Mitral Valve Prolapse Publications (6543)
Mitral Valve Prolapse Publications
In this paper, we develop a finite element model of mitral valve prolapse, considering the direct effect of left ventricular motion on blood flow interacting with the mitral valve. Ventricular wall motion is used as a constraint for fluid domain. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian finite element method formulation is used for numerical solution of transient dynamic equations of the fluid domain. Leaflets' stresses and chordal forces during prolapse are determined and compared to previous healthy results, as well as flow characteristics in the computational domain. Results show considerable increases in the stress magnitudes of interior and posterior leaflets in prolapse condition in comparison with previous healthy studies. In addition, chordae tendineae forces are distributed non-uniformly with higher maximum value here, as a result of other chordae tendineae rupture.
However, internal mammary artery (IMA) true aneurysms are rarely reported. In this case report, we describe a 43-year-old male patient with MFS and three previous thoracotomies referred for endovascular repair of bilateral IMA true aneurysms. To the best of our knowledge, there are no cases of endovascular treatment of bilateral IMA true aneurysms reported in the literature.
There was no skin laxity. A 4-mm punch biopsy was obtained from the left thigh for histologic examination. Findings showed a focal increase in the concentration of elastic fibers highlighted by Verhoeff Van Gieson stain (Figure 2). There was no fragmentation, calcification, or phagocytosis of elastic fibers. There was also no evidence of actinic elastosis. A section stained with hematoxylin and eosin appeared relatively unremarkable. These findings were consistent with late-onset focal dermal elastosis.
Latent recurrence of atrial fibrillation after the maze procedure is caused by many factors. ASV therapy is one way to prevent the occurrence of new atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. However, a complete biatrial maze procedure should be performed for continued prevention of the recurrence of atrial fibrillation after the maze procedure, and atrial reduction plasty for a huge left atrium may be added.
1 years; range: 13-86 years) with isolated PLP [304 (61.8%) with myxomatous degeneration; 188 (38.2%) with fibroelastic deficiency] were treated at the authors' institution. Of these patients, 202 (41.1%) were in NYHA class III-IV, and atrial fibrillation was present in 104 (21.1%). Mitral valve repair was achieved in 484 patients (98.4%), resection was performed in 419 (85.2%), and prosthetic ring annuloplasty was used in 436 (88.6%). Concomitant procedures were performed in 153 patients (31.1%), including tricuspid valve repair in 50 (10.2%), aortic valve surgery in 34 (6.9%), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 64 (13%).
The hospital mortality rate was 0.2%, and the mean follow up was 7.1 ± 3.9 years. There were 71 late deaths (14.4%), and overall survival at five, 10 and 15 years was 91.7 ± 1.3%, 82.1 ± 2.3% and 64.7 ± 6.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference in long-term survival compared with the age- and gender-matched general population (p = 0.146). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard analysis showed older age (HR 1.03 per annum), left ventricular dysfunction (HR 2.44), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.96), left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (HR 1.05 per mm) and non-use of prosthetic ring (HR 3.03) as significant predictors of late mortality. Recurrence of moderate or severe MR occurred in 31 patients, six of whom underwent mitral valve reoperation. Predictors of late recurrence of MR were fibroelastic deficiency (HR 2.38), mitral calcification (HR 5.26), posterior leaflet plication (HR 3.58), absence of complete ring annuloplasty (HR 3.84) and systolic pulmonary artery pressure at discharge (HR 1.10 per mmHg). Freedom from mitral valve reoperation at 15 years was 97.4 ± 1.1% CONCLUSIONS: Mitral valve repair in isolated PLP can be achieved in virtually all cases with a very low operative risk and a high durability of repair. Atrial fibrillation or large left ventricles are associated with a poor prognosis. Failure to use a complete ring annuloplasty carries a risk not only for the return of MR but also for survival.
Surgery involved either chordal transposition from the posterior to the anterior leaflet (n = 67), or chordal replacement using ePTFE sutures (n = 29). Clinical, operative and follow up data were recorded prospectively for each patient. The follow up was 100% complete (mean 3.4 years; range 0 to 12.9 years).
Mitral valve repair was accomplished in all patients, with no operative mortality. The durations of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp were significantly longer in the chordal replacement group. Actuarial overall survival at one, five and 10 years was 95 ± 3%, 87 ± 5% and 82 ± 7% versus 89 ± 6%, 89 ± 6% and 89 ± 6% in the chordal transposition and chordal replacement groups, respectively (p = 0.84). Freedom from reoperation in the two groups at five years was 95 ± 3% and 91 ± 7%, respectively (p = 0.24). The recurrence of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) (grade ≤2+) and of severe (grade ≤3+) MR was significantly higher in patients who underwent chordal replacement compared to chordal transposition (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively).
Provided that chordal quality is preserved, chordal transposition is easier and quicker to achieve for ALP repair, and is also durable in the mid term. Chordal replacement offers a satisfying durability even if the recurrence of severe MR appears to be higher. Preferably, both surgical techniques should be mastered to allow valve repair when anatomic conditions prevent chordal transposition.
The distance from the coaptation to the bending point of the anterior mitral leaflet (AML), where the chorda was attached, was termed the 'bending length'. The ratio of the bending length to the distance from coaptation to anterior mitral annulus was termed the 'bending ratio' (= bending length/coaptation-annulus length). The mitral annular area (MAA) fractional change was defined as follows: (MAA at late systole - MAA at early systole)/MAA at late systole × 100%). Other parameters relating to mitral valve morphology obtained using 3D TEE were measured with commercial software (QLAB, Phillips).
The coaptation length (CL) was smaller in the AF+MR+ group than in the AF+MR- group (p<0.001), and correlated significantly with the anteriorposterior diameter of the mitral annulus (R = 0.286, p = -0.022), MAA at mid-systole (R = -0.269, p = 0.032), MAA fractional change (R = 0.434, p <0.001), and the bending ratio (R = -0.603, p <0.001). With a multivariable analysis, the correlating factors of significant MR in lone AF patients were a decrease in MAA fractional change (p = 0.022) and an increase of the bending ratio (p = 0.009).
Small MAA fractional changes and the distant position of the chordae tendineae on the AML from the coaptation correlated with significant MR in AF patients with normal left ventricular systolic function.