Pediatrics Dehydration Publications (1229)
Pediatrics Dehydration Publications
Usually, a CMV infection transmitted via breast milk is symptomatic only in very immature preterm infants. We report on a late preterm infant born after 35 + 5 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 1840 g, being admitted to our intensive care unit at the age of 9 weeks with acute enteritis and severe dehydration. After a prolonged recovery, the infant developed a sepsis-like condition with hyperpyrexia, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. Combination with high ferritin levels (2809 μg/l), hypertriglyceridaemia (481 mg/dl), elevated soluble IL-2 receptor (sCD25, 9120 U/ml), and reduced perforin expression allowed diagnosis of HLH, caused by an acute CMV infection. Since connatal CMV infection had been ruled out earlier, we report the rare case of secondary HLH triggered by a postnatally acquired symptomatic CMV infection in an immunocompetent infant, most likely transmitted via breast milk. The infant was successfully treated with ganciclovir without need for immunosuppressive therapy.
We performed descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses.
Of 122 children enrolled, the median age was 7 years and one-third were aged <5 years. The female-to-male ratio was 1.3. The most common clinical features at triage and during hospitalization were fever, weakness, anorexia, and diarrhea, although 21% of patients were initially afebrile and 6 patients remained afebrile. Bleeding was rare at presentation (5%) and manifested subsequently in fewer than 50%. The overall case fatality rate was 57%. Factors associated with death in bivariate analyses were age <5 years, bleeding at any time during hospitalization, and high viral load. After adjustment with logistic regression modeling, the odds of death were 14.8-fold higher if patients were aged <5 years, 5-fold higher if the patient had any evidence of bleeding, and 5.2-fold higher if EVD RT-PCR cycle threshold value was ≤20. Plasmodium parasitemia had no impact on EVD outcomes.
Age <5 years, bleeding, and high viral loads were poor prognostic indicators of children with EVD. Research to understand mechanisms of these risk factors and the impact of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance will improve health outcomes.
Facial features are distorted by severe ectropion, eclabium, flattened nose, and rudimentary ears. Skin barrier function is markedly impaired, which can lead to hypernatremic dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, increased metabolic demands, and increased risk of respiratory dysfunction and infection. Historically, infants with HI did not survive beyond the neonatal period; however, recent advances in neonatal intensive care and coordinated multidisciplinary management have greatly improved survival. In this review, the authors combine the growing HI literature with their collective experiences to provide a comprehensive review of the management of neonates with HI.
The most common complaint was fever (67.9%), and the most common physical finding was oral mucosal dryness (76%). There were positive correlations between serum Na levels and weight loss, hospital stay, admission age, admission to neonatal unit after discharge, serum urea levels, and body temperature (p < 0.05). The normalization period of Na levels was significantly longer (21.7 ± 8.8 versus 29.3 ± 17.8 hours, p = 0.03), and Na reduction rate was faster in group 2 (0.41 ± 0.3 versus 0.50 ± 0.3 mEq/L/hour, p = 0.02). Bradycardia was seen more commonly in group 2 (1.5% versus 16.5%, p = 0.002).
HD is a significant condition that should be treated appropriately to avoid serious complications.
These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC.
Polymer-based ORS (for example, prepared using rice or wheat) slowly releases glucose and may be superior to glucose-based ORS.
To compare polymer-based oral rehydration solution (polymer-based ORS) with glucose-based oral rehydration solution (glucose-based ORS) for treating acute watery diarrhoea.
We searched the following sources up to 5 September 2016: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (CIDG) Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to 5 September 2016), EMBASE (1974 to 5 September 2016), LILACS (1982 to 5 September 2016), and mRCT (2007 to 5 September 2016). We also contacted researchers, organizations, and pharmaceutical companies, and searched reference lists.
We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of people with acute watery diarrhoea (cholera and non-cholera associated) that compared polymer-based and glucose-based ORS (with identical electrolyte contents).
Two review authors independently assessed the search results and risk of bias, and extracted data. In multiple-treatment arms with two or more treatment groups, we combined outcomes as appropriate and compared collectively with the control group.
Thirty-five trials that included 4284 participants met the inclusion criteria: 28 trials exclusively included children, five included adults, and two included both adults and children. Polymer-based ORS versus glucose-based ORS (osmolarity ≤ 270) Eight trials (752 participants) evaluated this comparison, and seven trials used rice as a polymer source. Polymer-based ORS may decrease mean stool output in the first 24 hours by 24 mL/kg (mean difference (MD) -24.60 mL/kg, 95% CI -40.69 to -8.51; one trial, 99 participants, low quality evidence). The average duration of diarrhoea may be reduced by eight hours (MD -8.24 hours, 95% CI -13.17 to -3.30; I² statistic = 86%, five trials, 364 participants, low quality evidence) with polymer ORS but results are heterogeneous. Limited trials showed no observed difference in the risk of unscheduled use of intravenous fluid (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.02; I² statistic = 30%; four trials, 376 participants, very low quality evidence), vomiting (very low quality evidence), and hyponatraemia (very low quality evidence). Polymer-based ORS versus glucose-based ORS (osmolarity ≥ 310) Twenty-seven trials (3532 participants) evaluated this comparison using a variety of polymers. On average, polymer ORS may reduce the total stool output in the first 24 hours by around 65 mL/kg (MD -65.47 mL/kg, 95% CI -83.92 to -47.03; 16 trials, 1483 participants, low quality evidence), and may reduce the duration of diarrhoea by around eight hours (MD -8.57 hours; SD -13.17 to -4.03; 16 trials, 1137 participants, low quality evidence) with substantial heterogeneity. The proportion of participants that required intravenous hydration was low in most trials with fewer in the polymer ORS group (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.98; 19 trials, 1877 participant, low quality evidence) . Subgroup analysis by type of pathogen suggested an effect on unscheduled intravenous fluid in those infected with mixed pathogens (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.96; 11 trials, 928 participants, low quality evidence), but not in participants positive for Vibrio cholerae (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.34; 7 trials, 535 participants, low quality evidence). No difference was observed in the number of patients who developed vomiting (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.14; 10 trials, 584 participants, very low quality evidence), hyponatraemia (RR 1.82, 95% CI 0.52 to 6.44; 4 trials, 385 participants, very low quality evidence), hypokalaemia (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.25; 2 trials, 260 participants, low quality evidence), or persistent diarrhoea (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.41; 2 trials, 885 participants, very low quality evidence).
Polymer-based ORS shows advantages compared to glucose-based ORS (at ≥ 310 mOsm/L). Comparisons favoured polymer-based ORS over ORS ≤ 270 but analysis was underpowered.
Outcome included (1) feasibility, measured by compliance of the nurses, and (2) length of stay (LOS) at the ED, the number of diagnostic tests, treatment, follow-up, and costs. Due to failure of post-ED weight measurement, we could not evaluate weight difference as measure for dehydration. Patient characteristics were comparable between the intervention (N = 113) and the usual care group (N = 109). Implementation of the clinical decision support system proved a high compliance rate. The standardized use of oral ORS (oral rehydration solution) significantly increased from 52 to 65%(RR2.2, 95%CI 1.09-4.31 p < 0.05). We observed no differences in other outcome measures.
Implementation of nurse-guided clinical decision support system on rehydration treatment in children with AGE showed high compliance and increase standardized use of ORS, without differences in other outcome measures. What is Known: • Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most frequently encountered problems in pediatric emergency departments. • Guidelines advocate standardized oral treatment in children with mild to moderate dehydration, but appear to be applied infrequently in clinical practice. What is New: • Implementation of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system on treatment of AGE in young children showed good feasibility, resulting in a more standardized ORS use in children with mild to moderate dehydration, compared to usual care. • Given the challenges to perform research in emergency care setting, the ED should be experienced and adequately equipped, especially during peak times.
gov, reference lists, and gray literature were systematically searched.
Two reviewers independently identified studies that included patients with hydration status documentation, proven or presumed STEC infection, and some form of HUS that developed. No language restrictions were applied.
Two reviewers independently extracted individual study data, including study characteristics, population, and outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; strength of evidence was adjudicated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models.
Development of HUS, complications (ie, oligoanuric renal failure, involvement of the central nervous system, or death), and interventions (ie, renal replacement therapy).
Eight studies comprising 1511 patients (all children) met eligibility criteria. Unpublished data were provided by the authors of 7 published reports. The median risk-of-bias score was 7.5 (range, 6-9). No studies evaluated the effect of hydration during STEC infections on the risk for HUS. A hematocrit value greater than 23% as a measure of hydration status at presentation with HUS was associated with the development of oligoanuric HUS (OR, 2.38 [95% CI, 1.30-4.35]; I2 = 2%), renal replacement therapy (OR, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.25-2.90]; I2 = 17%), and death (OR, 5.13 [95% CI, 1.50-17.57]; I2 = 55%). Compared with putatively hydrated patients, clinically dehydrated patients had an OR of death of 3.71 (95% CI, 1.25-11.03; I2 = 0%). Intravenous fluid administration up to the day of HUS diagnosis was associated with a decreased risk of renal replacement therapy (OR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.60]).
Two predictors of poor outcomes for STEC-infected children were identified: (1) the lack of intravenous fluid administration prior to establishment of HUS and (2) a higher hematocrit value at presentation. These findings point to an association between dehydration and adverse outcomes for children with HUS.
Mixtures of HMOs were investigated in intestinal epithelial cells and in preterm pigs (n=112) fed IF supplemented without (CON) or with a mixture of four HMOs (4-HMO) or >25 HMOs (25-HMO, 5-10 g/L given for 5 or 11 days). The 25-HMO blend decreased cell proliferation and both HMO blends decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-8 secretion in IPEC-J2 cells, relative to control (P<.05). All HMOs were found in urine and feces of HMO-treated pigs, and short-chain fatty acids in the colon were higher in HMO vs. CON pigs (P<.05). After 5 days, NEC lesions were similar between HMO and CON pigs and 25-HMO increased colon weights (P<.01). After 11 days, the 4-HMO diet did not affect NEC (56 vs. 79%, P=.2) but increased dehydration and diarrhea (P<.05) and expression of immune-related genes (IL10, IL12, TGFβ, TLR4; P<.05). Bacterial adherence and diversity was unchanged after HMO supplementation.
Complex HMO-blends affect intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and gut gene expression and fermentation in preterm pigs. However, the HMOs had limited effects on NEC and diarrhea when supplemented to IF. Longer-term exposure to HMOs may be required to improve the immature intestinal function in formula-fed preterm neonates.