Pediatrics Epiglottitis Publications (128)
Pediatrics Epiglottitis Publications
We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics of croup and epiglottitis in Emergency Department patients.
The 2012 National Emergency Department Information System database of 146 Korean Emergency Departments was used to investigate patients aged ≤18 years presenting with croup or epiglottitis.
We analyzed 19,374 croup patients and 236 epiglottitis patients. The male:female sex ratios were 1.9:1 and 2.3:1 and mean ages were 2.2±2.0 and 5.6±5.8 years, respectively. The peak incidence of croup was observed in July and that of epiglottitis was observed in May. The hospitalization rate was lower in croup than in epiglottitis patients, and the proportion of patients treated in the intensive care unit was lower among croup patients. The 3 most common chief complaints in both croup and epiglottitis patients were cough, fever, and dyspnea. Epiglottitis patients experienced dyspnea, sore throat, and vomiting more often than croup patients (P<0.05).
Both groups had similar sex ratios, arrival times, 3 most common chief complaints, and 5 most common comorbidities. Epiglottitis patients had a lower incidence rate, higher mean age of onset, and higher hospitalization rate and experienced dyspnea, sore throat, and vomiting more often than croup patients. Our results may help in the differential diagnosis of croup and epiglottitis.
The etiologies vary widely throughout the age groups and according to the mode of presentation. The approach starts with suspicion, mandates careful clinical evaluation of the degree of obstruction and many a times emergency measures precede any investigation or even precise diagnosis. Maintaining an open and stable airway is of the utmost importance, often requiring a team approach of emergency physician, pediatrician, otorhinolaryngologist and pediatric pulmonologist. The commonest condition presenting with upper airway obstruction in pediatric population is viral croup. Croup is a clinical diagnosis in a febrile child, with barking cough and stridor preceded by upper respiratory infection. It is treated with systemic or inhaled steroids and nebulized epinephrine. Epiglottitis and bacterial tracheitis are acute bacterial infections of upper airways, presenting as true airway emergencies. Though the mainstay of therapy is IV antibiotics, the prime concern is maintenance of airway, which frequently requires endotracheal intubation. Rigid bronchoscopy is the procedure of choice for airway foreign bodies, a common cause of upper airway obstruction in children below 3 y of age. Airway malacias are the commonest cause of chronic stridor and are mostly managed conservatively.
A fully vaccinated child developed fever, poor oral intake, and sore throat and was found to have necrotizing epiglottitis. Necrotizing epiglottitis predominantly occurs in the immunocompromised host. Laboratory evaluation revealed pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy was diagnostic for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clinicians should be aware of aggressive infections that identify immunocompromised patients. This case highlights the features of a reemerging pathogen, C diphtheriae.
Also, we investigated daily amount of prescribed antibiotics per defined population according to the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region. The overall antibiotic prescribing proportion was 58.7% and its annual proportion slightly decreased (55.4% in 2011 vs. 60.5% in 2009; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.83). Variations by the type of medical care institution were observed. Tertiary hospitals (45.0%) were less likely to prescribe antibiotics than primary care clinics (59.4%), hospitals (59.0%), and general hospitals (61.2%); they showed different tendencies in choosing antibiotics. Variations by physician specialty and region were also observed. Prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for pediatric URI is still considered higher than that of western countries and varies by the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region.
We report the first case of epiglottits as the initial presentation of leukemia in a pediatric patient.
Symptoms usually resolve within 48 hours, but severe upper airway obstruction can, rarely, lead to respiratory failure and arrest.
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in children with mild croup and moderate to severe croup? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
We found 19 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids (dexamethasone, intramuscular and oral), nebulised budesonide, oral prednisolone, heliox, humidification, and nebulised adrenaline (racemate and L-adrenaline [ephinephrine]).
MeSH terms: Neurocritical care; child; traumatic brain injury; status epilepticus; cerebrovascular.