Perioperative Management of the Patient With Liver Disease Publications (65)
Perioperative Management of the Patient With Liver Disease Publications
Perioperative management requires an understanding of the physiologic perturbations associated with each disease process. This article elucidates the goals in the management and treatment of this complex patient population.
Information collected included preoperative characteristics, intraoperative management, blood transfusions, and postoperative morbidity and mortality.
Five pediatric CHLTs were performed over an 8-year period. All patients had a history of complex CHD with multiple sternotomies, three of whom had failing Fontan physiology. Patient age ranged from 7 to 23 years and weight from 29.5 to 68.5 kg. All CHLTs were performed using an en-bloc technique where both the donor heart and liver were implanted together on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The median operating room time was 14.25 h, median CPB time was 3.58 h, and median donor ischemia time was 4.13 h. Patients separated from CPB on dopamine, epinephrine, and milrinone infusions and two required inhaled nitric oxide. All patients received a massive intraoperative blood transfusion post CPB with amounts ranging from one to three times the patient's estimated blood volume. The patient who required the most transfusions was in decompensated heart and liver failure preoperatively. Four of the five patients received an antifibrinolytic agent as well as a procoagulant (prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant activated Factor VII) to assist with hemostasis. There were no 30-day thromboembolic events detected. Postoperatively the median length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and stay to hospital discharge was 4, 8, and 37 days, respectively. All patients are alive and free from allograft rejection at this time.
Combined heart and liver transplantation in the pediatric population involves a complex group of patients with unique perioperative challenges. Successful management starts with thorough preoperative planning and communication and involves strategies to deal with massive intraoperative hemorrhage and coagulopathy in addition to protecting and supporting the transplanted heart and liver and meticulous surgical technique. An integrated multidisciplinary team approach is the cornerstone for successful outcomes.
We expected difficult airway because of his fatty tissues, and we perfomed awake intubation by Airway Scope. We confirmed the airway by using tube exchanger at extubation. We should choose a proper airway management technique to reduce the incidences of airway complications.
Dyspnea because of heart compression, pleural effusion, lung collapse, and pulmonary emboli improved. She died of late complications. This case highlights physiologic and ethical considerations.
The operation was performed under general anesthesia and with a bilateral thoracic paravertebral block (PVB). A continuous paravertebral infusion of levobupivacaine was administered via right and left catheters postoperatively. He was hemodynamically stable throughout the perioperative period, extubated soon after surgery, and had an uncomplicated postoperative course.
An analgesic regimen including thoracic PVB resulted in a rapid recovery without opioid-related side effects and early reinitiation of anticoagulation therapy. Our case illustrates the effective application of thoracic PVB in congenital heart disease patients for non-cardiac-related surgery.
A consecutive sample of 927 patients with preserved liver function and large and/or multinodular HCC who were treated by initial HR were divided into 3 groups: those with a single tumor ≥5 cm in diameter (n = 588), 2 to 3 tumors with a maximum diameter >3 cm (n = 225), or >3 tumors of any diameter (n = 114). Hospital mortality and overall survival (OS) in each group were compared for the years 2000 to 2007 and 2008 to 2013.Patients with >3 tumors showed the highest incidence of hospital mortality of all groups (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that OS varied across the 3 groups as follows: single tumor > 2 to 3 tumors > 3+ tumors (all P < 0.05). OS at 5 years ranged from 24% to 41% in all 3 groups for the period 2000 to 2007, and from 35% to 46% for the period 2008 to 2013. OS was significantly higher during the more recent 6-year period in the entire patient population, those with single tumor, and those with 3+ tumors (all P < 0.05). However, in patients with 2 to 3 tumors, OS was only slightly higher during the more recent 6-year period (P = 0.084).Prognosis can vary substantially for these 3 types of HCC. Patients with >3 tumors show the highest hospital mortality and lowest OS after HR. OS has been improving for all 3 types of HCC at our medical center as a consequence of improvements in surgical technique and perioperative management.
The liver is the most common site of metastases in patients with CRC, and perioperative chemotherapy has been shown to yield benefits in this setting. In the second-line treatment for mCRC, maintenance with bevacizumab after progression following first-line treatment is convenient in some groups of patients with mCRC. Also, aflibercept has demonstrated benefits in response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival in second-line treatment, whereas regorafenib provides benefits to patients progressing on all standard therapies. Several novel therapeutic options for patients with mCRC are under development, and these are discussed.
After meeting study criteria, a total of 56 patients who underwent 61 surgeries were included in the final analysis. Patient characteristics, morbidity (Clavien score), mortality, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, MELD score, use of prosthetic material, and elective or emergency surgery have been analysed with regards to morbidity and 30-day mortality.
The median MELD score of the patient population was 14 (range: 6 to 24). Emergency surgery was performed in 34 patients because of ruptured hernia (n = 13), incarceration (n = 10), strangulation (n = 4), and skin necrosis or ulceration (n = 7). Elective surgery was performed in 27 cases. After a multivariable analysis, emergency surgery (OR 7.31; p 0.017) and Child-Pugh C (OR 4.54; p 0.037) were risk factors for major complications. Moreover, emergency surgery was a unique independent risk factor for 30-day mortality (OR 10.83; p 0.028).
Higher morbidity and mortality are associated with emergency surgery in advanced cirrhotic patients. Therefore, using cirrhosis as a contraindication for hernia repair in all patients may be reconsidered in the future, especially after controlling ascites and in those patients with hernias that are becoming symptomatic or show signs of possible skin necrosis and rupture. Future prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm this surgical strategy.
Ongoing data collection records patient demographics, comorbidities, tumor stage, and various outcomes including intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, surgical complications, and morbidity and mortality rates.
Over time, patients presenting for surgical treatment of esophageal cancer have had significantly higher Charlson comorbidity scores and a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, liver disease, and history of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. During the same period, intensive care unit and hospital length of stays have decreased, whereas most complication rates have remained stable despite more advanced tumor stage and increased use of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. In-hospital and 30-day mortality rates are well below national averages at 0.5% each.
We present a detailed anesthetic and surgical perioperative pathway for esophageal resection, along with evidence of improved or stable patient outcomes despite an increase in comorbidity burden and increasingly advanced tumor stage.