Plant Poisoning Glycosides - Cardiac Publications (121)


Plant Poisoning Glycosides - Cardiac Publications

Biomed. Pharmacother.
Biomed Pharmacother 2016 Dec 22;84:1036-1041. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr San Diego, CA 92182, USA. Electronic address:
Balkan Med J
Balkan Med J 2016 Sep 1;33(5):559-562. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
Institute of Forensic Sciences, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Molecules 2016 Mar 16;21(3):348. Epub 2016 Mar 16.
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2016 May 18;141:158-69. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
Department of Environment and Forest Resources, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial used for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Adenium obesum is a plant of the family Apocynaceae that is rich in toxic cardiac glycosides; however, there is scarce information on the anticancer potential of its AgNPs. We herein report the novel biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of A. Read More

obesum (AOAgNPs). The synthesis of AOAgNPs was monitored by color change and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (425 nm). It was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra for the AOAgNPs indicated the presence of terpenoids, long chain fatty acids, secondary amide derivatives and proteins that could be responsible for the reduction and capping of the formed AOAgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The TEM images revealed mostly spherical particles in the size range of 10-30 nm. The biological properties of novel AOAgNPs were investigated on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, induction of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed. A dose-dependent decrease in the cell viability was observed. The IC50 value was calculated as 217 μg/ml. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation confirmed about a 2.5 fold increase in the generation of ROS at the highest concentration of 150 μg/ml. A significant (p<0.05) increase in the DNA damage evaluated by comet assay was evident. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in the apoptotic cells (24%) in the AOAgNPs treated group compared to the control. Acridine orange staining of acidic vesicles in exposed cells confirmed the induction of autophagy. These findings suggest that AOAgNPs increased the level of ROS resulting in heightened the DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells.

Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2015 Oct;43(7):648-50
Department of Cardiology, Istanbul Medipol University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Nerium oleander is a popular ornamental plant grown in many tropical and subtropical countries and in the Mediterranean region. It is dangerous because it has been shown to contain several types of cardiac glycosides, and hence can cause cardiac arrhythmias resembling digoxin in their toxicologic manifestations. We report a patient presenting to our hospital with Mobitz type II atrioventricular block after drinking herbal tea prepared from oleander leaves. Read More

Three hours after admission, a 200-mg empiric dose of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments was administered intravenously over 30 minutes. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed sinus rhythm at the end of infusion. After 72 hours, the patient was discharged without any symptoms.

J Med Toxicol
J Med Toxicol 2015 Mar;11(1):141-3
Department of Internal Medicine, VCA All-Care Animal Referral Center, 18440 Amistad Street, Fountain Valley, CA, 92708, USA,
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2014 Aug 1;52(7):659-63. Epub 2014 Jul 1.
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine , New Haven, CT , USA.

Cardiac glycosides of plant origin are implicated in toxic ingestions that may result in hospitalization and are potentially lethal. The utility of commonly available digoxin serum assays for detecting foxglove and oleander ingestion has been demonstrated, but no studies have evaluated the structurally similar convallatoxin found in Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley) for rapid laboratory screening, nor has digoxin immune Fab been tested as an antidote for this ingestion.
We aimed to (1) evaluate multiple digoxin assays for cross-reactivity to convallatoxin, (2) identify whether convallatoxin could be detected in vivo at clinically significant doses, and (3) determine whether digoxin immune Fab could be an effective antidote to convallatoxin. Read More

Cross-reactivities of purified convallatoxin and oleandrin with five common digoxin immunoassays were determined. Serum from mice challenged with convallatoxin was tested for apparent digoxin levels. Binding of convallatoxin to digoxin immune Fab was determined in vitro.
Both convallatoxin and oleandrin were detectable by a panel of commonly used digoxin immunoassays, but cross-reactivity was variable between individual assays. We observed measurable apparent digoxin levels in serum of convallatoxin intoxicated mice at sublethal doses. Convallatoxin demonstrated no binding by digoxin immune Fab.
Multiple digoxin immunoassays detect botanical cardiac glycosides including convallatoxin and thus may be useful for rapid determination of severe exposures, but neutralization of convallatoxin by digoxin immune Fab is unlikely to provide therapeutic benefit.

Food Chem. Toxicol.
Food Chem Toxicol 2013 Dec 27;62:609-21. Epub 2013 Sep 27.
Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3201, South Africa.

Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. Read More

These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care.

Psychosomatics 2013 Jul-Aug;54(4):379-81. Epub 2012 Dec 27.
Creighton University School of Medicine at St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA.