Perioperative DVT Prophylaxis Publications (182)
Perioperative DVT Prophylaxis Publications
Ultrasonographic measurements of the left common femoral vein (CFV) and right internal jugular vein (IJV) were performed preoperatively, in the postanesthesia care unit, and on postoperative day (POD) 1. Parameters of interest included vessel diameter, circumference, area, and maximum flow velocity. Results Eighteen patients with a mean age and body mass index of 52.7 years (range, 29-76 years) and 31.3 kg/m(2) (range, 21.9-43.4 kg/m(2)) were included, respectively. A 29.8% increase in CFV diameter was observed on POD 1 (p < 0.0001). Similarly, a 24.3 and 69.9% increase in CFV circumference (p = 0.0007) and area (p < 0.0001) were noted, respectively. These correlated with a 28.4% decrease in maximum flow velocity in the CFV (p = 0.0001). Of note, none of these parameters displayed significant changes for the IJV, thus indicating that observed changes in the CFV were not the result of changes in perioperative fluid status. Conclusion Postoperative changes observed in the CFV reflect increased lower extremity venous stasis after microsurgical breast reconstruction and may contribute to postoperative DVT formation.
Perioperative pharmacological antithrombotic prophylaxis was not prescribed to any of the patient as per the institutional protocol. All the patients underwent colour duplex ultrasound of the bilateral lower limbs - preoperatively to determine the baseline status, and on 7th and 28th day postoperatively to look for presence of DVT. None of the patient in the study cohort showed clinical or radiological evidence of lower limb deep vein thrombosis. Our study suggests very low incidence of deep vein thrombosis in Indian patients undergoing surgery for thoracic and abdomino-pelvic malignancy.
We have launched a phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-term (3 days) enoxaparin, in which a total of 70 gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy will be recruited, and the primary endpoint is the incidence of DVT. This study could contribute to making pharmacologic prophylaxis for VTE more common.
SETTING Tertiary medical center between January 2012 and August 2014. PARTICIPANTS All adult patients ventilated for at least 24 hours at our institution. INTERVENTIONS We conducted univariate analyses for compliance with each element; we focused on VAEs occurring within a 2-day window of failure to meet any ventilator bundle element. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the effect of stress ulcer prophylaxis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis, oral care, and sedation breaks on VAEs. We adjusted models for gender, age, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores. RESULTS Our cohort comprised 2,660 patients with 16,858 ventilator days and 77 VAEs. Adjusting for APACHE score and gender, only oral care was associated with a reduction in the risk of VAE (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.77). The DVT prophylaxis and sedation breaks did not show any significant impact on VAEs. Stress ulcer prophylaxis trended toward an increased risk of VAE (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.00-2.56). CONCLUSION Although limited by a low baseline rate of VAEs, existing ventilator bundle practices do not appear to target VAEs well. Oral care is clearly important, but the impact of DVT prophylaxis, sedation breaks, and especially stress ulcer prophylaxis are questionable at best. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1453-1457.
Here, we report 2 cases of perioperative SPTE in the Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China. Clinical data of 2 cases was collected and analyzed. Both patients were screened by quantitative D-dimer assay and lower limbs ultrasonography, while diagnoses were made according to computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Therapeutic medications include heparin, low molecular weight heparin, followed by long-term anticoagulation with oral warfarin. Both cases showed significantly elevated D-dimer before and after onset of SPTE. But in 1 case, ultrasonography reported negative venous thromboembolism. CTPA confirmed all diagnosis of SPTE. Repeated CTPA after anticoagulant therapy identified therapeutic efficacy. And during the follow-up period of 5 or 6 years, both patients acquired full recovery without clinical complications.
Significant decline of D-dimer was observed after the comprehensive management of SPTE (case 1: preop vs postop 573 vs 50 μg/L; case 2: preop vs postop 246 vs 50 μg/L). Ultrasonography was used for suspicious of DVT, while CTPA was used for confirming SPTE diagnosis.
Clinicians should be aware of the importance of early recognition of SPTE. Effective management of risk factors of hyper-coagulation state should be the key to prophylaxis. And routine monitor of D-dimer as well as regular check of lower limbs ultrasonography should be standardized and included in guidelines of neurosurgical patient management.
A total of 5,405 patients at our institution underwent cervical diskectomy, laminectomy, corpectomy, laminoplasty, or fusion between 1995 and 2012; 85 of the 5,405 patients (1.57%) suffered either a DVT (55) or pulmonary embolus (51) within 30 days postoperatively. The cases were matched 1:2 to controls based on age, sex, and date of surgery. Data regarding multiple perioperative factors, demographics, and comorbidities was collected.
Several risk factors were identified for VTE. Significant medical comorbidities included chronic venous insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 3.40), atrial fibrillation (OR = 2.69), obesity (OR = 2.67), and ischemic heart disease (OR = 2.18). Staged surgery (OR = 28.0), paralysis (OR = 19.0), combined approach (OR = 7.46), surgery for infection (OR = 18.5), surgery for trauma (OR = 11.1), comorbid traumatic injuries (OR > 10), oncologic procedures (OR = 5.2), use of iliac crest autograft (OR = 4.16), two or more surgical levels (OR = 3.48), blood loss > 300 mL (OR = 1.66), and length of stay 5 days or greater (OR = 3.47) were all found to be risk factors for VTE (p < 0.05) in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis found staged surgery (OR = 35.7), paralysis (OR = 7.86), and nonelective surgery (OR = 6.29) to be independent risk factors for VTE.
Although the incidence of VTE following cervical spine surgery is low, we identified several risk factors that may be predictive. More aggressive approaches to prophylaxis and surveillance in certain patient populations may be warranted.
In the patients of both groups the product dabigatran etexilate in the standard dosage (220 mg/day) was used for specific prevention.
The authors managed to confirm qualitatively and quantitatively the effectiveness of the new variant of non-specific prevention in patients with a high risk of TEC development. Similar changes of the parameters of blood coagulation system were obtained at the use of electroneurostimulation of the shin muscles against the background of the use of the direct anticoagulant dabigatran etexilate. The numbers of thromboses in the group of patients with degenerative and dystrophic diseases of the hip joint with and without arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities are quite comparable (3.7 and 6%). Recanalization of the veins of the lower extremities in every individual case was achieved at the use of therapeutic doses of dabigatran etexilate (300 mg/day). The use of dabigatran etexilate permitted to minimize the risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) at hip interventions and contributed to recanalization of veins in recent thromboses in the postoperative period.
The intraoperative blood loss in group T was less than that in group N, but perioperative blood loss showed no significant defference between the two groups. Pain and nerve injury between the two groups were comparable for 24 hours postoperatively. There was no significant defference in the incidence of DVT, and no pulmonary thromboembolism occurred.
Using a TQ which could not decrease the amount of perioperative blood loss did not affect the incidences of postoperative pain, nerve injury and, risk of DVT between the two groups.
Lower extremity venous duplex ultrasound was performed prior to surgery and 4-6 weeks after surgery. Eleven centres enrolled 51 subjects, 46 of whom completed the study. Six subjects (13.0 %) were treated with bypass agents perioperatively; the remaining 40 subjects received factor VIII or IX replacement. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices were utilised postoperatively in 23 subjects (50 %), and four subjects (8.7 %) also received low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis. One subject (2.2 %) with moderate haemophilia A was diagnosed with symptomatic distal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) on day 6 following TKA. One subject (2.2 %) with severe haemophilia A was diagnosed with pulmonary embolism on day 9 following bilateral TKA. No subjects had asymptomatic DVT. Eighteen subjects (39.1 %) had major bleeding, and three subjects (6.5 %) experienced minor bleeding. The observed prevalence of ultrasound-detectable, asymptomatic DVT in PWH following TKA or THA in this study was low, but the incidence of symptomatic VTE (4.3 %, 95 % CI, 0.5-14.8 %) appeared similar to the estimated incidence in the general population without thromboprophylaxis.
e. with obese or renal failure patients), where anti-FXa level measuring is recommended. However, there is neither recommendation of adequate anti-FXa levels in critically ill patients nor is it known whether peak or trough level should be measured. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the recommended LMWH doses, and the reasons to monitor anti-FXa levels.
We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.com to identify all potentially relevant studies. Prospective studies done in critically ill patients were included if at least one anti-FXa level (i.e. peak or trough) after any specified LMWH thromboprophylaxis dose was measured.
Total 18 eligible studies including 1644 patients were included. There was a wide variation in the median peak anti-FXa levels (<0.1-0.35IU/ml). Trough levels were generally low. Of note, none of the studies detected any correlation with bleeding events and anti-FXa levels. Low trough level increased incidence of DVT in one study only.
Based on the current literature, no definite conclusions can be drawn on targeted anti-FXa level in critically ill patients when using LMWH thromboprophylaxis.