Pericarditis Constrictive Publications (3738)


Pericarditis Constrictive Publications

Prog Cardiovasc Dis
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Constrictive pericarditis (CP) represents a form of severe diastolic heart failure (HF), secondary to a noncompliant pericardium. The true prevalence of CP is unknown but it is observed in 0.2-0. Read More

4% of patients who have undergone cardiac surgery or have had pericardial trauma or inflammation due to a variety of etiologies. Despite its poor prognosis if untreated, CP is a potentially curable disease and surgical pericardiectomy can now be performed at low perioperative mortality in tertiary centers with surgical expertise in pericardial diseases. Cardiologists should have a high index of suspicion for CP in patients presenting with predominant right-sided (HF), particularly when a history of cardiac surgery, pericarditis or pericardial effusion is present. Transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is usually the first diagnostic tool in the evaluation of HF and can reliably identify CP in most patients by characteristic real-time motion of the heart and hemodynamic features. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide incremental data for the diagnosis and management of CP and are especially helpful when clinical or echocardiographic findings are inconclusive. Cardiac catheterization has been the gold-standard for the diagnosis of CP, but may not be necessary if non-invasive test(s) demonstrate diagnostic features of CP; it should then be reserved for selected cases or for assessment of concomitant coronary disease. Although most patients with CP require pericardiectomy, anti-inflammatory therapy may be curative in patients presenting with subacute symptoms, especially when evidence of marked ongoing inflammation is seen.

J Med Case Rep
J Med Case Rep 2016 Dec 20;10(1):359. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sendai Kousei Hospital, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease is increasingly recognized as a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by immunoglobulin G4-positive lymphocyte infiltration. Organ biopsy and histopathology are the most important diagnostic methods; however, the significance of a cytological examination in immunoglobulin G4-related disease cases is still unclear.
A 73-year-old Asian man who was a former tobacco smoker presented with progressive exertional dyspnea, systemic edema, and pericardial effusion. Read More

A cytological examination of his pericardial effusion detected three or four plasma cells per high-power field by Giemsa staining. Moreover, immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells were detected by immunostaining. Cardiac catheterization after pericardiocentesis revealed that both ventricular pressure traces showed an early diastolic dip and plateau. Positron-emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose imaging revealed inflammatory foci in his pericardium. A surgical pericardiectomy was performed and the resultant specimen showed significant immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cell infiltration and marked fibrous thickening of his pericardium; therefore, a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis due to immunoglobulin G4-related disease was made. Oral administration of 0.6-mg/kg/day prednisolone resolved his heart failure and he was discharged on foot 1 week later.
Our experience with this case indicates that cytological examination of pericardial effusion was useful in the diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related disease.

Cardiovasc J Afr
Cardiovasc J Afr 2016 Nov/Dec;27(6):350-355
Medi-Clinic Hospital, Durbanville, South Africa.

Tuberculous (TB) pericarditis carries significant mortality and morbidity rates, not only during the primary infection, but also as part of the granulomatous scar-forming fibrocalcific constrictive pericarditis so commonly associated with this disease. Numerous therapies have previously been investigated as adjuvant strategies in the prevention of pericardial constriction. Colchicine is well described in the treatment of various aetiologies of pericarditis. Read More

The aim of this research was to investigate the merit for the use of colchicine in the management of tuberculous pericarditis, specifically to prevent constrictive pericarditis.
This pilot study was designed as a prospective, double-blinded, randomised, control cohort study and was conducted at a secondary level hospital in the Northern Cape of South Africa between August 2013 and December 2015. Patients with a probable or definite diagnosis of TB pericarditis were included (n = 33). Study participants with pericardial effusions amenable to pericardiocentesis underwent aspiration until dryness. All patients were treated with standard TB treatment and corticosteroids in accordance with the South African Tuberculosis Treatment Guidelines. Patients were randomised to an intervention and control group using a web-based computer system that ensured assignment concealment. The intervention group received colchicine 1.0 mg per day for six weeks and the control group received a placebo for the same period. Patients were followed up with serial echocardiography for 16 weeks. The primary outcome assessed was the development of pericardial constriction. Upon completion of the research period, the blinding was unveiled and data were presented for statistical analysis.
TB pericarditis was found exclusively in HIV-positive individuals. The incidence of pericardial constriction in our cohort was 23.8%. No demonstrable benefit with the use of colchicine was found in terms of prevention of pericardial constriction (p = 0.88, relative risk 1.07, 95% CI: 0.46-2.46). Interestingly, pericardiocentesis appeared to decrease the incidence of pericardial constriction.
Based on this research, the use of colchicine in TB pericarditis cannot be advised. Adjuvant therapy in the prevention of pericardial constriction is still being investigated and routine pericardiocentesis may prove to be beneficial in this regard.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2016 Dec 1. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini, Pediatria II, Genova, Italy; University of Genova, Genova, Italy. Electronic address:
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
Eur J Clin Invest 2016 Dec 8. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
1st Cardiology Department, Hippokration Hospital, Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.

The pathophysiology of acute pericarditis remains largely unknown, and biomarkers are needed to identify patients susceptible to complications. As adipose tissue has a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, we hypothesized that quantification of epicardial fat volume (EFV) provides prognostic information in patients with acute pericarditis.
Fifty (n = 50) patients with first diagnosis of acute pericarditis were enrolled in this study. Read More

Patients underwent a cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan to quantify EFV on a dedicated workstation. Patients were followed up in hospital for atrial fibrillation (AF) development and up to 18 months for the composite clinical endpoint of development of constrictive, recurrent or incessant pericarditis or poor response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Patients presenting with chest pain had lower EFV vs. patients without chest pain (167·2 ± 21·7 vs. 105·1 ± 11·1 cm(3) , respectively, P < 0·01); EFV (but not body mass index) was strongly positively correlated with pericardial effusion size (r = 0·395, P = 0·007) and associated with in-hospital AF. At follow-up, patients that reached the composite clinical endpoint had lower EFV (P < 0·05). After adjustment for age, EFV was associated with lower odds ratio for the composite clinical endpoint point of poor response to NSAIDs or the development of constrictive, recurrent or incessant pericarditis during follow-up (per 20 cm(3) increase in EFV: OR = 0·802 [0·656-0·981], P < 0·05).
We report for the first time a significant association of EFV with the clinical features and the outcome of patients with acute pericarditis. Measurement of EFV by CT may have important prognostic implications in these patients.

J Tehran Heart Cent
J Tehran Heart Cent 2016 Apr;11(2):92-97
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by impaired diastolic cardiac function leading to heart failure. Pericardiectomy is considered effective treatment for CP, but data on long-term clinical outcomes after pericardiectomy are limited.Methods and Results:We retrospectively investigated 45 consecutive patients (mean age, 59±14 years) who underwent pericardiectomy for CP. Read More

Preoperative clinical factors, parameters of cardiac catheterization, and cardiac events were examined. Cardiac events were defined as hospitalization owing to heart failure or cardiac death.Median follow-up was 5.7 years. CP etiology was idiopathic in 16 patients, post-cardiac surgery (CS) in 21, tuberculosis-related in 4, non-tuberculosis infection-related in 2, infarction-related in 1, and post-radiation in 1. The 5-year event-free survival was 65%. Patients with idiopathic CP and tuberculosis-related CP had favorable outcomes compared with post-CS CP (5-year event-free survival: idiopathic, 80%; tuberculosis, 100%; post-CS, 52%). Higher age (hazard ratio: 2.51), preoperative atrial fibrillation (3.25), advanced New York Heart Association class (3.92), and increased pulmonary artery pressure (1.06) were predictors of cardiac events. Patients with postoperative right-atrial pressure ≥9 mmHg had lower event-free survival than those with right-atrial pressure <9 mmHg (39% vs. 75% at 5 years, P=0.013).
Long-term clinical outcomes after pericardiectomy among a Japanese population were related to the underlying etiology and the patient's preoperative clinical condition. Postoperative cardiac catheterization may be helpful in the prediction of prognosis after pericardiectomy.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2016 Dec 1. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Pericardial heart disease includes pericarditis, (an acute, subacute, or chronic fibrinous, noneffusive, or exudative process), and its complications, constriction, (an acute, subacute, or chronic adhesive or fibrocalcific response), and cardiac tamponade. The pathophysiology of cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis readily explains their respective findings on clinical examination, Doppler echocardiography, and at cardiac catheterization. The primary abnormality of cardiac tamponade is pan-cyclic compression of the cardiac chambers by increased pericardial fluid requiring that cardiac chambers compete for a fixed intrapericardial volume. Read More

Features responsible for the pathophysiology include transmission of thoracic pressure through the pericardium and heightened ventricular interdependence. Constrictive pericarditis is a condition in which the pericardium limits diastolic filling and causes dissociation of intracardiac and intrathoracic pressures, and heightened ventricular interdependence. Both conditions result in diastolic dysfunction, elevated and equal venous and ventricular diastolic pressure, respiratory variation in ventricular filling, and ultimately, reduced cardiac output.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2016 Oct;6(Suppl 1):S13-S19
Department of Cardio-Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Bouake Teaching Hospital, Bouake, Cote d'Ivoire.

Surgical experience with chronic constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is rarely documented in Africa; the aim of this study is therefore to review our African experience with CCP from 1977 to 2012 in terms of clinical and surgical outcomes and risk factors of early death after pericardiectomy.
This retrospective study is related to 120 patients with CCP; there were 72 men and 48 women with an average age at 28.8±10. Read More

4 years standard deviation (SD) (8-51 years). The main etiology was tuberculosis (99%). Symptoms secondary to systemic venous congestion were always present: patient were functionally classified according New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification: 63 patients presented in class II NYHA and 57 in class III or IV NYHA. The diagnosis confirmed by surgical report was: sub-acute CCP (n=12; 10%), fibrous CCP (n=36; 30%), calcified CCP (n=72; 60%). A pericardiectomy including an epicardiectomy with a systematic release of the ventricles was carried out in every case. Median sternotomy was frequently performed (n=117; 97.5%).
Fifteen early deaths (12.5%) were observed, the cause of hospital deaths was due to a low cardiac output (n=12) and to a hepatic failure (n=3). Class III or IV (NYHA) (P=0.01), mitral regurgitation (P<0.05), persistent a diastolic syndrome after surgery (P<0.05) and low cardiac index (CI) (P<0.02) were the important risk factors. Age, size of cardiac X-ray silhouette, right and left ventricular diastolic pressures, ejection fraction (EF), atrial fibrillation and pericardial calcifications had no impact on early survival. The average follow up was 4 years (1-10 years); we lost 22 patients during follow-up. Among survivors, there was no late death; the patients were in class I or II NYHA. Post-operative catheterization evaluation (n=30) shown a significant decrease of the right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures (P<0.05), of the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (P<0.05) and of the right atrial pressure (RAP) (P<0.05) and a disappearance of the lack of ventricular diastolic distensibility.
Based on our experience, CCP surgery can be performed safely with an acceptable hospital mortality and a significant improvement of patients' functional status at long term after surgery.

BMC Infect. Dis.
BMC Infect Dis 2016 Nov 29;16(1):719. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, 120-752, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In areas where Mycobacterium tuberculosis is endemic, tuberculosis is known to be the most common cause of pericarditis. However, the difficulty in diagnosis may lead to late complications such as constrictive pericarditis and increased mortality. Therefore, identification of patients at a high risk for poor prognosis, and prompt initiation of treatment are important in the outcome of TB pericarditis. Read More

The aim of this study is to identify the predictive factors for unfavorable outcomes of TB pericarditis in HIV-uninfected persons in an intermediate tuberculosis burden country.
A retrospective review of 87 cases of TB pericarditis diagnosed at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea was performed. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, complications during treatment, duration of treatment, and medication history were reviewed. Unfavorable outcome was defined as constrictive pericarditis identified on echocardiography performed 3 to 6 months after initial diagnosis of TB pericarditis, cardiac tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis, or death. Predictive factors for unfavorable outcomes were identified.
Of the 87 patients, 44 (50.6%) had unfavorable outcomes; cardiac tamponade (n = 36), constrictive pericarditis (n = 18), and mortality (n = 4). 14 patients experienced both cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. During a 1 year out-patient clinic follow up, 4 patients required repeat pericardiocentesis and pericardiectomy was performed in 0 patients. In the multivariate analysis, patients with large amounts of pericardial effusion (P = .003), those with hypoalbuminemia (P = .011), and those without cardiovascular disease (P = .011) were found to have a higher risk of unfavorable outcomes.
HIV-uninfected patients with TB pericarditis are at a higher risk for unfavorable outcomes when presenting with low serum albumin, with large pericardial effusions, and without cardiovascular disease.