Plague Publications (9367)
, Phys. Rev. B 93, 201108(R) (2016)] is a hierarchy of approximations that systematically corrects any deficiencies of an approximate functional to finally converge to the exact energy. This is achieved by decomposing the total density into a sum of two-electron densities and accounting for successive two-, four-, six-,… electron interactions. Here, we show that already low orders of MPE expansion recover the dispersion energy accurately. To this end, we employ the Pariser-Parr-Pople Hamiltonian and study the behavior of long-range interactions in trans-polyacetylene as well as stacks of ethylene and benzene molecules. We also show how convergence of the expansion is affected by electron conjugation and the choice of the density partitioning.
It is unclear whether this dissociation applies to WM, as no studies have used identical task parameters across material. Here we tested 29 combat Veterans with PTSD and 29 age-matched control Veterans on a recent probes WM task with words and visual patterns in separate blocks. Participants studied four-item sets, followed by a probe stimulus that had been presented in the previous set (recent probe) or not (nonrecent probe). Participants with PTSD made more errors than controls, and this decrement was similar for verbal and visual stimuli. Proactive interference from items recently presented, but no longer relevant, was not significantly different in the PTSD group and showed no relationship to re-experiencing symptom severity. These results demonstrate that PTSD is not reliably associated with increased intrusions of irrelevant representations into WM when non-emotional stimuli are used. Future studies that use trauma-related material may provide insight into the flashbacks and intrusive thoughts that plague those with PTSD.
We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings.
As native European crayfish often succumb to infection with A. astaci, determining the prevalence of this pathogen in non-native crayfish is vital to prioritize native crayfish populations for managed translocation. In the current study, 23 populations of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from the UK were tested for A. astaci presence using quantitative PCR. Altogether, 13 out of 23 (56·5%) populations were found to be infected, and pathogen prevalence within infected sites varied from 3 to 80%. Microsatellite pathogen genotyping revealed that at least one UK signal crayfish population was infected with the A. astaci genotype group B, known to include virulent strains. Based on recent crayfish distribution records and the average rate of signal crayfish population dispersal, we identified one native white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) population predicted to come into contact with infected signal crayfish within 5 years. This population should be considered as a priority for translocation.
Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial. The aims of this study were to make an exhaustive inventory of the literature on the fleas (Siphonaptera) and range of associated hosts in Iran, present their known distribution, and discuss their medical importance.
The data were obtained by an extensive literature review related to medically significant fleas in Iran published before 31st August 2016. The flea-host specificity was then determined using a family and subfamily-oriented criteria to further realize and quantify the shared and exclusive vertebrate hosts of fleas among Iran fleas. The locations sampled and reported in the literature were primarily from human habitation, livestock farms, poultry, and rodents' burrows of the 31 provinces of the country. The flea fauna were dominated by seven families, namely the Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllidae, Pulicidae, Ctenophthalmidae, Coptopsyllidae, Ischnopsyllidae and Vermipsyllidae. The hosts associated with Iran fleas ranged from the small and large mammals to the birds. Pulicidae were associated with 73% (56/77) of identified host species. Flea-host association analysis indicates that rodents are the common hosts of 5 flea families but some sampling bias results in the reduced number of bird host sampled. Analyses of flea-host relationships at the subfamily level showed that most vertebrates hosted fleas belgonging to 3 subfamilies namely Xenopsyllinae (n = 43), Ctenophthalminae (n = 20) and Amphipsyllinae (n = 17). Meriones persicus was infested by 11 flea subfamilies in the arid, rocky, mountainous regions and Xenopsyllinae were hosted by at least 43 mammal species. These findings place the Persian jird (M. persicus) and the Xenopsyllinae as the major vertebrate and vector hosts of flea-borne diseases in Iran including Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. We found records of at least seven vector-borne pathogenic agents that can potentially be transmitted by the 117 flea species (or subspecies) of Iran.
Herein, we performed a thorough inventary of the flea species and their associated hosts, their medical importance and geographic distribution throughout Iran. This exercise allowed assessing the diversity of flea species with the potential flea-borne agents transmission risk in the country by arranging published data on flea-host associations. This information is a first step for issuing public health policies and rodent-flea control campaigns in Iran as well as those interested in the ecology/epidemiology of flea-borne disease.
In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen. Core genome SNP analysis placed this isolate within the Y. pestis branch 1, Orientalis biovar. Culturing Y. pestis in broth steadily enriched in NaCl indicated survival up to 150 g/L NaCl as L-form variants exhibiting a distinctive matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide profile. Further transcriptomic analyses found the upregulation of several outer-membrane proteins including TolC efflux pump and OmpF porin implied in osmotic pressure regulation. Salt tolerance of Y. pestis L-form may play a role in the maintenance of natural plague foci in North Africa and beyond, as these geographical correlations could be extended to 31 plague foci in the northern hemisphere (from 15°N to 50°N).
Here we set out to identify mechanisms of specificity in protein phosphorylation by YopO that would clarify its effects on cytoskeleton disruption. We report the MgADP structure of Yersinia enterocolitica YopO in complex with actin, which reveals its active site architecture. Using a proteome-wide kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS) method, we identified that YopO phosphorylates a wide range of actin-modulating proteins and located their phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry. Using artificial substrates we clarified YopO's substrate length requirements and its phosphorylation consensus sequence. These findings provide fresh insight into the mechanism of the YopO kinase and demonstrate that YopO executes a specific strategy targeting actin-modulating proteins, across multiple functionalities, to compete for control of their native phospho-signaling, thus hampering the cytoskeletal processes required for macrophage phagocytosis.
AST is centrally active following oral administration and is neuroprotective in experimental brain ischemia/stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. We examined the effects of oral AST on the long-term neurological functional recovery and histological outcomes following moderate TBI in a mice model.. [METHODS]: Male adult ICR mice were divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham + olive oil vehicle treated, (2) TBI + olive oil vehicle treated, and (3) TBI + AST. The olive oil vehicle or AST were administered via oral gavage at scheduled time points. Closed head brain injury was applied using M.A. Flierl weight-drop method. NSS, Rotarod, ORT, and Y-maze were performed to test the behavioral or neurological outcome. The brain sections from the mice were stained with H&E and cresyl-violet to test the injured lesion volume and neuronal loss. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the mechanisms of neuronal cell survival and neurological function improvement. [RESULTS]: AST administration improved the sensorimotor performance on the Neurological Severity Score (NSS) and rotarod test and enhanced cognitive function recovery in the object recognition test (ORT) and Y-maze test. Moreover, AST treatment reduced the lesion size and neuronal loss in the cortex compared with the vehicle-treated TBI group. AST also restored the levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), synapsin, and synaptophysin (SYP) in the cerebral cortex, which indicates the promotion of neuronal survival and plasticity. [CONCLUSION]: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the protective role and the underlining mechanism of AST in TBI. Based on these neuroprotective actions and considering its longstanding clinical use, AST should be considered for the clinical treatment of TBI.
Many susceptible species, including man, are spillover hosts in which infection is not self-maintaining. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of infected slaughtered cattle in spreading tuberculosis to those who work in abattoirs.
Three hundred slaughter cattle in some abattoirs of the Baghdad governorate were examined grossly. Tissue samples were taken from lesions that had appeared on lymph nodes, lung, liver, spleen, peritoium, and intestines. A routine examination was performed: (1) smear for Ziehl Neelsen acid-fast stain; (2) cultured: each sample was cultured on Stone-brink with sodium pyrovite and on Lowenstein media which contain glycerol; and (3) incubated at 37°C for 4-10weeks, to observe the characteristic features of bacterial colonies. Biochemical tests, nitrate reduction, urea analysis, tween 80 lysis, and catalase test were employed to isolate and identify the bacteria. Pieces from tissue samples were kept in 10% formalin for histopathological investigation. Tuberculin tests and X-rays were conducted for 186 workers who were in contact with slaughtered cattle in the same abattoirs, with an age range of 15years to 60years. Sputum samples were collected from all workers in clean and sterile containers, and subjected to the same routine examination. The collection of samples was carried out under strict and sterile conditions and the sputum was kept in 50% oxalic acid for 20 min before culture on media to avoid the contamination.
Gross examination of cattle carcasses showed tubercle in four of them that was distributed in lymph nodes and different organs especially in lungs, livers, and in one case tubercle appeared on the peritoneum and intestines. A histopathological study revealed different lesions with an accumulation of lymphocytes and macrophages in lymph nodes and organs. Four isolates of M. bovis were diagnosed and identified by routine examination that indicated the percentage of infection in slaughtered cattle was 1.33%. The result of the workers' examinations clarified that only one of the workers had a positive result for the tuberculin test, whereas three of them had positive results in X-ray and routine examination. Three isolates were obtained from workers (1.6%); two of these isolates were diagnosed as M. bovis and the other as M. tuberculosis.
The main conclusion of this study is that two workers were infected with cattle's strain which confirms the role of slaughtered cattle in the transmission of this dangerous, chronic, and zoonotic disease to man.
Among study participants (mean age 35 ± 8.2 years, 47.5% female, 42.5% reported history of injecting drugs), 55% delayed HIV care enrollment. Odds of delayed enrollment were higher for those with lower educational attainment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-6.76), not feeling ill (aOR: 2.98, 95% CI: 1.50-5.93), or not having time to go to the AIDS center (aOR: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.39-10.89); injection drug use was not associated with delayed enrollment. Programs linking HIV-positive individuals to specialized care should address enrollment barriers and include education on HIV care benefits and case management for direct linkage to care. HIV testing and treatment should be coupled to ensure a continuum of care.