Plant Poisoning Herbs Publications (51)


Plant Poisoning Herbs Publications

Wilderness Environ Med
Wilderness Environ Med 2016 Mar;27(1):136-52
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health; Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) in New Orleans, New Orleans, LA. Electronic address:

The American Association of Poison Control Centers has continued to report approximately 50,000 telephone calls or 8% of incoming calls annually related to plant exposures, mostly in children. Although the frequency of plant ingestions in children is related to the presence of popular species in households, adolescents may experiment with hallucinogenic plants; and trekkers and foragers may misidentify poisonous plants as edible. Since plant exposures have continued at a constant rate, the objectives of this review were (1) to review the epidemiology of plant poisonings; and (2) to propose a rapid toxidromic classification system for highly toxic plant ingestions for field use by first responders in comparison to current classification systems. Read More

Internet search engines were queried to identify and select peer-reviewed articles on plant poisonings using the key words in order to classify plant poisonings into four specific toxidromes: cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, and gastrointestinal-hepatotoxic. A simple toxidromic classification system of plant poisonings may permit rapid diagnoses of highly toxic versus less toxic and nontoxic plant ingestions both in households and outdoors; direct earlier management of potentially serious poisonings; and reduce costly inpatient evaluations for inconsequential plant ingestions. The current textbook classification schemes for plant poisonings were complex in comparison to the rapid classification system; and were based on chemical nomenclatures and pharmacological effects, and not on clearly presenting toxidromes. Validation of the rapid toxidromic classification system as compared to existing chemical classification systems for plant poisonings will require future adoption and implementation of the toxidromic system by its intended users.

Phytother Res
Phytother Res 2016 Jan 19;30(1):3-8. Epub 2015 Oct 19.
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug and Poisons Information Bureau, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.
Uisahak 2015 Aug;24(2):423-55
Handok Museum of Medicine and Pharmacy, Eumseong-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do, KOREA.

This article explores the indigenization of licorice(Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) which was the most important medicine of the Oriental Medicine. There are a lot of records on licorice even before the Joseon Dynasty. Read More

The licorice had been used mainly in stomach related diseases such as food poisoning or indigestion. But the licorice was an imported medicine until the early days of the Joseon Dynasty. As the Joseon Dynasty began, the licorice production became necessary with the investigation and obtaining the herbs. And a large amount of licorice was needed when the epidemics outbroke under the reign of King Sejong(). In particular, the licorice had been essential in treating the diseases of the Cold Damage which was focused in the Joseon Dynasty. That was why King Sejong ordered to plant the licorice in the Chollado province and Hamgildo province in 1448. But the licorice cultivation was not easy for two reasons. First, it was difficult to find the proper soil for proper soil for planting. Second, the people didn't actively grow the licorice, because they had to devote the licorice as the tax when the indigenization of licorice was succeeded. King Sejo() and King Seongjong() encouraged the people to plant the licorice. The recognition that the licorice is essential in pediatric diseases such as smallpox got stronger then before. Finally the indigenization of licorice was completed under the reign of King Seongjong. According to the Dongguknyeojiseungnam(), edited in 1481, and Shinjeungdongguknyeojiseungnam( ), edited in 1530, the licorice was planted in seven districts. With the success of the indigenization of licorice, the approach of the people to the Oriental Medicine treatment had became much easier.

Phytother Res
Phytother Res 2015 Aug 14;29(8):1107-11. Epub 2015 May 14.
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Drug and Poisons Information Bureau, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

Herbs have long been used in the treatment of various disorders in traditional medicine since ancient age. Artemisia absinthium, one of these herbs, has traditionally been used in different societies for antibiotic, antiparasitic, antifungal and antipyretic purposes. Here, we report a poisoning case of a 10-month-old male infant progressing with severe diarrhoea and persistent metabolic acidosis after ingesting home-prepared Artemisia absinthium extract which was given for the treatment of common cold. Read More

J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
J Pharm Pharmacol 2015 Jan 22;67(1):1-19. Epub 2014 Sep 22.
Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China; Rwanda Standards Board, Kigali, Republic of Rwanda.

A number of species belonging to herbal genus Aconitum are well-known and popular for their medicinal benefits in Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, Tibetan and Chinese systems of medicine. It is a valuable drug as well as an unpredictable toxic material. It is therefore imperative to understand and control the toxic potential of herbs from this genus. Read More

In this review, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacology, structure activity relationship and toxicology studies of Aconitum were presented to add to knowledge for their safe application.
A total of about 76 of all aconite species growing in China and surrounding far-east and Asian countries are used for various medical purposes. The main ingredients of aconite species are alkaloids, flavonoids, free fatty acids and polysaccharides. The tuberous roots of genus Aconitum are commonly applied for various diseases such as rheumatic fever, painful joints and some endocrinal disorders. It stimulates the tip of sensory nerve fibres. These tubers of Aconitum are used in the herbal medicines only after processing. There remain high toxicological risks of the improper medicinal applications of Aconitum. The cardio and neurotoxicities of this herb are potentially lethal. Many analytical methods have been reported for quantitatively and qualitatively characterization of Aconitum.
Aconitum is a plant of great importance both in traditional medicine in general and in TCM in particular. Much attention should be put on Aconitum because of its narrow therapeutic range. However, Aconitum's toxicity can be reduced using different techniques and then benefit from its pharmacological activities. New methods, approaches and techniques should be developed for chemical and toxicological analysis to improve its quality and safety.

Am. J. Chin. Med.
Am J Chin Med 2014 ;42(1):207-21
Department of Pharmacology and Key Lab for Basic Pharmacology of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563003, P. R. China.

Many Chinese medicines have the potential to be hepatoprotective and therefore can be used to treat acute and chronic liver diseases. The challenge is to identify the molecular target for their protective mechanism. This study investigated the induction of nuclear factor-erythroid 2(NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant genes and metallothionein as a common mechanism of hepatoprotective effects of Chinese medicines such as Piper puberulum. Read More

Mice were pretreated with Piper puberulum extract (PPE, 500 mg/kg, po) or vehicles for seven days, followed by intoxication with CCl 4 (25 μl/kg, ip for 16 h), D-galactosamine (800 mg/kg, ip for 8 h), or acetaminophen (400 mg/kg, ip for 8 h). Hepatotoprotection was evaluated by serum enzyme activities and histopathology. To determine the mechanism of protection, mice were given PPE (250-1000 mg/kg, po for seven days) and livers were collected to quantify the expression of Nrf2-targeted genes and metallothionein. Nrf2-null mice were also used to determine the role of Nrf2 in PPE-mediated hepatoprotection.PPE pretreatment protected against the hepatotoxicity produced by CCl 4, D-galactosamine, and acetaminophen, as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities and ameliorated liver lesions. PPE treatment increased the expression of hepatic Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase1 (Nqo1), heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), glutamate-cysteine ligases (Gclc), and metallothionein (MT), at both transcripts and protein levels. PPE protected wild-type mice from CCl 4 and acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, but not Nrf2-null mice, fortifying the Nrf2-dependent protection. In conclusion, induction of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathways and metallothionein appears to be a common mechanism for hepatoprotective herbs such as PPE.

Anal Bioanal Chem
Anal Bioanal Chem 2013 May 24;405(13):4429-35. Epub 2013 Feb 24.
National Food Institute, Division of Food Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg, Denmark.

Aristolochic acids (AAs) are nephrotoxic and carcinogenic derivatives found in several Aristolochia species. To date, the toxicity of AAs has been inferred only from the effects observed in patients suffering from a kidney disease called "aristolochic acid nephropathy" (AAN, formerly known as "Chinese herbs nephropathy"). More recently, the chronic poisoning with Aristolochia seeds has been considered to be the main cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy, another form of chronic renal failure resembling AAN. Read More

So far, it was assumed that AAs can enter the human food chain only through ethnobotanical use (intentional or accidental) of herbs containing self-produced AAs. We hypothesized that the roots of some crops growing in fields where Aristolochia species grew over several seasons may take up certain amounts of AAs from the soil, and thus become a secondary source of food poisoning. To verify this possibility, maize plant (Zea mays) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were used as a model to substantiate the possible significance of naturally occurring AAs' root uptake in food chain contamination. This study showed that the roots of maize plant and cucumber are capable of absorbing AAs from nutrient solution, consequently producing strong peaks on ultraviolet HPLC chromatograms of plant extracts. This uptake resulted in even higher concentrations of AAs in the roots compared to the nutrient solutions. To further validate the measurement of AA content in the root material, we also measured their concentrations in nutrient solutions before and after the plant treatment. Decreased concentrations of both AAI and AAII were found in nutrient solutions after plant growth. During this short-term experiment, there were much lower concentrations of AAs in the leaves than in the roots. The question is whether these plants are capable of transferring significant amounts of AAs from the roots into edible parts of the plant during prolonged experiments.