Perioperative Management of the Patient With Chronic Renal Failure Publications (22)


Perioperative Management of the Patient With Chronic Renal Failure Publications

Anesthesiol Clin
Anesthesiol Clin 2016 Dec;34(4):645-658
Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 622 West 168th Street-PH 5, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Hepatic and renal disease are common comorbidities in patients presenting for intermediate- and high-risk surgery. With the evolution of perioperative medicine, anesthesiologists are encountering more patients who have significant hepatic and renal disease, both acute and chronic in nature. It is important that anesthesiologists have an in-depth understanding of the physiologic derangements seen with hepatic and renal disease to evaluate and manage these patients appropriately. Read More

Perioperative management requires an understanding of the physiologic perturbations associated with each disease process. This article elucidates the goals in the management and treatment of this complex patient population.

Anesth. Analg.
Anesth Analg 2016 May;122(5):1335-9
From the Department of Anesthesiology, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

An understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying recurrent upper airway collapse may help anesthesiologists better manage patients in the postoperative period. There is convincing evidence in the sleep medicine literature to suggest that a positive fluid and salt balance can worsen upper airway collapse in patients with obstructive sleep apnea through the redistribution of fluid from the legs into the neck and upper airway while supine, in a process known as "rostral fluid shift." According to this theory, during the day the volume from a fluid bolus or from fluid overload states (i. Read More

e., heart failure and chronic kidney disease) accumulates in the legs due to gravity, and when a person lies supine at night, the fluid shifts rostrally to the neck, also owing to gravity. The fluid in the neck can increase the extraluminal pressure around the upper airways, causing the upper airways to narrow and predisposing to upper airway collapse. Similarly, surgical patients also incur large fluid and salt balance shifts, and when recovered supine, this may promote fluid redistribution to the neck and upper airways. In this commentary, we summarize the sleep medicine literature on the impact of fluid and salt balance on obstructive sleep apnea severity and discuss the potential anesthetic implications of excessive fluid and salt volume on worsening sleep apnea.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2016 Jun;29(3):413-20
Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing health problem worldwide and is associated with a number of clinical challenges. In this paper, we review recent studies that deal with strategies for the management of patients with CKD undergoing surgery.
Effective strategies for nephroprotection are crucial for the handling of patients with CKD in the perioperative setting to prevent complications and to avoid the progression of CKD. Read More

Due to the lack of perioperative studies with CKD patients there are only level 2 recommendations. First of all, this requires the identification of CKD patients through risk assessment and preoperative laboratory tests. In this regard, biomarkers, such as cystatin C may facilitate the detection of chronically impaired renal function. Secondly, particular attention should be paid to the maintenance of hemodynamic stability, including an adequate blood pressure and cardiac index and the preservation of intravascular volume. There is clear evidence that an unimpaired renal perfusion, guaranteed through hemodynamic stability, and an undisturbed fluid balance both reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and consequently the further deterioration of renal function. Thirdly, several studies demonstrate that tight glycemic control is associated with less renal impairment and better survival for patients with CKD. Lastly, the highest priority for the patient with CKD should be assigned to the prevention of AKI, which is an action of proven efficacy.
Identification and risk stratification is crucial for the perioperative management of patients with CKD. To improve clinical outcomes, nonemergent procedures should be postponed, renal function optimized, nephrotoxic drugs avoided, and AKI prevented.

Wien Med Wochenschr
Wien Med Wochenschr 2015 Dec 30;165(23-24):467-71. Epub 2015 Nov 30.
Oncological Palliative Medicine, Cantonal Hospital Sankt Gallen, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland.

A 67-year-old patient with coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery after a recent myocardial infarction despite a high perioperative risk of death. While waiting, acute renal failure developed, and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). After the patient and his wife were informed that CABG surgery was no longer possible, he declined further intensive care treatment and subsequently died peacefully. Read More

We show that a structured palliative approach which has been proposed for cancer patients may also be feasible in palliative situations concerning nononcologic patients.

Pediatr Emerg Care
Pediatr Emerg Care 2015 Sep;31(9):649-51
From the *Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; †Divisions of Critical Care Medicine and Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC; and ‡Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine & Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Aortic dissection secondary to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms is very uncommon in children, and this life-threatening diagnosis requires a high clinical index of suspicion. Unlike adults, in whom atherosclerosis, inflammation, and advanced age are typically contributing factors, aortic dissection in children is usually due to nonatherosclerotic causes.Aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic when small but, when significantly enlarged, can compromise organ function and dissect, resulting in high mortality rates. Read More

It is therefore critical that children with this uncommon condition be identified early when medical or surgical management can potentially improve outcome. We describe a 15-year-old patient with multiple aortic aneurysms with dissection whose presentation includes chronic anemia, acute-on-chronic renal failure with hyperkalemia, and liver injury.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2014 Aug;24(4):e146-50
*Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Min-Sheng General Hospital, Taoyuan †Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan ‡Taiwan Mackay Medicine, Nursing and Management College, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is a treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Peritoneal dialysis catheters are usually placed using a small laparotomy. This traditional technique is usually safe if well executed, but it cannot be safely performed if the patient has had a previous abdominal operation. Read More

A minimally invasive procedure may progress safely by laparoscopic intervention. However, dysfunction of the catheter during a laparoscopic intervention is a common complication related to CAPD. This usually involves intra-abdominal migration of the catheter, even with one intra-abdominal fixation. In an effort to increase catheter survival, we tested a modified laparoscopic technique with two intra-abdominal fixations of a Tenckhoff catheter.
Forty-one consecutive ESRD patients (mean age, 53.4 y; range, 31 to 84 y) underwent modified laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation with 2 intra-abdominal fixations between September 2009 and January 2013. The same perioperative protocol and surgical technique were used in all patients. Another 49 ESRD patients who had received laparoscopic Tenckhoff catheter implantation with 1 intra-abdominal fixation performed by the same surgeon were retrospectively recruited for comparison.
The modified laparoscopic procedure with two intra-abdominal fixations of a Tenckhoff catheter was successfully performed in all patients. The mean operating time was 24.3 minutes (range, 15 to 37 min). The mean blood loss was 5.6 mL (range, 5 to 20 mL). Catheter survival was 100% until February 2013. No major perioperative complications were found. A Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis found no significant difference between the 2 groups in sex, age, operative time, or blood loss. The catheter survival rate was significantly higher in the patients with two intra-abdominal fixations. Most patients were satisfied with the functional results of the Tenckhoff catheter.
The laparoscopic 2-site fixation technique is an effective and safe procedure but long-term follow-up and more cases are necessary.

The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a newly described technique introducing a local anesthetic agent between the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis muscles of the abdominal wall, which is safer and more reliable analgesia in recent years by ultrasound technique. We report the perioperative management of transversus abdominis plane block with catheterization for a patient with severe cardiac dysfunction and chronic kidney failure, who underwent bilateral inguinal hernioplasty. A bilateral TAP block was first performed with 0. Read More

5% ropivacaine 20 ml under ultrasonographic visualization on right side, and after sixty-minutes the other side injection was performed through the indwelling catheter. During the operation, the patient received a target-controlled infusion of 0.4-0.6 microg x ml(-1) propofol. The perioperative courses were uneventful and there was no adverse effect including central nervous system (CNS) symptoms.

Semin Dial
Semin Dial 2011 May-Jun;24(3):314-26. Epub 2011 Mar 25.
Department of Anaesthetics and Intensive Care Medicine, Craigavon Area Hospital, Portadown, United Kingdom.

Dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an expanding problem for healthcare systems worldwide. The prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased by 20% since 2000 and stands at 1699 per million people in the USA. ESRD is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidity, increased severity of cardiovascular disease, and an adjusted all-cause mortality rate that is 6. Read More

4-7.8-fold higher than the general population. These patients may present electively or emergently for surgery related to, or remote from, the CKD. In any perioperative setting, the patient with hemodialysis-dependent CKD represents a significant clinical challenge, and successful management of these patients requires effective cooperation and communication between nephrology, anesthesia, and surgical staff. The ESRD patient's nephrologist will have the best knowledge of their medical history, comorbidities, and future management goals and may have been the clinician who instigated the referral for the surgery, e.g., for parathyroidectomy, vascular access surgery, nephrectomy or renal transplantation. As such, they are in an ideal position to contribute to, or coordinate, early preoperative medical optimization of the patient and also to provide advice during postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. In this article, we provide an overview of some of the key aspects of managing these patients successfully during the perioperative period. We propose the integration of cardiopulmonary exercise testing and cardiovascular optimization into the care of these high-risk patients and provide an overview of the importance of maintaining microvascular perfusion and the role of viscosity in preserving the capillary perfusion network.

Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010 Sep;39(9):670-5
Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

Hand infections in patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF) are more diffi cult to treat and have had the worse outcomes. This paper examines the epidemiology, bacteriology and outcomes of surgically managed upper limb infections in these vulnerable patients.
All patients from a single centre with surgically-managed upper limb infections between 2001 and 2007 were reviewed. Read More

We collected epidemiological data on demographics, type and site of infection, bacteriology, surgical treatment, complications and mortality.
Forty-seven out of 803 (6%) patients with surgically managed upper limb infections in the study period had ESRF. The average age was 59 years. ESRF was secondary to diabetes in 88% of cases. Patients presented on average 7 days after onset of symptoms. Abscesses (34%), wet gangrene (26%) and osteomyelitis (11%) were the commonest infections. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the commonest pathogen (29%), occurring either in isolation or with other organisms. Eighteen percent of single organisms cultured were gram-negative. Multiple organisms occurred in 29%. A median of 2 operations were required. Thirty-six percent of all cases required amputation. Twenty-fi ve percent of patients had a life-threatening event (myocardial infarction or septic shock) during treatment.
ESRF patients present late with severe upper limb infections. Nosocomial infections are common. Initial empirical antibiotic treatment should cover MRSA and gram-negative bacteria. Immediate referral to a hand surgery unit is recommended. Multi-disciplinary management of the patient with input from physicians and anaesthetists or intensivists in the perioperative period is necessary to optimise the patient for surgery and to manage active medical comorbidities and complications after surgery.