Perioperative Pulmonary Management Publications (2612)
Perioperative Pulmonary Management Publications
We did a randomised controlled trial at the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth (WA, Australia) by recruiting infants (aged 0-12 months) undergoing general (with or without regional or local) anaesthesia with anticipated fentanyl dose 1 μg/kg or lower for minor elective surgery. We excluded patients contraindicated for LMA or endotracheal tube; who had known cardiac disease or airway or thoracic malformations; who were receiving midazolam premedication; who were undergoing airway, thoracic, or abdomen surgery at the time of participation; and if the parents did not speak English. Written parental or guardian consent was obtained before enrolment. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), by computer-generated variable block randomisation, to receive an LMA (PRO-Breathe, Well Lead Medical Co Ltd, Panyu, China) or an endotracheal tube (Microcuff, Halyard Health Inc, Atlanta, GA, USA). Sealed randomisation envelopes were used to conceal device assignment. An interim analysis was planned once half the number of infants needed (145) had been recruited. The primary outcome was incidence of PRAE, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The institutional ethics committee at the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children granted ethical approval (1786/EP). The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12610000250033).
The trial began on July 8, 2010, and was ended early on May 7, 2015, after the interim analysis results met the study stopping rules. During this time, 239 infants were assessed and 181 eligible infants were randomly assigned to receive an LMA (n=85) or an endotracheal tube (n=95). Four infants were not included in the analysis (two due to cancelled procedures, one did not meet inclusion criteria, and one with missing dataset). In the intention-to-treat analysis, PRAE occurred in 50 (53%) infants in the endotracheal tube group and in 15 (18%) infants in the LMA group (risk ratio [RR] 2·94, 95% CI 1·79-4·83, p<0·0001). Laryngospasm and bronchospasm (major PRAE) were recorded in 18 (19%) infants in the endotracheal tube group and in three (4%) infants in the LMA group (RR 5·30, 95% CI 1·62-17·35, p=0·002). No deaths were reported.
In infants undergoing minor elective procedures, LMAs were associated with clinically significantly fewer PRAE and lower occurrence of major PRAE (laryngospasm and bronchospasm) than endotracheal tubes. This difference should be a consideration in airway device selection.
Princess Margaret Hospital Foundation, National Health and Australian Medical Research Council, Stan Perron Charitable Trust, and Callahan Estate.
A description of the surgical anatomy and key concepts in the perioperative and surgical management of TAPVC are presented in this review.
Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of PAL (>5 days).
PAL occurred in 23 patients (16%). An air leak at rest (Grade ≥ 2) was detected on postoperative day (POD) 1 in 48% of the patients with PAL and 7% of the patients without PAL. A univariate analysis demonstrated that PAL was significantly associated with male sex, a smoking history of ≥ 40 pack years, a serum albumin level of ≤4.0 mg/dL, and an air leak on POD1 (Grade ≥ 2). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that a serum albumin level of ≤4.0 mg/dL (p = 0.027) and an air leak on POD1 (p = 0.006) were independent predictors of PAL. PAL occurred in 75% of the patients with these two risk factors.
The preoperative serum albumin level and the presence of a visually evaluated air leak on POD1 may be useful indicators for the perioperative management of air leaks.
The numbers of patients with Child-Pugh scores 5, 6, 7 and 8 were 22, 7, 2 and 1. Median (range) preoperative platelet count and fibrinogen values were 155 (61-330) × 10(3)/μl and 250 (145-367) mg/dl, respectively. The patients with higher Child-Pugh scores tended to have longer duration of anesthesia and surgery (p = 0.078, 0.078, respectively), and had significantly higher platelet transfusion (p = 0.031). Lower platelet count was associated with longer duration of anesthesia, surgery and cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB), and larger amount of blood loss and platelet transfusion (p = 0.01, 0.011, 0.024, 0.033, 0.021). Lower fibrinogen value was associated with longer duration of anesthesia, surgery and CPB, and larger amount of platelet transfusion (p = 0.015, 0.009, 0.009, 0.023).
ACHD patients who underwent reoperative cardiac surgery had a high prevalence of risk factors for liver disorders preoperatively, and liver disorders aggravated some intraoperative outcomes. These findings suggest that the prevention of liver disorders is important for reducing the occurrence of poor outcomes, and that ACHD patients with liver disorders need attentive perioperative management.
The results showed that in the FTS group, latency to the first postoperative flatus (1.5 ± 0.6 versus 3.1 ± 0.8 s in controls, P < 0.0001), CRP (71.36 ± 5.48 versus 80.71 ± 8.32 mg/L in at POD 7, P < 0.0001), the length of hospital stay (18.1 ± 1.4 versus 27.4 ± 6.6 days, P < 0.0001), and the medical costs (29.9 ± 2.7 versus 37.2 ± 3.6 thousand Chinese Yuan, P < 0.0001) were significantly reduced compared to the group receiving conventional management. FTS group also had a relatively lower postoperative complication rate (23.5% of 17 versus 33.3% of 18 in control group) although it was statistically insignificant (P = 0.711).
These results indicate that application of the FTS in NSCLC pneumonectomy efficiently accelerates postoperative recovery, shortens hospital stay, reduces the total medical costs of the patients and thus is more acceptable than conventional management.
In addition, gastric distension elevates diaphragm and diminishes the lung compliance. If lung compliance is already impaired due to pre-existing lung pathology, situation becomes much more demanding. We report the successful airway management of a patient with large precarinal fistula and bilateral pneumonitis using the novel Microcuff tube. The unique design of microcuff makes it suitable to be used for this purpose. To the best of our knowledge, the use of microcuff ETT for perioperative airway management in case of a large precarinal fistula in a neonate with respiratory pathology has not been reported in the past.
This review summarizes evidence and recommendations regarding the optimal periinterventional/perioperative antithrombotic management of patients on NOACs.
In this review, we have summarized the data from studies investigating the implications of cardiac troponin concentrations in various acute and chronic conditions beyond ACS, i.e., heart failure, myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, supraventricular arrhythmias, valve disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, stroke, and in the perioperative setting.
Cardiac troponin concentrations are often detectable and frankly increased in non-ACS conditions, in particular when measured with high-sensitivity (hs) assays. With the exception of myocarditis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, cardiac troponin concentrations carry strong prognostic information, mainly with respect to mortality, or incipient and/or worsening heart failure. Studies investigating the prognostic benefit associated with cardiac troponin-guided treatments however, are almost lacking and the potential role of cardiac troponin in the management of non-ACS conditions is not defined.
Increased cardiac troponin indicates increased risk for adverse outcome in patients with various cardiovascular conditions beyond ACS. Routine measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations can however, not be generally recommended unless there is a suspicion of ACS. Nonetheless, any finding of an increased cardiac troponin concentration in a patient without ACS should at least prompt the search for possible underlying conditions and these should be managed meticulously according to current guidelines to improve outcome.
Patients undergoing transplant surgery soon after the placement of DES are at increased risk of stent thrombosis (ST) in the perioperative period. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor such as clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor is instated post stenting to decrease the incident of ST. Cangrelor has recently been approved by Food and Drug Administration and can be used as a bridging antiplatelet drug. The risk of ischemia vs bleeding must be considered when discontinuing or continuing DAPT for surgery. Though living donor transplant surgery is an elective procedure and can be optimally timed, cadaveric organ availability is unpredictable, therefore, discontinuation of antiplatelet medication cannot be optimally timed. The type of stent and timing of transplant surgery can be of utmost importance. Many platelet function point of care tests such as Light Transmittance Aggregrometry, Thromboelastography Platelet Mapping, VerifyNow, Multiple Electrode Aggregrometry are used to assess bleeding risk and guide perioperative platelet transfusion. Response to allogenic platelet transfusion to control severe intraoperative bleeding may differ with the antiplatelet drug. In stent thrombosis is an emergency where management with either a drug eluting balloon or a DES has shown superior outcomes. Post-transplant complications often involved stenosis of an important vessel that may need revascularization. DES are now used for endovascular interventions for transplant orthotropic heart CAD, hepatic artery stenosis post liver transplantation, transplant renal artery stenosis following kidney transplantation, etc. Several antiproliferative drugs used in the DES are inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin. Thus they are used for post-transplant immunosuppression to prevent acute rejection in recipients with heart, liver, lung and kidney transplantation. This article describes in detail the various perioperative challenges encountered in organ transplantation surgery and patients with drug eluting stents.