Pediatrics Febrile Seizures Publications (1008)
Pediatrics Febrile Seizures Publications
Febrile seizures plus (FS+) occurred in six patients, five of whom had additional seizure types. The remaining case had childhood-onset temporal lobe epilepsy without known febrile seizures. Although early development was normal in all individuals, three later had learning difficulties, and the twin girls had language impairment and working memory deficits. All cases had SCN1A missense pathogenic variants that were not found in either parent. One pathogenic variant had been reported previously in a case of DS, and the remainder were novel. Our finding of de novo pathogenic variants in mild phenotypes within the GEFS+ spectrum shows that mild GEFS+ is not always inherited. SCN1A screening should be considered in patients with GEFS+ phenotypes because identification of pathogenic variants will influence antiepileptic therapy, and prognostic and genetic counseling.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of seizure in CMD. Herein, the authors describe 16 cases of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) associated with different kinds of epileptic events, in order to study the pathogenic connection between the two clinical manifestations. In all described patients we reviewed the clinical, neurophysiologic, and neuroimaging data to determine any associations with epilepsy. The patients were divided into two groups: 14 cases with merosin positive CMD in one group and 2 patients with Walker Warburg syndrome (WWS) in the second group. In our study we found that in the first group, one benign myoclonic epilepsy (BME), one benign febrile convulsions had occurred. Also in one patient, the EEG revealed a moderately high voltage slow background with diffuse sharp waves reaching 300mV in amplitude with no clinical signs. In the merosin positive CMD patients, the presence of two different epileptic diseases, benign myoclonic epilepsy (BME) in one and febrile convulsion with tonic clinic seizures, may represent a new expression of merosine-positive congenital muscular disease (PCMD) in which the deficiency of an undiscovered muscular protein with a cerebral isoform may be the cause of epileptic events in this group of patients.
Thr1505Met in the first family and c.4735C>T; p.Arg1579* in the second family. A third family, of Western European descent, included a child with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) who also had compound heterozygous missense mutations in SCN10A, namely, c.3482T>C; p.Met1161Thr and c.4709C>A; p.Thr1570Lys. A search for SCN10A variants in three consortia datasets (EuroEPINOMICS, Epi4K/EPGP, Autism/dbGaP) identified an additional five individuals with compound heterozygous variants. A Hispanic male with infantile spasms [c.2842G>C; p.Val948Leu and c.1453C>T; p.Arg485Cys], and a Caucasian female with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [c.1529C>T; p.Pro510Leu and c.4984G>A; p.Gly1662Ser] in the epilepsy databases and three in the autism databases with [c.4009T>A; p.Ser1337Thr and c.1141A>G; p.Ile381Val], [c.2972C>T; p.Pro991Leu and c.2470C>T; p.His824Tyr], and [c.4009T>A; p.Ser1337Thr and c.2052G>A; p.Met684Ile].
SCN10A is a member of the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene family. Sodium channels are responsible for the instigation and proliferation of action potentials in central and peripheral nervous systems. Heterozygous mutations in VGSC genes cause a wide range of epileptic and peripheral nervous system disorders. This report presents autosomal recessive mutations in SCN10A that may be linked to epilepsy-related phenotypes, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, and Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Considerably less common are focal epilepsies including complex partial seizures. We report vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in a 6-year-old girl with GEFS(+) who exhibited refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures and complex partial seizures.
The phenotypic spectrum of the mutation carriers ranged from simple febrile seizures, genetic epilepsies with febrile seizures plus, and epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures to West syndrome and other types of severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathies. Electrophysiologic analysis of 7 mutations in Xenopus laevis oocytes, using coexpression of wild-type or mutant β3, together with α5 and γ2s subunits and an automated 2-microelectrode voltage-clamp system, revealed reduced GABA-induced current amplitudes or GABA sensitivity for 5 of 7 mutations.
Our results indicate that GABRB3 mutations are associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum of epilepsies and that reduced receptor function causing GABAergic disinhibition represents the relevant disease mechanism.
Briefly, a 3-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital due to right-sided, complex partial seizures without preceding febrile illness. The seizures evolved into epilepsia partialis continua and were accompanied by epileptiform discharges from the left frontal area. Three weeks after admission, the patient's seizures were reduced with antiepileptic drugs; however, she developed sleep disturbances, cognitive decline, noticeable oro-lingual-facial dyskinesia, and choreoathetoid movements. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis was confirmed by positive detection of NMDAR antibodies in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and her condition slowly improved with immunoglobulin, methylprednisolone, and rituximab. At present, the patient is no longer taking multiple antiepileptic or antihypertensive drugs. Moreover, the patient showed gradual improvement of motor and cognitive function. This case serves as an example that a diagnosis of anti-NMDAR encephalitis should be considered when children with uncontrolled seizures develop dyskinesias without evidence of malignant tumor. In these cases, aggressive immunotherapies are needed to improve the outcome of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Here we present a case of epilepsy with profound developmental delay and characteristic phenotypes. A 7-year- and 6-month-old boy experienced afebrile generalized seizure at the age of 5 years and 3 months. He had recurrent febrile seizures since 12 months of age and showed severe global developmental delay, remarkable hypotonia, short stature, and dysmorphic features such as microcephaly; small, low-set ears; dark, straight eyebrows; deep-set eyes; flat nasal bridge; midface hypoplasia; and a small, pointed chin. Previous diagnostic work-up, including conventional chromosomal analysis, revealed no definite causes. However, array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed 1p36 deletion syndrome with a 9.15-Mb copy loss of the 1p36.33-1p36.22 region, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) confirmed this diagnosis. This case highlights the need to consider detailed chromosomal study for patients with delayed development and epilepsy. Furthermore, 1p36 deletion syndrome should be considered for patients presenting seizure and moderate-to-severe developmental delay, particularly if the patient exhibits dysmorphic features, short stature, and hypotonia.
We retrospectively studied 173 children under 18 years with medical refractory epilepsy referred for epilepsy surgery between 1996 and 2010. Medical records were reviewed in 2012 and 2015.
At the first evaluation point in 2012, 13 patients were withdrawn from the epilepsy surgery programme due to unexpected marked improvement. In 2015, 6 of them were still seizure free. They had unexpected seizure freedom due to change in AED treatment (n=3) or after a febrile episode (n=3). The mean number of years they had had seizures was 3.4 years (range 0.6-6.2 years) and the number of seizures at inclusion was 209 per month (range 6-750 per month). The duration of follow-up was 6.6 years after inclusion into the epilepsy surgery programme (range 4.0-13.0 years). The aetiology of the epilepsy for these patients was heterotopia (n=1), focal cortical dysplasia (n=3), infarction (n=1) and unknown, with normal MRI (n=1). They all had an IQ in the normal range. Two of the remaining 7 children were operated later.
Unexpected seizure control may occur during epilepsy surgery evaluation.
Patients between 1 and 60 months of age, randomly accessing to ED for ongoing FS or reported FS at home were included. Demographic features and diagnostic-therapeutic follow-up were recorded. FS were categorized in simple (<10min), prolonged (10-30min) and status epilepticus (>30min).
The study population consisted of 268 children. Most of the children experienced simple FS (71.65%). Among the 68 (25.37%) patients with complex FS, 11 were 6-12 month-old, accounting for 45.83% of all the infants with FS in the younger age group. No therapy has been administered at home in 76.12% patients; 23.51% of them received endorectal diazepam and only 1 patient received buccal midazolam. At arrival at ED, no therapy was necessary for 70.52% patients; 50.63% received endorectal diazepam and 17.72% an i.v. bolus of midazolam. Blood tests and acid-base balanced were performed respectively in 82.09% of cases. An electroencephalogram at ED was performed in 21.64% of patients. Neuroimagings were done in 3.73% of cases. A neurologic consultation was asked for 36 patients (13.43%).
this is the first study assessing epidemiologic characteristics of FS in the Italian pediatric population, evidencing a higher prevalence of CFSs in children younger than 12 months of age and opening a new research scenario on the blood brain barrier vulnerability. On a national level, our study showed the need for a diagnostic standardized work-up to improve the cost/benefit ratio on CFS management.
Clinical knowledge is limited because FIRES is sporadic and extremely rare. Therefore, based on literature and our data, this review includes clinical features, terminology, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria and procedures, differential diagnoses, acute and chronic therapeutic options, and outcome data. Particular attention is paid to the epileptogenesis. We hypothesize that FIRES is an immune but not an autoimmune disease and discuss GABAergic therapy at high doses, avoidance of burst-suppression coma, and early introduction of enteral or even parenteral ketogenic diet as the most promising treatment. The lack of evidence requires both a network and a multinational web-based clinical registry to define the clinical spectrum for improving diagnosis and treatment and at the very least, to clarify the cause of FIRES. We conclude that the term "fulminant inflammatory response epilepsy syndrome" may be more appropriate.