Neurologic Complications of Organ Transplantation Publications (499)


Neurologic Complications of Organ Transplantation Publications

Pediatr Transplant
Pediatr Transplant 2017 Jan 1. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, İnönü University, Malatya, Turkey.
Am. J. Transplant.
Am J Transplant 2016 Sep 20. Epub 2016 Sep 20.
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Solid organ transplant patients are vulnerable to suffering neurologic complications from a wide array of viral infections and can be sentinels in the population who are first to get serious complications from emerging infections like the recent waves of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Dengue virus. The diverse and rapidly changing landscape of possible causes of viral encephalitis poses great challenges for traditional candidate-based infectious disease diagnostics that already fail to identify a causative pathogen in approximately 50% of encephalitis cases. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl on immunosuppression for a renal transplant who presented with acute meningoencephalitis. Read More

Traditional diagnostics failed to identify an etiology. RNA extracted from her cerebrospinal fluid was subjected to unbiased metagenomic deep sequencing, enhanced with the use of a Cas9-based technique for host depletion. This analysis identified West Nile virus (WNV). Convalescent serum serologies subsequently confirmed WNV seroconversion. These results support a clear clinical role for metagenomic deep sequencing in the setting of suspected viral encephalitis, especially in the context of the high-risk transplant patient population.

Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2016 Aug;37(8):666-70
The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis of Ministry of Health, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.

To analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of 16 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo- HSCT)- associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA- TMA) patients.
The clinical data of 16 TA- TMA cases in 852 patients following allo- HSCT from Jan. 2013 to Jun. Read More

2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University were retrospectively analyzed.
Of all the 852 allo-HSCT recipients, 16 patients were diagnosed as TA-TMA and the 1-year cumulative incidence of TA-TMA was (2.3±0.6)%. Among them, there were 9 males and 7 females, the median age was 41-year-old (12-54), and the median times of diagnosis of TA-TMA were 72 (21- 525) days after HSCT. Additionally, the median platelet counts, hemoglobin, percentage of schistocytes and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were 20(11-36) ×10(9)/L, 74(56-99) g/L, 3% (2%- 13%) and 762(309-1 049) U/L, respectively. All 16 cases have normal ADAMTS13 level (over 60%), 10 patients had neurologic dysfunction and elevated creatinine were seen in 7. The major treatment of TA-TMA was withdrawn of calcineurin inhibitors, plasma exchange and corticosteroids. Finally, 8 patients achieved response after treatment and the other patients died of poor response. Compared with TA- TMA who achieved remission after therapy, those who got no response after interventions presented acute GVHD and they had higher schistocytes (62.5% cases>5% vs all cases ≤4%), LDH [826 (674-1 310) U/L vs 636 (309- 941) U/L] and serum creatinine levels [127 (70- 215) μmol/L vs 56 (22- 101) μmol/L].
TA-TMA was a severe complication after allo-HSCT, it could progress to multi-organ injury and was associated with poor outcome, the therapeutic efficacy depends on disease severity and coexisted complications.

Ann. Thorac. Surg.
Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Jan 15;103(1):193-197. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Circulatory failure necessitating cardiac transplantation will ultimately develop in many patients with functional single-ventricle physiology. Interest in the use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in this population is growing.
This was a retrospective case series of patients with functional single-ventricle physiology who underwent MCS with a ventricular assist device or a total artificial heart as a bridge to cardiac transplantation between January 2006 and December 2014. Read More

Baseline demographics, intraoperative data, postoperative complications, and outcome data were collected from the medical record.
MCS was used in 5 patients: HeartWare ventricular assist device (HeartWare International, Framingham, MA) in 1 patient, SynCardia total artificial heart (SynCardia Systems, Tucson, AZ) in 1, Thoratec Paracorporeal ventricular assist device (Thoratec Corp, Pleasanton, CA) in 1, and the Berlin Heart EXCOR (Berlin Heart Inc, The Woodlands, TX) in 2. The mean age at MCS was 12 ± 8 years. There were 2 early deaths at 12 and 28 days after MCS: 1 patient died of multiorgan system failure and 1 of neurologic injury. Overall, neurologic complications occurred in 3 patients (60%), and 1 patient (20%) required renal replacement therapy. Three patients (60%) underwent successful cardiac transplantation. The median time on the waiting list was 59 days (interquartile range, 18 to 126 days), and the median duration of MCS was 60 days (interquartile range, 28 to 93 days). At the time of transplant, all 3 patients were ambulatory, without the need for mechanical ventilation, and end-organ dysfunction had resolved. The 3 patients who received transplants were discharged from the hospital and were alive at an average follow-up of 9 ± 14 months.
MCS can be successfully used as a bridge to transplantation in patients with a failing single-ventricle circulation. Use of MCS can allow for resolution of end-organ dysfunction and rehabilitation, leading to improved outcomes in this difficult population.

World J. Gastroenterol.
World J Gastroenterol 2016 Jun;22(24):5548-57
Si-Yuan Wu, Teng-Wei Chen, An-Chieh Feng, Hsiu-Lung Fan, Chung-Bao Hsieh, Division of Organ Transplantation Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan.

To determine risk factors for early neurologic complications (NCs) after liver transplantation from perspective of recipient, donor, and surgeon.
In all, 295 adult recipients were enrolled consecutively between August 2001 and February 2014 from a single medical center in Taiwan. Any NC in the first 30 d post-liver transplantation, and perioperative variables from multiple perspectives were collected and analyzed. Read More

The main outcome was a 30-d NC. Generalized additive models were used to detect the non-linear effect of continuous variables on outcome, and to determine cut-off values for categorizing risk. Risk factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis.
In all, 288 recipients were included, of whom 142 (49.3%) experienced at least one NC, with encephalopathy being the most common 106 (73%). NCs prolonged hospital stay (35.15 ± 43.80 d vs 20.88 ± 13.58 d, P < 0.001). Liver recipients' age < 29 or ≥ 60 years, body mass index < 21.6 or > 27.6 kg/m(2), Child-Pugh class C, history of preoperative hepatoencephalopathy or mental disorders, day 7 tacrolimus level > 8.9 ng/mL, and postoperative intra-abdominal infection were more likely associated with NCs. Novel risk factors for NCs were donor age < 22 or ≥ 40 years, male-to-male gender matching, graft-recipient weight ratio 0.9%-1.9%, and sequence of transplantation between 31 and 174.
NCs post- liver transplantation occurs because of factors related to recipient, donor, and surgeon. Our results provide a basis of risk stratification for surgeon to minimize neurotoxic factors during transplantation.

Am Fam Physician
Am Fam Physician 2016 May;93(10):840-8
University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in any organ, most commonly the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis should be suspected in any young or middle-aged adult presenting with unexplained cough, shortness of breath, or constitutional symptoms, especially among blacks or Scandinavians. Diagnosis relies on three criteria: (1) a compatible clinical and radiologic presentation, (2) pathologic evidence of noncaseating granulomas, and (3) exclusion of other diseases with similar findings, such as infections or malignancy. Read More

An early and accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains challenging, because initial presentations may vary, many patients are asymptomatic, and there is no single reliable diagnostic test. Prognosis is variable and depends on epidemiologic factors, mode of onset, initial clinical course, and specific organ involvement. The optimal treatment for sarcoidosis remains unclear, but corticosteroid therapy has been the mainstay of therapy for those with significantly symptomatic or progressive pulmonary disease or serious extrapulmonary disease. Refractory or complex cases may require immunosuppressive therapy. Despite aggressive treatment, some patients may develop life-threatening pulmonary, cardiac, or neurologic complications from severe, progressive disease. End-stage disease may ultimately require lung or heart transplantation for eligible patients.

Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 2016 May;54(5):384-8
Department of Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, China.

To analyze the reason and treatment of the complications of 61 cases of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in order to improve survival rate of ECMO treatment.
ECMO records from January 2007 to December 2014 in Shanghai Chest Hospital were investigated retrospectively focusing on complications. There were included 43 male and 18 female patients, age 3 to 66 years. Read More

Indications for ECMO included post-operative low cardiac output, viral myocarditis, bridge to heart transplantation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and myocardial infarction. There were 49 cases of veno-arterial ECMO and 12 cases of veno-venous ECMO.
ECMO duration was 2 to 61 days. Among 43 patients, 37 patients weaned from ECMO successfully and 28 survived to discharge. Various complications occurred to 56 patients, including oxygenator plasma leakage(4 case times), circuit emboli (7), hemolysis (4), bleeding (34), infection (8), acute kidney injury (35), lower limb ischemia (8) and neurologic complications (6). There were 49 cases times of complications in survivors, while 61 cases times in death group. Bleeding (10 time cases) and acute kidney injury (33 time cases) happened in the death group. Progresses in ECMO technique had influences on complications in some parts. For instance, incidence of lower limb ischemia was 6/7 in cutdown cannulating group, but reduced to 2/42(4.8%) when semi-open technique was applied.
Complications in ECMO are relative to patients' outcome intimately. Appropriate prevention and treatment of complication play a major role in the success of ECMO support. The incidences of certain complications reduce significantly due to progresses of equipment and medical experiences.

Medicine (Baltimore)
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Apr;95(14):e3173
From the Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, Organ Transplantation Center (TS, ZR, YQ, JL, ZH, XW, TL); and The Third Comprehensive Care Unit, West China Hospital, Sichuan University (QT), Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare neurologic side effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) with poorly understood clinical features.We report cases of 2 patients with PRES developing after kidney transplantation and summarize PRES clinical features through a literature review.The 1st case was a 28-year-old man who received a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. Read More

Initial immunosuppressive therapy consisted of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/prednisolone. He developed headache and blurred vision with visual field loss15 days after transplantation and generalized seizures 4 days later. The 2nd case was a 34-year-old man who received a living kidney transplant. His initial immunosuppressive therapy comprised tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/prednisolone. Two months after transplantation, he developed seizures. Both patients were diagnosed with PRES based on neurological symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings; they recovered after switching from tacrolimus to either a cyclosporine or a lower tacrolimus dose. CNI-associated PRES is an acute neurological syndrome with seizures, encephalopathy, visual abnormalities, headache, focal neurological deficits, and nausea/vomiting. It is always accompanied by hypertension. A fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal MRI scan typically shows reversible subcortical white matter changes in the posterior cerebral hemisphere that usually occur within the 1st month after transplantation. CNI-associated PRES has a generally favorable prognosis with early diagnosis and prompt treatment including alternating or discontinuing CNIs and blood pressure control.CNI-associated PRES should be considered in patients exhibiting acute neurological symptoms after transplantation. Early diagnosis and immediate treatment are critical for a favorable prognosis.

Am. J. Transplant.
Am J Transplant 2016 Apr 4;16(4):1207-15. Epub 2016 Feb 4.
Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Although controlled donation after circulatory determination of death (cDCDD) could increase the supply of donor lungs within the United States, the yield of lungs from cDCDD donors remains low compared with donation after neurologic determination of death (DNDD). To explore the reason for low lung yield from cDCDD donors, Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipient data were used to assess the impact of donor lung quality on cDCDD lung utilization by fitting a logistic regression model. The relationship between center volume and cDCDD use was assessed, and the distance between center and donor hospital was calculated by cDCDD status. Read More

Recipient survival was compared using a multivariable Cox regression model. Lung utilization was 2.1% for cDCDD donors and 21.4% for DNDD donors. Being a cDCDD donor decreased lung donation (adjusted odds ratio 0.101, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.085-0.120). A minority of centers have performed cDCDD transplant, with higher volume centers generally performing more cDCDD transplants. There was no difference in center-to-donor distance or recipient survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.78-1.37) between cDCDD and DNDD transplants. cDCDD lungs are underutilized compared with DNDD lungs after adjusting for lung quality. Increasing transplant center expertise and commitment to cDCDD lung procurement is needed to improve utilization.