Plant Poisoning Herbs Publications (51)
Plant Poisoning Herbs Publications
Internet search engines were queried to identify and select peer-reviewed articles on plant poisonings using the key words in order to classify plant poisonings into four specific toxidromes: cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and gastrointestinal-hepatotoxic. A simple toxidromic classification system of plant poisonings may permit rapid diagnoses of highly toxic versus less toxic and nontoxic plant ingestions both in households and outdoors; direct earlier management of potentially serious poisonings; and reduce costly inpatient evaluations for inconsequential plant ingestions. The current textbook classification schemes for plant poisonings were complex in comparison to the rapid classification system; and were based on chemical nomenclatures and pharmacological effects, and not on clearly presenting toxidromes. Validation of the rapid toxidromic classification system as compared to existing chemical classification systems for plant poisonings will require future adoption and implementation of the toxidromic system by its intended users.
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias could occur in 18% of subjects. Yunaconitine and crassicauline A, mainly found in certain aconite roots from Southwest China, are most commonly involved. Herbal residues and unused herbs should first be inspected for gross contamination. On-site inspection at the retailer should exclude accidental mix-up or cross-contamination when handling aconite roots. Samples of prescribed herbs are examined for gross contamination and analysed for the presence of Aconitum alkaloids. Samples of the implicated herb are also collected from the wholesaler for investigation. If post-import contamination is unlikely, the regulatory authorities of the exporting countries should be notified for follow-up actions. It is a challenging task to work out how non-toxic herbs become contaminated by aconite roots. The source control with good agricultural and collection practices and quality assurance must be enhanced.
The licorice had been used mainly in stomach related diseases such as food poisoning or indigestion. But the licorice was an imported medicine until the early days of the Joseon Dynasty. As the Joseon Dynasty began, the licorice production became necessary with the investigation and obtaining the herbs. And a large amount of licorice was needed when the epidemics outbroke under the reign of King Sejong(). In particular, the licorice had been essential in treating the diseases of the Cold Damage which was focused in the Joseon Dynasty. That was why King Sejong ordered to plant the licorice in the Chollado province and Hamgildo province in 1448. But the licorice cultivation was not easy for two reasons. First, it was difficult to find the proper soil for proper soil for planting. Second, the people didn't actively grow the licorice, because they had to devote the licorice as the tax when the indigenization of licorice was succeeded. King Sejo() and King Seongjong() encouraged the people to plant the licorice. The recognition that the licorice is essential in pediatric diseases such as smallpox got stronger then before. Finally the indigenization of licorice was completed under the reign of King Seongjong. According to the Dongguknyeojiseungnam(), edited in 1481, and Shinjeungdongguknyeojiseungnam( ), edited in 1530, the licorice was planted in seven districts. With the success of the indigenization of licorice, the approach of the people to the Oriental Medicine treatment had became much easier.
60 (1989-1991) to 0.16 (1992-1993) and 0.17 (1996-1998) per 100 000 population, after publicity measures in late 1991 to promote awareness of the toxicity of aconite roots. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence of aconite poisoning was even lower in January 2000-June 2004 (0.03 per 100 000 population). However, aconite poisoning became more common again in April 2004-July 2009 and 2008-2010 (0.15 and 0.28 per 100 000 population). Overdoses and use of inadequately processed aconite roots were important causes. As from 2004 to 2009, 'hidden' aconite poisoning (toxicity caused by contaminants in other dispensed herbs) emerged as an important cause. It is important to continue the safety monitoring of potent herbs and the networking of poison control units. Further systematic studies would be required to identify the likely sources of contamination of herbs.
In this review, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacology, structure activity relationship and toxicology studies of Aconitum were presented to add to knowledge for their safe application.
A total of about 76 of all aconite species growing in China and surrounding far-east and Asian countries are used for various medical purposes. The main ingredients of aconite species are alkaloids, flavonoids, free fatty acids and polysaccharides. The tuberous roots of genus Aconitum are commonly applied for various diseases such as rheumatic fever, painful joints and some endocrinal disorders. It stimulates the tip of sensory nerve fibres. These tubers of Aconitum are used in the herbal medicines only after processing. There remain high toxicological risks of the improper medicinal applications of Aconitum. The cardio and neurotoxicities of this herb are potentially lethal. Many analytical methods have been reported for quantitatively and qualitatively characterization of Aconitum.
Aconitum is a plant of great importance both in traditional medicine in general and in TCM in particular. Much attention should be put on Aconitum because of its narrow therapeutic range. However, Aconitum's toxicity can be reduced using different techniques and then benefit from its pharmacological activities. New methods, approaches and techniques should be developed for chemical and toxicological analysis to improve its quality and safety.
5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O3 monitoring and foliar O3 injury assessment in and around Beijing.
Mice were pretreated with Piper puberulum extract (PPE, 500 mg/kg, po) or vehicles for seven days, followed by intoxication with CCl 4 (25 μl/kg, ip for 16 h), D-galactosamine (800 mg/kg, ip for 8 h), or acetaminophen (400 mg/kg, ip for 8 h). Hepatotoprotection was evaluated by serum enzyme activities and histopathology. To determine the mechanism of protection, mice were given PPE (250-1000 mg/kg, po for seven days) and livers were collected to quantify the expression of Nrf2-targeted genes and metallothionein. Nrf2-null mice were also used to determine the role of Nrf2 in PPE-mediated hepatoprotection.PPE pretreatment protected against the hepatotoxicity produced by CCl 4, D-galactosamine, and acetaminophen, as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities and ameliorated liver lesions. PPE treatment increased the expression of hepatic Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (Nqo1), heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), glutamate-cysteine ligases (Gclc), and metallothionein (MT), at both transcripts and protein levels. PPE protected wild-type mice from CCl 4 and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, but not Nrf2-null mice, fortifying the Nrf2-dependent protection. In conclusion, induction of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathways and metallothionein appears to be a common mechanism for hepatoprotective herbs such as PPE.
58 to 5.0 mgkg(-1) and 0.03 to 3.2 mg kg(-1), respectively, with a ratio between inorganic arsenic and total arsenic ranging between 5 and 100%. Consumption of the recommended dose of the individual dietary supplement would lead to an exposure to inorganic arsenic within the range of 0.07 to 13 μg day(-1). Such exposure from dietary supplements would in worst case constitute 62.4% of the range of benchmark dose lower confidence limit values (BMDL01 at 0.3 to 8 μg kg bw(-1) kg(-1) day(-1)) put down by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2009, for cancers of the lung, skin and bladder, as well as skin lesions. Hence, the results demonstrate that consumption of certain dietary supplements could contribute significantly to the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic at levels close to the toxicological limits established by EFSA.
So far, it was assumed that AAs can enter the human food chain only through ethnobotanical use (intentional or accidental) of herbs containing self-produced AAs. We hypothesized that the roots of some crops growing in fields where Aristolochia species grew over several seasons may take up certain amounts of AAs from the soil, and thus become a secondary source of food poisoning. To verify this possibility, maize plant (Zea mays) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were used as a model to substantiate the possible significance of naturally occurring AAs' root uptake in food chain contamination. This study showed that the roots of maize plant and cucumber are capable of absorbing AAs from nutrient solution, consequently producing strong peaks on ultraviolet HPLC chromatograms of plant extracts. This uptake resulted in even higher concentrations of AAs in the roots compared to the nutrient solutions. To further validate the measurement of AA content in the root material, we also measured their concentrations in nutrient solutions before and after the plant treatment. Decreased concentrations of both AAI and AAII were found in nutrient solutions after plant growth. During this short-term experiment, there were much lower concentrations of AAs in the leaves than in the roots. The question is whether these plants are capable of transferring significant amounts of AAs from the roots into edible parts of the plant during prolonged experiments.