Pancreatitis Chronic Publications (18820)


Pancreatitis Chronic Publications

Dig Liver Dis
Dig Liver Dis 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Diabetes associated with diseases of the exocrine pancreas (DP) is a recognized clinical condition but data on its prevalence are limited to a few single centre studies. Relative contribution of the three major diseases of the exocrine pancreas (acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer) to prevalence of DP as well as the effect of age and sex is largely unknown. The study aimed to determine age- and sex-specific prevalence of DP overall and after acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer alone at the population level. Read More

Nationwide population database covering nearly 3 million residents in New Zealand over a 10-year study period was used. DP was identified based on International Classification of Diseases-10 codes. Data were reported as prevalence per 1000 population and corresponding 95% confidence intervals.
The crude prevalence of DP was 1.13 [1.12, 1.14] per 1000, with 70-79 years age group having the highest prevalence at 3.94 [3.92, 3.97] per 1000. Men had an overall prevalence of 1.32 [1.31, 1.33] per 1000 and women-0.93 [0.92, 0.94] (p<0.05). Acute pancreatitis contributed 61% to overall prevalence of DP.
Prevalence of DP in the general population is close to that of type 1 diabetes. Three out of five DP cases develop after acute pancreatitis. There is a variation in age of onset of DP, with the working and ageing population most affected. Men have a 40% higher risk of developing DP than women.

Current non-invasive diagnostic tests can distinguish between pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC)) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) in only about two thirds of patients. We have searched for blood-derived metabolite biomarkers for this diagnostic purpose.
For a case-control study in three tertiary referral centres, 914 subjects were prospectively recruited with PDAC (n=271), CP (n=282), liver cirrhosis (n=100) or healthy as well as non-pancreatic disease controls (n=261) in three consecutive studies. Read More

Metabolomic profiles of plasma and serum samples were generated from 477 metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
A biomarker signature (nine metabolites and additionally CA19-9) was identified for the differential diagnosis between PDAC and CP. The biomarker signature distinguished PDAC from CP in the training set with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.98). The biomarker signature cut-off of 0.384 at 85% fixed specificity showed a sensitivity of 94.9% (95% CI 87.0%-97.0%). In the test set, an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) and, using the same cut-off, a sensitivity of 89.9% (95% CI 81.0%-95.5%) and a specificity of 91.3% (95% CI 82.8%-96.4%) were achieved, successfully validating the biomarker signature.
In patients with CP with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer (cumulative incidence 1.95%), the performance of this biomarker signature results in a negative predictive value of 99.9% (95% CI 99.7%-99.9%) (training set) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.6%-99.9%) (test set). In one third of our patients, the clinical use of this biomarker signature would have improved diagnosis and treatment stratification in comparison to CA19-9.

Ultrasound Med Biol
Ultrasound Med Biol 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

The performance of transabdominal ultrasound (US) in chronic pancreatitis (CP) following the advances in US technology made during recent decades has not been explored. Our aim in this prospective study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of modern abdominal US compared with the Mayo score in CP. One hundred thirty-four patients referred for suspected CP were included in the study. Read More

Fifty-four patients were assigned the diagnosis CP. After inclusion, transabdominal US was performed. Ductal features (calculi, dilations and caliber variations, side-branch dilations and hyper-echoic duct wall margins) and parenchymal features (calcifications, cysts, hyper-echoic foci, stranding, lobulation and honeycombing) were recorded. Features were counted and scored according to a weighting system defined at the international consensus meeting in Rosemont, Illinois (Rosemont score). Diagnostic performance indices (95% confidence interval) of US were calculated: The unweighted count of features had a sensitivity of 0.69 (0.54-0.80) and specificity of 0.97 (0.90-1). The Rosemont score had a sensitivity of 0.81 (0.69-0.91) and specificity of 0.97 (0.90-1). Exocrine pancreatic failure was most pronounced in Rosemont groups I and II (p < 0.001). We conclude that using both unweighted and weighted scores, the diagnostic accuracy of modern transabdominal US is good. The extent of pancreatic changes detected by the method is correlated with exocrine pancreatic function.

Bull Soc Pathol Exot
Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 Jan 19. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
Société de pathologie exotique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière - Pavillon Laveran, 47-83 bld de l'Hôpital, 75651, Paris cedex 13, France.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified two liver flukes as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1): Opisthorchis viverrini in 1994 and Clonorchis sinensis in 2009. This review is focused on O. viverrini, the most studied of these two trematodes, which infects nearly 10 million people in Southeast Asia. Read More

The life cycle involves two intermediate hosts living in fresh water: a snail of the genus Bithynia and a ciprinid fish. The definitive hosts (human, cat, dog) become infected by ingesting raw fish containing metacercariae, the infective stage of the parasite. Adult flukes attach to the epithelium of the bile ducts where they feed for as long as 10 to 30 years, resulting in chronic inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis and formation of granuloma. For a long asymptomatic, the distomatosis is revealed by a chronic cholangitis when the parasite load becomes high. Complications can occur with time: gallstones, cholangitis, liver abscess, pancreatitis and, after a few decades, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The epidemiological correlation between the prevalence of O. viverrini infection and the incidence of CCA has been demonstrated in the northeast of Thailand. Specifically, the Khon Kaen province has the highest incidence rate in the world. The CCA can develop asymptomatically for a long time, especially in intrahepatic locations. It is often discovered at a late stage, unresectable. Its prognosis is dreadful with a survival rate less than 5% at 5 years. The phenomenon of carcinogenesis induced by O. viverrini is multifactorial. It has been specially studied using experimental infection on the Syrian golden hamster. Three intricated mechanisms are involved: (i) the direct damage caused by adult worms on the bile duct epithelium, (ii) the immunopathologic processes related to chronic inflammation (oxidative stress) and (iii) the mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects of the proteins secreted by the parasite. Exogenous cofactors are also involved, such as nitrosamines in fish-based dishes undercoocked or fermented, very popular in these endemic regions. Despite the effectiveness of praziquantel to successfully cure this distomatose, opisthorchiasis persists endemic in areas where the incidence of CCA tends to progress. Mass deworming campaigns are ineffective due to the frequency of reinfection in the exposed population. Repeating alternatively cures and reinfections may promote carcinogenesis. The failure of prevention programs reflects the difficulty of changing the traditional habits of consuming raw or fermented fish. Pending a vaccine prophylaxis, control strategies are based on integrated measures involving the treatment of reservoir hosts, sanitation and efforts of continuing information and education to deter the consumption of uncooked fish and to improve the sanitation in rural areas.

World J Gastrointest Endosc
World J Gastrointest Endosc 2017 Jan;9(1):12-18
Hiroshi Ohyama, Rintaro Mikata, Takeshi Ishihara, Yuji Sakai, Harutoshi Sugiyama, Shin Yasui, Toshio Tsuyuguchi, Department of Gastroenterology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8677, Japan.

To investigate endoscopic therapy efficacy for refractory benign biliary strictures (BBS) with multiple biliary stenting and clarify predictors.
Ten consecutive patients with stones in the pancreatic head and BBS due to chronic pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic therapy were evaluated. Endoscopic insertion of a single stent failed in all patients. Read More

We used plastic stents (7F, 8.5F, and 10F) and increased stents at intervals of 2 or 3 mo. Stents were removed approximately 1 year after initial stenting. BBS and common bile duct (CBD) diameter were evaluated using cholangiography. Patients were followed for ≥ 6 mo after therapy, interviewed for cholestasis symptoms, and underwent liver function testing every visit. Patients with complete and incomplete stricture dilations were compared.
Endoscopic therapy was completed in 8 (80%) patients, whereas 2 (20%) patients could not continue therapy because of severe acute cholangitis and abdominal abscess, respectively. The mean number of stents was 4.1 ± 1.2. In two (20%) patients, BBS did not improve; thus, a biliary stent was inserted. BBS improved in six (60%) patients. CBD diameter improved more significantly in the complete group than in the incomplete group (6.1 ± 1.8 mm vs 13.7 ± 2.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.010). Stricture length was significantly associated with complete stricture dilation (complete group; 20.5 ± 3.0 mm, incomplete group; 29.0 ± 5.1 mm, P = 0.011). Acute cholangitis did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 20.6 ± 7.3 mo.
Sequential endoscopic insertion of multiple stents is effective for refractory BBS caused by chronic calcifying pancreatitis. BBS length calculation can improve patient selection procedure for therapy.

Diabetol Metab Syndr
Diabetol Metab Syndr 2017 13;9. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Diabetes and Nutrology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare inherited form of pancreatitis, characterized by recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis with early onset and/or chronic pancreatitis, and presenting brittle diabetes, composed of episodes of nonketotic hyperglycemia and severe hypoglycemia. The existing literature regarding this form of diabetes is scarce. In this report, clinical features of pancreatogenic diabetes secondary to hereditary pancreatitis are presented along with recommendations for appropriate medical treatment. Read More

Clinical data from five patients of a family with pancreatogenic diabetes secondary to hereditary pancreatitis were analyzed. The average time between hereditary pancreatitis and diabetes diagnosis was 80 ± 24 months (range: 60-180 months) with a mean age of 25.6 ± 14.7 years (range: 8-42 years), four patients used antidiabetic agents for 46 ± 45 months and all progressed to insulin therapy with a mean dose of 0.71 ± 0.63 IU/kg (range: 0.3-1.76 IU/kg). The glycemic control had a high variability with average capillary blood glucose of 217.00 ± 69.44 mg/dl (range: 145-306 mg/dl) and the average HbA1c was 9.9 ± 1.9% (range: 7.6-11.6%). No ketoacidosis episodes occurred and there were several episodes of hospitalization for severe hypoglycemia.
Diabetes mellitus secondary to hereditary pancreatitis presents with early onset, diverse clinical presentation and with extremely labile glycemic control. Diabetes treatment varies according to the presentation and insulin is frequently necessary for glycemic control.

Case Rep Ophthalmol
Case Rep Ophthalmol 2016 Sep-Dec;7(3):256-264. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
Center for Excellence in Eye Care, Miami, FL, USA.

Our patient, in the 7th decade of life, presented with worsening blurry vision over 3 weeks. The pertinent history included nonexudative age-related macular degeneration, recent pulmonary mycobacterial infection, and autoimmune pancreatitis. The patient had decreased visual acuity in both eyes; the remaining findings of our examination were relatively benign. Read More

The diagnosis of bilateral exudative age-related macular degeneration was aided by ocular imaging. Not only were exudative changes confirmed, but one modality suggested an underlying occult choroiditis, which presumably fueled a local inflammatory drive leading to evolution of the disease. Given the choroiditis developed in the setting of a recent Mycobacterium chelonae infection, dissemination of the organism must be considered a potential culprit. Additionally, a chronic inflammatory state perhaps played a simultaneous immunologic role. We feel the proposed pathogenic mechanism outlined sufficiently accounts for the rare event, that is, development of subacute bilateral exudative maculopathy. The patient responded well to bilateral intravitreal aflibercept injections. After 1 month, visual acuity was found to be near baseline and ocular imaging showed significant resolution of the exudative changes. An additional follow-up 3 months after confirmed similar stability. This case required thorough investigation of seemingly unrelated components within the patient's history. We stress the importance of obtaining appropriate documentation from fellow health care teams when suspicious clinical presentations arise. During our investigation, we identified cryptic retinal lesions by way of angiography - leading us to recommend usage of such methods in complex cases. We also summarize the implemented aflibercept course and the favorable response to such treatment.

Pancreas 2017 Jan 18. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
From the *Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; and †Digestive Diseases Branch, National Institutes of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
Pancreas 2017 Jan 18. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
From the *Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endoscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; †Department of Clinical Research, CareFusion, San Diego, CA; and ‡Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

Diagnosing chronic pancreatitis remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is utilized to evaluate pancreatic disease. Abnormal pancreas function test is considered the "nonhistologic" criterion standard for chronic pancreatitis. Read More

We derived a prediction model for abnormal endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) by enriching EUS findings with patient demographic and pancreatitis behavioral risk characteristics.
Demographics, behavioral risk characteristics, EUS findings, and peak bicarbonate results were collected from patients evaluated for pancreatic disease. Abnormal ePFT was defined as peak bicarbonate of less than 75 mEq/L. We fit a logistic regression model and converted it to a risk score system. The risk score was validated using 1000 bootstrap simulations.
A total of 176 patients were included; 61% were female with median age of 48 years (interquartile range, 38-57 years). Abnormal ePFT rate was 39.2% (69/176). Four variables formulated the risk score: alcohol or smoking status, number of parenchymal abnormalities, number of ductal abnormalities, and calcifications. Abnormal ePFT occurred in 10.7% with scores 4 or less versus 92.0% scoring 20 or greater. The model C-statistic was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.85).
Number of EUS pancreatic duct and parenchymal abnormalities, presence of calcification, and smoking/alcohol status were predictive of abnormal ePFT. This simple model has good discrimination for ePFT results.