Pericardial Effusion Publications (11800)
Pericardial Effusion Publications
Knowledge of the pathophysiology and echocardiographic features of cardiac tamponade are essential for the practicing Intensivist. This review presents an approach to the recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac tamponade in critically ill patients.
Secondary endpoints comprised death or cardiac arrest, early and late pericardial effusion, postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), acute kidney injury, pulmonary complications, and length of hospital stay.
Nineteen randomized controlled trials that enrolled 3425 patients were included. Posterior pericardial drainage was associated with a significant 90% reduction of the odds of cardiac tamponade compared with the control group: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.13 (0.07-0.25); P < .001. The corresponding event rates were 0.42% versus 4.95%. The odds of early and late pericardial effusion were reduced significantly in the intervention arm: 0.20 (0.11-0.36); P < .001 and 0.05 (0.02-0.10); P < .001, respectively. Posterior pericardial drainage significantly reduced the odds of POAF by 58% (P < .001) and was associated with significantly shortened (by nearly 1 day) overall length of hospital stay (P < .001). Reductions in postoperative complications translated into significantly reduced odds of death or cardiac arrest (P = .03) and numerically lower odds of acute kidney injury (P = .08).
Posterior pericardial drainage is safe and simple technique that significantly reduces not only the prevalence of early pericardial effusion and POAF but also late pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. These benefits, in turn, translate into improved survival after heart surgery.
It was relieved by sitting up straight and did not radiate to her left arm or jaw. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest, posteroanterior and lateral views, showed a mild left pleural effusion with adjacent left basilar atelectasis/infiltrate. CT angiography of the chest with axial contrast showed mild left pleural effusion as well as a small pericardial effusion with bilateral lower lobe interstitial infiltrates. There was no evidence of pulmonary embolism. Electrocardiogram (EKG) showed no apparent ST segment elevation or depression that would be consistent with pericarditis, or acute ischemia or infarct. There was non-specific T wave abnormality. The patient was prescribed prednisone on a tapering dose. On follow-up visit, her condition significantly improved.
The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of vomiting associated with PE, and to determine if vomiting is associated with the underlying cause of effusion, presenting plasma lactate concentration, or volume of PE removed.
The medical records of 49 dogs diagnosed with PE were restrospectively reviewed. Data collected from the medical record included signalment, the presence or absence of vomiting, presenting plasma lactate concentration, and the etiology of the PE. Twenty-five of 49 dogs (51%) identified with PE had recently vomited. Vomiting was more common in dogs with presenting plasma lactate concentration > 5.0 mmol/L (P = 0.02) but was unrelated to the specific etiology of the PE. The volume of PE obtained via pericardiocentesis did not differ (P = 0.79) between dogs with (8.7 ± 3.4 mL/kg) and without historical vomiting (9.1 ± 4.3 mL/kg).
Vomiting is common in dogs with PE, and in particular, dogs with evidence of hypoperfusion. Pericardial effusion should be included as a differential diagnosis in dogs with a history of vomiting that present with weakness or collapse.
To evaluate the effect of thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of Kangai injection in treating malignant pleural effusion, 195 patients who received treatment from April 2010 to October 2014 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University were selected and divided into an observation group and two control groups (group A and B). The observation group was treated by thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of kangai injection. Control group A was treated by intracavitary infusion of kangai injection and control group B was treated by hyperthermal perfusion in combination with intracavity chemotherapy. Clinical effects, quality of life, treatment safety and untoward reactions were compared between the groups. It was found that differences of WBC, RBC and PLT levels before and after treatment had no statistical significance comparisons within group and comparisons between groups (P>0.05); hepatic and renal functions of the groups had no remarkable difference before or after treatment (P>0.05). The clinical effect of the observation group was superior to that of control groups A and B (P less than 0.05); the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score of the observation group was much higher than that of control groups A and B (79.34±10.58 vs 71.11±9.64), but the difference of the ZPS score between groups had no statistical significance (P>0.05). It can be concluded that thermotherapy in combination with intracavitary infusion of traditional Chinese medicine can be safely applied as it has positive effects and remarkably improves quality of life, therefore it is clinically worth promoting.
Among the 158 cases of primary cardiac tumor, 150 were benign and eight were malignant. The rhabdomyoma, fibroma, and myxoma are the most common types of benign cardiac tumors. The major clinical manifestations of cardiac tumors include outflow tract obstruction, arrhythmia, dyspnea, pericardial effusion, heart failure, and seizures. Among the 59 patients who underwent surgery, 49 had primary benign cardiac tumors, eight had primary malignant tumors, and two had malignant metastatic tumors. Post-surgery, nine of the patients had residual tumor tissues that did not significantly affect their hemodynamics. Following surgery, there were two cases of recurrence and nine deaths, including four of benign and five of malignant tumors with mortality rates of 8.2 and 50.0 %, respectively. Of the remaining 107 cases of patients who did not undergo surgery, five (4.7 %) died.
The primary benign cardiac tumors are the predominant pediatric cardiac tumors, of which rhabdomyoma, fibroma, and myxoma are the most common types. If severe symptoms are nonexistent and the hemodynamics is unaffected, most of the patients can survive in the long term despite the tumors. What is known: • Pediatric cardiac tumors are rare and are predominantly primary and benign. • The symptoms of heart failure, arrhythmia, and outflow obstruction are the most severe complications of cardiac tumors. What is new: • The rhabdomyoma, fibroma, and myxoma are the most common types of primary benign cardiac tumors. • If severe symptoms are not present and the hemodynamics are unaffected, most of the patients can survive in the long term despite the tumors.
In pericardial tamponade, the hemodynamics relate to decreased pericardial compliance, ventricular interdependence, and an inspiratory decrease in the pressure gradient for left ventricular filling. Echocardiography provides insight into the pathophysiologic alterations, primarily through an assessment of chamber collapse, inferior vena cava plethora, and marked respiratory variation in mitral and tricuspid inflow. Once diagnosed, pericardiocentesis is performed in patients with tamponade, preferably with echocardiographic guidance. With a large effusion but no tamponade, pericardiocentesis is rarely needed for diagnostic purposes, though is performed if there is concern for a bacterial infection. In patients with malignancy, pericardial window is preferred given the risk for recurrence. Finally, large effusions can progress to tamponade, but can generally be followed closely until the extent of the effusion facilitates safe pericardiocentesis.
4% of patients who have undergone cardiac surgery or have had pericardial trauma or inflammation due to a variety of etiologies. Despite its poor prognosis if untreated, CP is a potentially curable disease and surgical pericardiectomy can now be performed at low perioperative mortality in tertiary centers with surgical expertise in pericardial diseases. Cardiologists should have a high index of suspicion for CP in patients presenting with predominant right-sided (HF), particularly when a history of cardiac surgery, pericarditis or pericardial effusion is present. Transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography is usually the first diagnostic tool in the evaluation of HF and can reliably identify CP in most patients by characteristic real-time motion of the heart and hemodynamic features. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging provide incremental data for the diagnosis and management of CP and are especially helpful when clinical or echocardiographic findings are inconclusive. Cardiac catheterization has been the gold-standard for the diagnosis of CP, but may not be necessary if non-invasive test(s) demonstrate diagnostic features of CP; it should then be reserved for selected cases or for assessment of concomitant coronary disease. Although most patients with CP require pericardiectomy, anti-inflammatory therapy may be curative in patients presenting with subacute symptoms, especially when evidence of marked ongoing inflammation is seen.
Therefore, echocardiography and cross-sectional imaging is essential in identifying and characterizing pericardial disease. Imaging findings vary in specificity depending on the type of tumor. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of multi-modality imaging and characteristic findings in patients with pericardial masses/tumors, cysts, and diverticula.
These patients have metastatic disease and the vast majority of these patients die within a few months after diagnosis. Currently the treatment choices are limited and there are no targeted therapies available.
A 56-year-old male presented with shortness of breath, night sweats, and productive cough for a month. Workup revealed pericardial effusion and multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules suspicious for metastatic disease. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed a large pericardial effusion and a large mass in the base of the right atrium. Results of biopsy of bilateral lung nodules established a diagnosis of primary cardiac angiosarcoma. Aggressive pulmonary disease caused rapid deterioration; the patient went on hospice and subsequently died. Whole exome sequencing of the patient's postmortem tumor revealed a novel KDR (G681R) mutation, and focal high-level amplification at chromosome 1q encompassing MDM4, a negative regulator of TP53.
Mutations in KDR have been reported previously in angiosarcomas. Previous studies also demonstrated that KDR mutants with constitutive KDR activation could be inhibited with specific KDR inhibitors in vitro. Thus, patients harboring activating KDR mutations could be candidates for treatment with KDR-specific inhibitors.