers were dosed orally with 15 mg of metoclopramide/kg of BW three times each week in gelatin capsules, and six steers received empty gelatin capsules. Read More

Steers were housed in individual outside pens for the first 28 d, then inside in metabolism stalls for the last 10 d. Kochia intake averaged 1.2 +/- .04 and 1.1 +/- .05% of BW throughout 38 d for kochia-fed control and kochia plus metoclopramide-dosed steers, respectively. During the last 10 d, metoclopramide had no effect (P greater than .15) on digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, or CP. However, metoclopramide reduced N retention (P less than .01; 20 vs 8 g/d). Kochia hay decreased serum prolactin and insulin concentrations (P less than .01) from 12.4 to 1.5 ng/ml and from .53 to .23 ng/ml, respectively. Metoclopramide had no effect (P greater than .50) on prolactin or insulin in steers fed kochia hay. Serum growth hormone was not affected by kochia but was suppressed by metoclopramide in steers fed kochia hay (P less than .07). Serum bilirubin (total and unconjugated) was elevated (P less than .05), indicating early, mild hepatotoxicosis characteristic of kochia toxicosis. Kochia also increased serum concentrations of iron, total protein, albumin, globulin, and creatinine and decreased urea N (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

J. Anim. Sci.
J Anim Sci 1991 Jul;69(7):2941-6
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces 88003-0003.

Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. is a prospective forage crop for arid areas, although its potential value is constrained by occasional toxicity that may involve alteration of metabolic hormones. Read More

The present research compared serum clinical profiles and metabolic hormone concentrations in steers and wethers fed kochia hay (85% OM, 13% CP, 45% ADF, and 6.3% total oxalate) to those of suitable controls that were pair-fed equal amounts of DM as alfalfa hay (91% OM, 13% CP and 42% ADF). Eight steers (240 +/- 2 kg BW) that were pair-fed kochia or alfalfa hay for 21 d had similar levels of serum insulin (INS) or somatotropin (GH), but kochia lowered prolactin (PRL) (6.0 vs 118 ng/ml; P = .14). Kochia hay did not elevate serum bilirubin at d 21 in these steers; however, lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase activities were elevated 1.3-fold (P less than .05). Ten fine-wool wethers (29 +/- kg BW) pair-fed kochia or alfalfa hay for 21 d had similar levels of PRL and INS at d 0, 5, 10, and 21; however, GH was lower in wethers fed kochia at d 5 (P less than .05) and somewhat lower at d 10 and 21. Kochia elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin 1.25-fold over pair-fed controls (P = .06) and increased (P less than .05) activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases. Metabolic hormone responses to kochia hay differed in steers vs wethers during undemutrition and mild toxicosis that occurred within 3 wk.

J. Anim. Sci.
J Anim Sci 1991 Jul;69(7):2932-40
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces 88003-0003.

Livestock grazing lush Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad, sometimes experience BW loss, hyperbilirubinemia, photosensitization, and polyuria. Animals fed kochia hay may exhibit milder or negligible signs of toxicosis but fail to utilize nutrients efficiently. Read More

To characterize early aspects of kochia toxicosis and to evaluate prospective treatments, 12 wether lambs (34 +/- 3 kg) were fed prebloom kochia hay (83% OM, 15% CP, and 6.3% total oxalate) and treated as follows: 1) no treatment; 2) drenched daily with aqueous ZnSO4 to provide 30 mg of Zn/kg of BW); 3) injected i.p. twice weekly with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (CYS) in saline (21 mg/kg of BW) plus trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) in corn oil (27 mg/kg of BW); and 4) treated as 2) plus 3). Treatments were imposed factorially (2 x 2) with three lambs per treatment. Kochia intake (ad libitum) averaged .57 kg/d (1.7% of BW) for 80 d, and digestibility of DM and CP were 44 and 59%, respectively, at wk 4, but BW loss was severe (6 to 11 kg/lamb). After 14 d, serum insulin and prolactin were decreased (P less than .05) below initial values (.48 to .11 and 102 to 28 ng/ml, respectively). Serum somatotropin increased (P less than .05) from 4.5 to 6.8 ng/ml at 4 wk. Serum total bilirubin increased threefold at 3 wk (P less than .05) and declined slightly thereafter through 10 wk. Early changes in serum enzymes reflected mild hepatotoxicosis without cholestasis, whereas histopathology (at 80 d) showed diffuse hepatocyte swelling and nephrosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)