Pericarditis Constrictive Publications (3738)
Pericarditis Constrictive Publications
4% of patients who have undergone cardiac surgery or have had pericardial trauma or inflammation due to a variety of etiologies. Despite its poor prognosis if untreated, CP is a potentially curable disease and surgical pericardiectomy can now be performed at low perioperative mortality in tertiary centers with surgical expertise in pericardial diseases. Cardiologists should have a high index of suspicion for CP in patients presenting with predominant right-sided (HF), particularly when a history of cardiac surgery, pericarditis or pericardial effusion is present. Transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is usually the first diagnostic tool in the evaluation of HF and can reliably identify CP in most patients by characteristic real-time motion of the heart and hemodynamic features. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide incremental data for the diagnosis and management of CP and are especially helpful when clinical or echocardiographic findings are inconclusive. Cardiac catheterization has been the gold-standard for the diagnosis of CP, but may not be necessary if non-invasive test(s) demonstrate diagnostic features of CP; it should then be reserved for selected cases or for assessment of concomitant coronary disease. Although most patients with CP require pericardiectomy, anti-inflammatory therapy may be curative in patients presenting with subacute symptoms, especially when evidence of marked ongoing inflammation is seen.
A cytological examination of his pericardial effusion detected three or four plasma cells per high-power field by Giemsa staining. Moreover, immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells were detected by immunostaining. Cardiac catheterization after pericardiocentesis revealed that both ventricular pressure traces showed an early diastolic dip and plateau. Positron-emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose imaging revealed inflammatory foci in his pericardium. A surgical pericardiectomy was performed and the resultant specimen showed significant immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cell infiltration and marked fibrous thickening of his pericardium; therefore, a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis due to immunoglobulin G4-related disease was made. Oral administration of 0.6-mg/kg/day prednisolone resolved his heart failure and he was discharged on foot 1 week later.
Our experience with this case indicates that cytological examination of pericardial effusion was useful in the diagnosis of immunoglobulin G4-related disease.
The aim of this research was to investigate the merit for the use of colchicine in the management of tuberculous pericarditis, specifically to prevent constrictive pericarditis.
This pilot study was designed as a prospective, double-blinded, randomised, control cohort study and was conducted at a secondary level hospital in the Northern Cape of South Africa between August 2013 and December 2015. Patients with a probable or definite diagnosis of TB pericarditis were included (n = 33). Study participants with pericardial effusions amenable to pericardiocentesis underwent aspiration until dryness. All patients were treated with standard TB treatment and corticosteroids in accordance with the South African Tuberculosis Treatment Guidelines. Patients were randomised to an intervention and control group using a web-based computer system that ensured assignment concealment. The intervention group received colchicine 1.0 mg per day for six weeks and the control group received a placebo for the same period. Patients were followed up with serial echocardiography for 16 weeks. The primary outcome assessed was the development of pericardial constriction. Upon completion of the research period, the blinding was unveiled and data were presented for statistical analysis.
TB pericarditis was found exclusively in HIV-positive individuals. The incidence of pericardial constriction in our cohort was 23.8%. No demonstrable benefit with the use of colchicine was found in terms of prevention of pericardial constriction (p = 0.88, relative risk 1.07, 95% CI: 0.46-2.46). Interestingly, pericardiocentesis appeared to decrease the incidence of pericardial constriction.
Based on this research, the use of colchicine in TB pericarditis cannot be advised. Adjuvant therapy in the prevention of pericardial constriction is still being investigated and routine pericardiocentesis may prove to be beneficial in this regard.
Patients underwent a cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan to quantify EFV on a dedicated workstation. Patients were followed up in hospital for atrial fibrillation (AF) development and up to 18 months for the composite clinical endpoint of development of constrictive, recurrent or incessant pericarditis or poor response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Patients presenting with chest pain had lower EFV vs. patients without chest pain (167·2 ± 21·7 vs. 105·1 ± 11·1 cm(3) , respectively, P < 0·01); EFV (but not body mass index) was strongly positively correlated with pericardial effusion size (r = 0·395, P = 0·007) and associated with in-hospital AF. At follow-up, patients that reached the composite clinical endpoint had lower EFV (P < 0·05). After adjustment for age, EFV was associated with lower odds ratio for the composite clinical endpoint point of poor response to NSAIDs or the development of constrictive, recurrent or incessant pericarditis during follow-up (per 20 cm(3) increase in EFV: OR = 0·802 [0·656-0·981], P < 0·05).
We report for the first time a significant association of EFV with the clinical features and the outcome of patients with acute pericarditis. Measurement of EFV by CT may have important prognostic implications in these patients.
Less common etiologies include viral infections, collagen vascular disorders, renal failure, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and blunt chest trauma. CP can less commonly be caused by malignancy. We report a very rare case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) presenting twice with attacks of decompensated heart failure. Echocardiography revealed that CP was responsible for the patient's symptoms as the first manifestation of NHL. Chest computed tomography scan and biopsy findings were compatible with the diagnosis of NHL. The patient received R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin(®), and prednisone or prednisolone, combined with the monoclonal antibody rituximab) chemotherapy. Three months later, there was significant improvement in the patient's symptoms and considerable decrease in pericardial thickness.
Preoperative clinical factors, parameters of cardiac catheterization, and cardiac events were examined. Cardiac events were defined as hospitalization owing to heart failure or cardiac death.Median follow-up was 5.7 years. CP etiology was idiopathic in 16 patients, post-cardiac surgery (CS) in 21, tuberculosis-related in 4, non-tuberculosis infection-related in 2, infarction-related in 1, and post-radiation in 1. The 5-year event-free survival was 65%. Patients with idiopathic CP and tuberculosis-related CP had favorable outcomes compared with post-CS CP (5-year event-free survival: idiopathic, 80%; tuberculosis, 100%; post-CS, 52%). Higher age (hazard ratio: 2.51), preoperative atrial fibrillation (3.25), advanced New York Heart Association class (3.92), and increased pulmonary artery pressure (1.06) were predictors of cardiac events. Patients with postoperative right-atrial pressure ≥9 mmHg had lower event-free survival than those with right-atrial pressure <9 mmHg (39% vs. 75% at 5 years, P=0.013).
Long-term clinical outcomes after pericardiectomy among a Japanese population were related to the underlying etiology and the patient's preoperative clinical condition. Postoperative cardiac catheterization may be helpful in the prediction of prognosis after pericardiectomy.
Features responsible for the pathophysiology include transmission of thoracic pressure through the pericardium and heightened ventricular interdependence. Constrictive pericarditis is a condition in which the pericardium limits diastolic filling and causes dissociation of intracardiac and intrathoracic pressures, and heightened ventricular interdependence. Both conditions result in diastolic dysfunction, elevated and equal venous and ventricular diastolic pressure, respiratory variation in ventricular filling, and ultimately, reduced cardiac output.
4 years standard deviation (SD) (8-51 years). The main etiology was tuberculosis (99%). Symptoms secondary to systemic venous congestion were always present: patient were functionally classified according New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification: 63 patients presented in class II NYHA and 57 in class III or IV NYHA. The diagnosis confirmed by surgical report was: sub-acute CCP (n=12; 10%), fibrous CCP (n=36; 30%), calcified CCP (n=72; 60%). A pericardiectomy including an epicardiectomy with a systematic release of the ventricles was carried out in every case. Median sternotomy was frequently performed (n=117; 97.5%).
Fifteen early deaths (12.5%) were observed, the cause of hospital deaths was due to a low cardiac output (n=12) and to a hepatic failure (n=3). Class III or IV (NYHA) (P=0.01), mitral regurgitation (P<0.05), persistent a diastolic syndrome after surgery (P<0.05) and low cardiac index (CI) (P<0.02) were the important risk factors. Age, size of cardiac X-ray silhouette, right and left ventricular diastolic pressures, ejection fraction (EF), atrial fibrillation and pericardial calcifications had no impact on early survival. The average follow up was 4 years (1-10 years); we lost 22 patients during follow-up. Among survivors, there was no late death; the patients were in class I or II NYHA. Post-operative catheterization evaluation (n=30) shown a significant decrease of the right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures (P<0.05), of the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (P<0.05) and of the right atrial pressure (RAP) (P<0.05) and a disappearance of the lack of ventricular diastolic distensibility.
Based on our experience, CCP surgery can be performed safely with an acceptable hospital mortality and a significant improvement of patients' functional status at long term after surgery.
The aim of this study is to identify the predictive factors for unfavorable outcomes of TB pericarditis in HIV-uninfected persons in an intermediate tuberculosis burden country.
A retrospective review of 87 cases of TB pericarditis diagnosed at a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea was performed. Clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, complications during treatment, duration of treatment, and medication history were reviewed. Unfavorable outcome was defined as constrictive pericarditis identified on echocardiography performed 3 to 6 months after initial diagnosis of TB pericarditis, cardiac tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis, or death. Predictive factors for unfavorable outcomes were identified.
Of the 87 patients, 44 (50.6%) had unfavorable outcomes; cardiac tamponade (n = 36), constrictive pericarditis (n = 18), and mortality (n = 4). 14 patients experienced both cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. During a 1 year out-patient clinic follow up, 4 patients required repeat pericardiocentesis and pericardiectomy was performed in 0 patients. In the multivariate analysis, patients with large amounts of pericardial effusion (P = .003), those with hypoalbuminemia (P = .011), and those without cardiovascular disease (P = .011) were found to have a higher risk of unfavorable outcomes.
HIV-uninfected patients with TB pericarditis are at a higher risk for unfavorable outcomes when presenting with low serum albumin, with large pericardial effusions, and without cardiovascular disease.