Perioperative Management of the Female Patient Publications (101)

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Perioperative Management of the Female Patient Publications

2017Jan
A A Case Rep
A A Case Rep 2017 Jan;8(2):33-35
From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and †Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Provision of anesthesia for patients with mitochondrial disorders is associated with a unique set of challenges. These disorders are rare, which complicates efforts to develop high quality, evidence-based guidelines to inform the perioperative management of those who suffer from them. Accordingly, case reports remain an important source of information regarding their care. Read More

Here we present the case of a 27-year-old female patient with mitochondrial myopathy and a history suggestive of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility who received general anesthesia for 2 consecutive surgeries. The induction agents included fentanyl, ketamine, and methohexital. The maintenance agents were methohexital, sufentanil, and dexmedetomidine.

2016Dec
A A Case Rep
A A Case Rep 2016 Dec;7(12):251-255
From the Department of Anesthesiology, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

In this report, we present the case of a patient with biventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy, Ebstein anomaly, and a left atrial mass who required emergent placement of a left ventricular assist device. The noncompaction cardiomyopathy complicated the left ventricular assist device implantation procedure because the thickened, trabeculated myocardium made it difficult to place the inflow cannula. We discuss our perioperative management strategy, in which transesophageal echocardiography was used, to help the surgical team identify the proper cannula placement and provide a bridge to transplantation. Read More

2016May
Anesth. Analg.
Anesth Analg 2016 May;122(5):1614-24
From the *Department of Anaesthesia and Acute Pain Medicine, St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; †Western Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; ‡Anaesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Unit, Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne; and §Schools of Psychology, Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, and Medicine, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

Although most anesthesiologists will have 1 catastrophic perioperative event or more during their careers, there has been little research on their attitudes to assistive strategies after the event. There are wide-ranging emotional consequences for anesthesiologists involved in an unexpected intraoperative patient death, particularly if the anesthesiologist made an error. We used a between-groups survey study design to ask whether there are different attitudes to assistive strategies when a hypothetical patient death is caused by a drug error versus not caused by an error. Read More

First, we explored attitudes to generalized supportive strategies. Second, we examined our hypothesis that the presence of an error causing the hypothetical patient death would increase the perceived social stigma and self-stigma of help-seeking. Finally, we examined the strategies to assist help-seeking.
An anonymous, mailed, self-administered survey was conducted with 1600 consultant anesthesiologists in Australia on the mailing list of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. The participants were randomized into "error" versus "no-error" groups for the hypothetical scenario of patient death due to anaphylaxis. Nonparametric, descriptive, parametric, and inferential tests were used for data analysis. P' is used where P values were corrected for multiple comparisons.
There was a usable response rate of 48.9%. When an error had caused the hypothetical patient death, participants were more likely to agree with 4 of the 5 statements about support, including need for time off (P' = 0.003), counseling (P' < 0.001), a formal strategy for assistance (P' < 0.001), and the anesthesiologist not performing further cases that day (P' = 0.047). There were no differences between groups in perceived self-stigma (P = 0.98) or social stigma (P = 0.15) of seeking counseling, whether or not an error had caused the hypothetical patient death. Finally, when an error had caused the patient death, participants were more likely to agree with 2 of the 5 statements about help-seeking, including the need for a formal, hospital-based process that provides information on where to obtain professional counseling (P' = 0.006) and the availability of after-hours counseling services (P' = 0.035).
Our participants were more likely to agree with assistive strategies such as not performing further work that day, time off, counseling, formal support strategies, and availability of after-hours counseling services, when the hypothetical patient death from anaphylaxis was due to an error. The perceived stigma toward attending counseling was not affected by the presence or absence of an error as the cause of the patient death, disproving our hypothesis.

2016May
Anesth. Analg.
Anesth Analg 2016 May;122(5):1578-85
From the *Department of Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; †Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio; and ‡Process Improvement, James M Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence, Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Perioperative respiratory adverse events (PRAEs) are the most common cause of serious adverse events in children receiving anesthesia. Our primary aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction tool for the occurrence of PRAE from the onset of anesthesia induction until discharge from the postanesthesia care unit in children younger than 18 years undergoing elective ambulatory anesthesia for surgery and radiology. The incidence of PRAE was studied. Read More


We analyzed data from 19,059 patients from our department's quality improvement database. The predictor variables were age, sex, ASA physical status, morbid obesity, preexisting pulmonary disorder, preexisting neurologic disorder, and location of ambulatory anesthesia (surgery or radiology). Composite PRAE was defined as the presence of any 1 of the following events: intraoperative bronchospasm, intraoperative laryngospasm, postoperative apnea, postoperative laryngospasm, postoperative bronchospasm, or postoperative prolonged oxygen requirement. Development and validation of the risk prediction tool for PRAE were performed using a split sampling technique to split the database into 2 independent cohorts based on the year when the patient received ambulatory anesthesia for surgery and radiology using logistic regression. A risk score was developed based on the regression coefficients from the validation tool. The performance of the risk prediction tool was assessed by using tests of discrimination and calibration.
The overall incidence of composite PRAE was 2.8%. The derivation cohort included 8904 patients, and the validation cohort included 10,155 patients. The risk of PRAE was 3.9% in the development cohort and 1.8% in the validation cohort. Age ≤ 3 years (versus >3 years), ASA physical status II or III (versus ASA physical status I), morbid obesity, preexisting pulmonary disorder, and surgery (versus radiology) significantly predicted the occurrence of PRAE in a multivariable logistic regression model. A risk score in the range of 0 to 3 was assigned to each significant variable in the logistic regression model, and final score for all risk factors ranged from 0 to 11. A cutoff score of 4 was derived from a receiver operating characteristic curve to determine the high-risk category. The model C-statistic and the corresponding SE for the derivation and validation cohort was 0.64 ± 0.01 and 0.63 ± 0.02, respectively. Sensitivity and SE of the risk prediction tool to identify children at risk for PRAE was 77.6 ± 0.02 in the derivation cohort and 76.2 ± 0.03 in the validation cohort.
The risk tool developed and validated from our study cohort identified 5 risk factors: age ≤ 3 years (versus >3 years), ASA physical status II and III (versus ASA physical status I), morbid obesity, preexisting pulmonary disorder, and surgery (versus radiology) for PRAE. This tool can be used to provide an individual risk score for each patient to predict the risk of PRAE in the preoperative period.

2016Apr
Medicine (Baltimore)
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Apr;95(15):e3335
From the Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Jikei University school of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The aim of the study is to identify the potential risk factors of cerebral infarction associated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR). TEVAR was developed as a less invasive surgical alternative to conventional open repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. However, outcomes following TEVAR of aortic and distal arch aneurysms remain suboptimal. Read More

Cerebral infarction is a major concern during the perioperative period. We included 439 patients who underwent TEVAR of aortic aneurysms at a high-volume teaching hospital between July 2006 and June 2013. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify perioperative cerebral infarction risk factors. Four patients (0.9%) died within 30 days of TEVAR; 17 (3.9%) developed cerebral infarction. In univariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease and cerebral infarction and concomitant cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with cerebral infarction. "Shaggy aorta" presence, left subclavian artery coverage, carotid artery debranching, and pull-through wire use were identified as independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. In multivariate analysis, history of ischemic heart disease (odds ratio [OR] 6.49, P = 0.046) and cerebral infarction (OR 43.74, P = 0.031), "shaggy aorta" (OR 30.32, P < 0.001), pull-through wire use during surgery (OR 7.196, P = 0.014), and intraoperative blood loss ≥800 mL (OR 24.31, P = 0.017) were found to be independent risk factors of cerebral infarction. This study identified patient- and procedure-related risk factors of cerebral infarction following TEVAR. These results indicate that patient outcomes could be improved through the identification and management of procedure-related risk factors.

2016May
Anesth. Analg.
Anesth Analg 2016 May;122(5):1696-703
From the Departments of *Anesthesiology and Critical Care, †Orthopedic Surgery, and ‡Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; §Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; and ∥Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care Service, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California.

Adductor canal block (ACB) has emerged as an appealing alternative to femoral nerve block (FNB) that produces a predominantly sensory nerve block by anesthetizing the saphenous nerve. Studies have shown greater quadriceps strength preservation with ACB compared with FNB, but no advantage has yet been shown in terms of fall risk. The Tinetti scale is used by physical therapists to assess gait and balance, and total score can estimate a patient's fall risk. Read More

We designed this study to test the primary hypothesis that FNB results in a greater proportion of "high fall risk" patients postoperatively using the Tinetti score compared with ACB.
After institutional review board approval, informed written consent to participate in the study was obtained. Patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty were eligible for enrollment in this double-blind, randomized trial. Patients received either an ACB or FNB (20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine) with catheter placement (8 mL/h of 0.2% ropivacaine) in the setting of multimodal analgesia. Continuous infusion was stopped in the morning of postoperative day (POD)1 before starting physical therapy (PT). On POD1, PT assessed the primary outcome using the Tinetti score for gait and balance. Patients were considered to be at high risk of falling if they scored <19. Secondary outcomes included manual muscle testing of the quadriceps muscle strength, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and ambulation distance on POD1 and POD2. The quality of postoperative analgesia and the quality of recovery were assessed with American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire Revised and Quality of Recovery-9 questionnaire, respectively.
Sixty-two patients were enrolled in the study (31 ACB and 31 FNB). No difference was found in the proportion of "high fall risk" patients on POD1 (21/31 in the ACB group versus 24/31 in the FNB group [P = 0.7]; relative risk, 1.14 [95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.56]) or POD2 (7/31 in the ACB versus 14/31 in the FNB group [P = 0.06]; relative risk, 2.0 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-4.27]). The average distance of ambulation during PT and time to up and go were similar on POD1 and POD2. Manual muscle testing grades were significantly higher on POD1 in the ACB group when compared with that in the FNB (P = 0.001) (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney odds, 2.25 [95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.26]). There were no other differences in postoperative outcomes.
ACB results in greater preservation of quadriceps muscle strength. Although we did not detect a significant reduction in fall risk when compared with FNB, based on the upper limit of the relative risk, it may very well be present. Further study is needed with a larger sample size.

2016May
Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology 2016 May;124(5):1032-40
From the Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (P.S.M.); Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, People's Republic of China (M.T.V.C.); Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (J.K., A.F.); Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia (M.J.P.); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia (M.J.P.); Department of Anaesthesia and Pain Management, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (K.L.); Anaesthesia, Perioperative and Pain Medicine Unit, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (K.L.); Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (K.L.); Department of Surgery, Austin Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (P.J.P.); Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Victoria, Australia (P.J.P.); Department of Outcomes Research, Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (D.I.S.); Department of Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pharmacology, Geneva University Hospitals, University of Geneva, Switzerland (G.H.); Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (W.S.B.); Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada (W.S.B.); Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative and Acute Pain Management, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia (C.O.); and Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, United Kingdom (J.R.S.).

The Evaluation of Nitrous oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia II trial randomly assigned 7,112 noncardiac surgery patients to a nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide-free anesthetic; severe postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was a prespecified secondary end point. Thus, the authors evaluated the association between nitrous oxide, severe PONV, and effectiveness of PONV prophylaxis in this setting.
Univariate and multivariate analyses of patient, surgical, and other perioperative characteristics were used to identify the risk factors for severe PONV and to measure the impact of severe PONV on patient outcomes. Read More


Avoiding nitrous oxide reduced the risk of severe PONV (11 vs. 15%; risk ratio [RR], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.84]; P < 0.001), with a stronger effect in Asian patients (RR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.43 to 0.69]; interaction P = 0.004) but lower effect in those who received PONV prophylaxis (RR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.76 to 1.05]; P = 0.18). Gastrointestinal surgery was associated with an increased risk of severe PONV when compared with most other types of surgery (P < 0.001). Patients with severe PONV had lower quality of recovery scores (10.4 [95% CI, 10.2 to 10.7] vs. 13.1 [95% CI, 13.0 to 13.2], P < 0.0005); severe PONV was associated with postoperative fever (15 vs. 20%, P = 0.001). Patients with severe PONV had a longer hospital stay (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.05 to 1.23], P = 0.002).
The increased risk of PONV with nitrous oxide is near eliminated by antiemetic prophylaxis. Severe PONV, which is seen in more than 10% of patients, is associated with postoperative fever, poor quality of recovery, and prolonged hospitalization.

2016May
Anesth. Analg.
Anesth Analg 2016 May;122(5):1490-7
From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California; †Pacific Alliance Medical Center, Los Angeles, California; and ‡Department of Anesthesia, Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, California.

The aim of this study was to apply both IV fluid and forced-air warming to decrease perioperative hypothermia in women undergoing cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia. The authors hypothesize that combined-modality active warming (AW) would increase maternal temperature on arrival at the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and decrease the incidence of maternal perioperative hypothermia (<36°C) compared with no AW.
Forty-six healthy women (n = 23 per group) undergoing scheduled cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia (10-12 mg bupivacaine + 10 μg fentanyl) were enrolled in this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Read More

Women were randomly assigned to receive either AW (warmed IV fluid and lower body forced-air warmer) or no warming (NW; blankets only). SpotOn Monitoring System was used to measure core temperature intraoperatively and for 1 hour postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was maternal temperature on arrival at the PACU. Secondary outcome measures included incidence of maternal perioperative hypothermia (<36°C), incidence of shivering, thermal comfort scores (0-100 scale), Apgar scores, and umbilical cord blood gas analysis.
Demographic, obstetric, and surgical data were similar between study groups. The AW group (35.9°C ± 0.5°C) had a significantly higher temperature on arrival at the PACU compared with the NW group (35.5°C ± 0.5°C, P = 0.006; 95% confidence interval of mean difference, 0.1°C-0.7°C). Fourteen (64%) women in the AW group and 20 (91%) in the NW group were hypothermic during the study period (P = 0.031). Median (interquartile range) thermal comfort scores were 100 (95-100) in the AW group and 90 (70-100) in the NW group (P = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the incidence of intraoperative shivering (22% in the AW and 45% in the NW groups; P = 0.11), Apgar scores, or umbilical vein blood gas values between the study groups.
Fluid combined with forced-air warming is effective in decreasing the incidence of perioperative hypothermia and improving maternal thermal comfort. However, despite multimodal AW, the majority of women became hypothermic, and shivering was not prevented. The findings suggest that combined AW for cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia is difficult, and only modest benefit should be expected.

2016Mar
Obstet Gynecol
Obstet Gynecol 2016 Mar;127(3):593-7
Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences and Pediatric Surgery, University of Texas Health School of Medicine at Houston, and the Fetal Center, Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, Texas; the Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the Fetal Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; the Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, and the Fetal Treatment Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Ochsner Baptist Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Michigan Health Systems, Ann Arbor, Michigan; the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women's Health, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, St. Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; and the Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

To determine the current maternal and fetal selection criteria and operative approaches used at centers performing fetal myelomeningocele surgery.
The 17 principal investigators participating in the Fetal Myelomeningocele Consortium were asked to participate in an anonymous online survey regarding the current practice of maternal-fetal surgery for neural tube defect repair and results were tabulated. The 35-question survey related to diagnostic testing, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and clinical management. Read More


Sixty-five percent (11/17) of principal investigators responded to the survey and not all centers responded to all 35 questions. All centers continue to use magnetic resonance imaging in their preoperative evaluation. Diagnostic testing from amniocentesis is varied: 5 of 11 (45%) require amniotic fluid α-fetoprotein, 4 of 10 (40%) amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase, and 8 of 11 (73%) DNA microarray. There is also variation from the Management of Myelomeningocele Study with regard to body mass index (BMI) (1/11; 9% would offer surgery with BMIs higher than 35), maternal medical risk factors (surgery would be offered for controlled pregestational diabetes [3/10 (30%)]), hepatitis C with negative viral load (4/11 [36%]), and human immunodeficiency virus with an undetectable viral load (1/10 [10%] or an obstetric history [3/11 (27%)] would offer surgery with a history of preterm delivery on progesterone). Ten of 11 (91%) centers did not consider ventriculomegaly of 18 mm and 9 of 11 (82%) centers did not consider lack of leg movement as an exclusion criteria. Nuances in the perioperative and intraoperative management were also reported, including 5 of 11 (45%) use intraoperative echocardiography and alterations in postoperative tocolytics.
Variation in practice patterns for offering and performing maternal-fetal surgery for myelomeningocele repair exists among centers. Ongoing evaluation of inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as operative techniques is warranted to ensure continued safety, effectiveness, and beneficence.

2016Feb
Simul Healthc
Simul Healthc 2016 Feb;11(1):25-31
From the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (G.H., B.C.) and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (K.D.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

The aim of the study was to assess knowledge of labor and delivery healthcare providers at a tertiary referral center in the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
Thirteen multidisciplinary teams participated in this institutional review board-exempt study. Each group encountered the same scenario that involved a pre-eclamptic parturient who progressed to eclampsia. Read More

The participants were unaware of the scenario topic before the drill and that key interventions would be recorded and timed. Seven of 13 groups were randomized to have a cognitive aid available.
Twelve of 13 groups attempted to lower the blood pressure; however, only 7 of 12 groups used the correct first-line antihypertensive medication as per the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' guidelines. All groups requested and administered the correct bolus dose of magnesium (4-6 g intravenously). Only 2 of 13 groups took appropriate action to lower the blood pressure to a "safe range" before induction of general anesthesia, and 4 of the 13 anesthesiologists made drug modifications for induction of anesthesia. None of the 7 groups randomized to have a cognitive aid used it.
Our results show widespread magnesium sulfate utilization; however, the use of antihypertensive medication is not universally administered in compliance with current guidelines. The importance of blood pressure management to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in the setting of pre-eclampsia needs to be emphasized. Interestingly, availability of a cognitive aid did not ensure its utilization in this scenario. Findings suggest that for cognitive aids to be effectively used, it is essential that staff has been trained and become familiar with them before an emergent event.