Perioperative Management of the Diabetic Patient Publications (260)
Perioperative Management of the Diabetic Patient Publications
The objective of this study was to determine the long-term clinical effectiveness of the management of chronic PDN at tertiary pain centres.
From a prospective observational cohort study of patients with chronic neuropathic non-cancer pain recruited from seven Canadian tertiary pain centres, 60 patients diagnosed with PDN were identified for analysis. Data were collected according to Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials guidelines including the Brief Pain Inventory.
At 12-month follow-up, 37.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.0-53.3) of 43 patients with complete data achieved pain reduction of ≥30%, 51.2% (95% CI, 35.5-66.7) achieved functional improvement with a reduction of ≥1 on the Pain Interference Scale (0-10, Brief Pain Inventory) and 30.2% (95% CI, 17.2-46.1) had achieved both these measures. Symptom management included at least two medication classes in 55.3% and three medication classes in 25.5% (opioids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants).
Almost one-third of patients being managed for PDN in a tertiary care setting achieve meaningful improvements in pain and function in the long term. Polypharmacy including analgesic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were the mainstays of effective symptom management.
Anesthesiologists and sedation providers must also understand certain surgical and anesthetic considerations when planning an effective and safe anesthetic for diabetic patients. This is a 2-part series concerning perioperative glycemic control for patients with diabetes mellitus. Part 1 will focus on the physiology of diabetes and its associated disease states. Part 2 will address the pharmacology associated with the wide variety of medications used to treat the disorder and the most recent guidelines for blood glucose management in ambulatory surgical patients.
(R) • Patients with hypertension of over 180/110 or associated target organ damage, should have antihypertensive medication started pre-operatively as per British Hypertension Society guidelines. (R) • Rapidly correcting pre-operative hypertension with beta blockade appears to cause higher mortality due to stroke and hypotension and should not be used. (R) • Patients with poorly controlled or unstable ischaemic heart disease should be referred for cardiology assessment pre-operatively. (G) • Patients within one year of drug eluting stents should be discussed with the cardiologist who was responsible for their percutaneous coronary intervention pre-operatively with regard to cessation of antiplatelet medication due to risk of stent thrombosis. (G) • Patients with multiple recent stents should be managed in a centre with access to interventional cardiology. (G) • Surgery after myocardial infarction should be delayed if possible to reduce mortality risk. (R) • Patients with critical aortic stenosis (AS) should be considered for pre-operative intervention. (G) • Clopidogrel should be discontinued 7 days pre-operatively; warfarin should be discontinued 5 days pre-operatively. (R) • Patients with thromboembolic disease or artificial heart valves require heparin therapy to bridge peri-operative warfarin cessation, this should start 2 days after last warfarin dose. (R) • Cardiac drugs other than angotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists should be continued including on the day of surgery. (R) • Angotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists should be withheld on the day of surgery unless they are for the treatment of heart failure. (R) • Post-operative care in a critical care area should be considered for patients with heart failure or significant diastolic dysfunction. (R) • Patients with respiratory disease should have their peri-operative respiratory failure risk assessed and critical care booked accordingly. (G) • Patients with severe lung disease should be assessed for right heart disease pre-operatively. (G) • Patients with pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure will be at extraordinarily high risk and should have the need for surgery re-evaluated. (G) • Perioperative glucose readings should be kept within 4-12 mmol/l. (R) • Patients with a high HbA1C facing urgent surgery should have their diabetes management assessed by a diabetes specialist. (G) • Insulin-dependent diabetic patients must not omit insulin for more than one missed meal and will therefore require an insulin replacement regime. (R) • Patients taking more than 5 mg of prednisolone daily should have steroid replacement in the peri-operative period. (R) • Consider proton pump therapy for patients taking steroids in the peri-operative phase if they fit higher risk criteria. (R) • Surgery within three months of stroke carries high risk of further stroke and should be delayed if possible. (R) • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis should have flexion/extension views assessed by a senior radiologist pre-operatively. (R) • Patients at risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium should be highlighted at pre-operative assessment. (G) • Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) must have enteral access so drugs can be given intra-operatively. Liaison with a specialist in PD is essential. (R) • Intravenous iron should be considered for anaemia in the urgent head and neck cancer patient. (G) • Preoperative blood transfusion should be avoided where possible. (R) • Where pre-operative transfusion is essential it should be completed 24-48 hours pre-operatively. (R) • An accurate alcohol intake assessment should be completed for all patients. (G) • Patients considered to have a high level of alcohol dependency should be considered for active in-patient withdrawal at least 48 hours pre-operatively in liaison with relevant specialists. (R) • Parenteral B vitamins should be given routinely on admission to alcohol-dependent patients. (R) • Smoking cessation, commenced preferably six weeks before surgery, decreases the incidence of post-operative complications. (R) • Antibiotics are necessary for clean-contaminated head and neck surgery, but unnecessary for clean surgery. (R) • Antibiotics should be administered up to 60 minutes before skin incision, as close to the time of incision as possible. (R) • Antibiotic regimes longer than 24 hours have no additional benefit in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery. (R) • Repeat intra-operative antibiotic dosing should be considered for longer surgeries or where there is major blood loss. (R) • Local antibiotic policies should be developed and adhered to due to local resistance patterns. (G) • Individual assessment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk and bleeding risk should occur on admission and be reassessed throughout the patients' stay. (G) • Mechanical prophylaxis for VTE is recommended for all patients with one or more risk factors for VTE. (R) • Patients with additional risk factors of VTE and low bleeding risk should have low molecular weight heparin at prophylactic dose or unfractionated heparin if they have severe renal impairment. (R).
In contrast, transcatheter aortic valve implantation emerges as a viable option for dialysis patients. Herein, we present the long-term follow-up of successful kidney transplantation after TAVI in a diabetic patient receiving long-term hemodialysis.
We discuss the management of this case. In addition, we highlight the importance of glycosylated haemoglobin as a subject of future research in identifying such "at risk" patients and for stratifying the risk of hyperglycaemic complications in perioperative settings.
Thus, the presence of an acute acid-base disturbance requires a thorough workup, the results of which will influence the patient's anesthetic management. CASE REPORT An otherwise-healthy 24-year-old female presented for elective spine surgery and was found to have metabolic acidosis, hypotension, and polyuria intraoperatively. Common causes of acute metabolic acidosis were investigated and systematically ruled out, including lactic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, drug-induced ketoacidosis, ingestion of toxic alcohols (e.g., methanol, ethylene glycol), uremia, and acute renal failure. Laboratory workup was remarkable only for elevated serum and urinary ketone levels, believed to be secondary to starvation ketoacidosis. Due to the patient's unexplained acid-base disturbance, she was kept intubated postoperatively to allow for further workup and management. CONCLUSIONS Starvation ketoacidosis is not widely recognized as a perioperative entity, and it is not well described in the medical literature. Lack of anesthesiologist awareness about this disorder may complicate the differential diagnosis for acute intraoperative metabolic acidosis and lead to a prolonged postoperative stay and an increase in hospital costs. The short- and long-term implications of perioperative ketoacidosis are not well defined and require further investigation.
A single-institution, retrospective analysis of 155 morbidly obese diabetic patients who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) from 2010 to 2014 was performed. Inpatient finger-stick glucose levels were extracted from the electronic health record and defined as optimal if all values were <180 mg/dl. Ninety-day and one-year outcomes, including diabetes resolution, medication management, mortality and total costs were compared for patients with and without optimal control.
80 % (n = 124) of patients with type II diabetes underwent RYGB, while the remaining patients underwent LSG. Diabetes resolution at 1 year was 70.1 % (73.4 % for RYGB and 53.9 % for LSG, p = 0.191). Preoperatively, 72 % (n = 112) of patients were taking one or more oral antihyperglycemic agents, while only 50.3 % (n = 78) took an oral medication on discharge. 93 % of RYGB and 82 % of LSG patients, respectively, reduced their long-acting insulin dosage by greater than 50 % upon discharge (p = 0.251). Ninety-day and one-year outcomes including total costs were not improved by optimal perioperative glucose control. In total, 96.7 % of optimally controlled patients experienced diabetes resolution at 1 year compared to 53.2 % in the non-optimally controlled group (p < 0.001).
Bariatric surgery leads to significant resolution of type II diabetes and a prompt improvement in glucose tolerance in the perioperative period. Optimal glucose control as defined by the ASMBS was not associated with improved postoperative outcomes in our patient population but was highly predictive of long-term diabetes resolution.
This retrospective observational study aimed to compare the effects of remifentanil-based general anesthesia (GEA) and popliteal nerve block (PNB) on postoperative pain and hemodynamic stability in diabetic patients undergoing distal foot amputation.A total of 59 consecutive patients with a diabetic foot who underwent distal foot amputation between January 2012 and May 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients received remifentanil-based GEA (GEA group, n = 32) or PNB (PNB group, n = 27). The primary outcomes were to evaluate postoperative analgesic effects and perioperative hemodynamics. Also, postoperative pulmonary complications and 6-month mortality were assessed as secondary outcomes.Significant differences in pain scores using numeric rating scale were observed between the groups in a linear mixed model analysis (PGroup×Time = 0.044). Even after post hoc analysis with the Bonferroni correction, the numeric rating scale scores were significantly lower in the PNB group. Furthermore, patients in the PNB group required less pethidine during the first 6 hours after surgery (27 ± 28 vs 9 ± 18 mg; P = 0.013). The GEA group had a lower mean blood pressure (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.01), despite receiving more ephedrine (P < 0.001). Significantly more patients in the GEA group suffered from postoperative pneumonia and required the management in intensive care unit (P = 0.030 and 0.038, respectively). However, the groups did not differ in terms of 6-month mortality.This study demonstrated that compared with remifentanil-based GEA, PNB might be a favorable option for diabetic patients undergoing distal foot amputation, despite the lack of significant mortality benefits, as PNB was associated with improved postoperative analgesia, hemodynamic stability, and a low incidence of pulmonary complications during the immediate postoperative period, especially in high-risk patients.
First, a questionnaire elicited practices and beliefs concerning various aspects of the surgical management of DFO. Thereafter, we constructed 63 statements for analysis and, using a nine-point Likert scale, asked the panelists to indicate the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with the statements. We defined consensus as a mean score of greater than 7.0.
The panelists reached consensus on 38 items after three rounds. Among these, seven provide guidance on initial diagnosis of DFO and selection of patients for surgical management. Another 15 statements provide guidance on specific aspects of operative management, including the timing of operations and the type of specimens to be obtained. Ten statements provide guidance on postoperative management, including wound closure and offloading, and six statements summarize the panelists' agreement on general principles for surgical management of DFO.
Consensus statement on the perioperative management of DFO were formed with an expert panel comprised of a variety of surgical specialties. We believe these statements may serve as 'best practice' guidelines until properly performed studies provide more robust evidence to support or refute specific surgical management steps in DFO.
Patient data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network were matched with survey data from 15 Family Health Team practices in southeastern Ontario. Included patients were adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had at least 1 primary care encounter at a Family Health Team practice that completed the organizational survey between Apr. 1, 2013, and Mar. 31, 2014. The clinical outcomes explored included hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and urine albumin:creatinine ratio.
Of the 15 practices, 13 (86.7%) had at least 1 registered nurse. The presence of 1 or more registered nurses in the practice was associated with increased odds of patients' having their hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values meet recommended targets. Practices with the lowest ratios of patients with diabetes to registered nurse had a significantly greater proportion of patients with hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose values on target than did practices with the highest ratios of patients to registered nurse (p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively).
The findings suggest that registered nurse staffing within primary care practice teams contributes to better diabetic care, as measured by diabetes management indicators. This study sets the groundwork for further exploration of nursing and organizational contributions to patient care in the primary care setting.