Mitral Regurgitation Publications (28918)


Mitral Regurgitation Publications

Hellenic J Cardiol
Hellenic J Cardiol 2016 Nov 16. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Physics, Vilnius University, Lithuania.

The natural history, management, and outcome of Takotsubo (stress) cardiomyopathy (TTC) is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical features, define prognostic predictors, and assess the clinical course and outcomes of patients with TTC.
We analyzed 64 patients (52 women) meeting the proposed Mayo Clinic diagnostic criteria for TTC. Read More

All patients were treated at Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos from 2001-01-01 to 2014-11-27. Data were collected on the basis of medical records and follow-up data was collected by phone.
The mean age of analyzed patients was 63.4 ± 14.6 years; the mean follow-up was 2.9 years. More than half of the patients (52%) did not have any clear stressful triggers. During admission, symptoms such as chest pain (64%) and general weakness (45%) were reported more often than other symptoms. Almost all patients (94%) had the classical TTC form; the remaining 6% of patients had "inverted" TTC. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) on admission was 37.7% (± 8.2%). A pseudonormal or restrictive pattern of LV filling, moderate to severe mitral regurgitation (MR), and right ventricular involvement were uncommon in the patients. The in-hospital course showed cardiogenic shock in 23% of the cases, resulting in the death of 5 (8%) patients. We discovered that only peak concentration of troponin I was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (HR 1.067, 95%CI 1.022-1.113, p=0.003). At the end of the follow-up period, 45 (87%) women and 8 (67%) men were alive. This makes the overall observed mortality at 3 years approximately 17.2%. Using multivariate analysis, elevation of BNP (HR for increase by 10 ng/l 1.002, 95%CI 1-1.003, p=0.022) and cardiogenic shock on admission (HR 8.696, 95%CI 1.198-63.124, p=0.032) were significant predictors of overall mortality. Other prognostic factors assessed on admission were nonsignificant predictors of overall mortality.
Our analysis shows that in-hospital mortality is influenced by the peak concentration of troponin I, and overall mortality is affected by cardiogenic shock and the elevation of BNP during admission. The assessment of troponin I and BNP can help with the prognostication of TTC patients in our daily clinical practice.

Innovations (Phila)
Innovations (Phila) 2017 Jan 12. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
From the Departments of *Cardiovascular Surgery and †Anesthesiology, Istanbul Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Mitral valve repair has been one of the widely used applications of robotic surgery. Patients with rheumatic mitral disease usually present at an early age with thickening, retraction, or fusion of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus. Robotic mitral repair can be feasible among this group of patients, rather than replacement. Read More

Herein, we describe a young woman who presented with rheumatic mitral valve insufficiency. A complex mitral repair with posterior leaflet extension with an autologous pericardial patch was successfully conducted using robot assistance.

J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016 Oct 21. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology.

Progression of mitral regurgitation (MR) after orthotopic lung transplantation (OLT) may be an underrecognized phenomenon due to the overlapping symptomatology of pulmonary and valvular disease. Literature evaluating the progression of MR after OLT currently is limited to case reports. Therefore, the hypothesis that MR progresses after OLT was tested and the association of preprocedure MR with postoperative mortality was assessed. Read More

A retrospective cohort.
A tertiary-care hospital.
Patients who underwent OLT between January 1, 2003 and February 4, 2012.
After receiving institutional review board approval, a preprocedure transesophageal echocardiogram was compared with a postoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) to determine the progression of MR. Univariate and multivariate association between preprocedure MR grade and 1- and 5-year mortality was assessed. A p value of<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
From 715 patients who underwent OLT, 352 had a postoperative TTE and were included in the evaluation of progression of MR. Five patients had progression of MR postoperatively, and the mean change in MR score of -0.04 was found to be nonsignificant (p = 0.25). Mortality data were available for 634 of the 715 patients. After covariate adjustment, there was no significant association between MR grade and 1-year mortality (p = 0.20) or 5-year mortality (p = 0.46).
This study rejected the hypothesis that primary and secondary MR progresses after OLT and found that preprocedure MR was not associated with increased postoperative mortality. Despite the findings that MR does not progress in all patients, there is a subset of patients for whom MR progression is clinically significant. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

We report the case of early recurrence of Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy in an elderly woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis triggered by different stressors. A first episode with typical apical ballooning was anticipated by an emotional stress; a second, characterized by systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve associated with mitral regurgitation and severe intra-ventricular gradient, was precipitated by surgical stress and hypovolemia. We therefore hypothesize both a possible link between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, and between different stressors and different Tako-Tsubo patterns. Read More

Although a subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated phase of HCM (D-HCM) characterized by left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, has been reported to have a poor prognosis, some patients with D-HCM survive for a relatively long period. The degree of LV dilatation and functional mitral regurgitation (MR) are generally thought to be important predictors of poor prognosis in patients with LV systolic dysfunction. However, there is little information available on the relations among LV size, presence of significant MR, and prognosis in D-HCM patients. Read More

We retrospectively studied 31 patients with D-HCM to determine whether echocardiographic assessment of LV size and MR provides incremental prognostic information.During a follow-up period of 5.6 ± 4.2 years, there were 13 cardiovascular deaths. When the patients were divided into two groups by LV size at diagnosis of D-HCM, a non-dilated LV group (LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) < 50 mm, n = 9) and a dilated LV group (LVEDD ≥ 50 mm, n = 22), the clinical course in the non-dilated LV group was significantly worse. As for the clinical impact of MR, no patient in the non-dilated LV group showed significant MR and 7 of the patients with dilated LV size showed significant MR during follow-up. Once significant MR was reached, cardiovascular deaths were significantly more frequent in patients with MR.Patients with D-HCM, particularly those with less LV dilatation at diagnosis of dilated phase and with significant MR during follow-up, have a poor prognosis.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Reoperative procedure for the treatment of a failed mitral bioprosthesis is associated with considerable risk. In some cases, mortality is high and might contraindicate the benefit of the procedure. The minimally invasive valve-in-valve (ViV) transcatheter mitral valve implant offers an alternative less-invasive approach, reducing morbidity and mortality. Read More

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the mitral ViV approach using the Braile Inovare prosthesis.
The transcatheter balloon-expandable Braile Inovare prosthesis was used in 12 cases. Procedures were performed in a hybrid operating room, under fluoroscopic and echocardiographic control. Through left minithoracotomy, the prostheses were implanted through the cardiac apex. Serial echocardiographic and clinical examinations were performed. Follow-up varied from 1 to 30 months.
A total of 12 transapical mitral ViV procedures were performed. Patients had a mean age of 61.6 ± 9.9 years and 92% were women. Mean logistic EuroSCORE was 20.1%. Successful valve implantation was possible in all cases. In one case, a right lateral thoracotomy was performed for the removal of an embolized prosthesis. There was no operative mortality. Thirty-day mortality was 8.3%. Ejection fraction was preserved after the implant (66.7%; 64.8%; P = 0.3). The mitral gradient showed a significant reduction (11 mmHg; 6 mmHg; P < 0.001). Residual mitral regurgitation was not present. There was no left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
The mitral ViV implant in a failed bioprosthesis is an effective procedure. This possibility might alter prosthesis selection in the future initial surgical prosthesis selection, favouring bioprostheses. Further large trials should explore its safety.


Quantitative mitral regurgitation (MR) grading remains challenging. This study evaluated the concept of integrating echocardiography and computed tomography for grading MR severity. Specifically, an integrated parameter was developed that combines the true cross-sectional mitral regurgitant orifice area (ROA) assessed with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) with flow data from echocardiography. Read More

Systolic MDCT data of 73 patients, referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) who also had MR, were evaluated. The MDCT systolic phase with the smaller left ventricular volume and the largest mitral regurgitant orifice was selected. Using planimetry, the mitral ROA was measured. The mitral ROA was multiplied with the velocity time integral of the MR jet on echocardiography for the calculation of the integrated regurgitant volume (RVol). MDCT analysis showed a mean mitral ROA of 11.3 ± 7.4 mm(2) and a mean integrated RVol of 21.4 ± 14.7 mL/beat, whereas echocardiography showed a mean effective ROA and RVol of MR of 13.3 ± 8.2 mm(2) and 23.9 ± 13.6 mL/beat, respectively. Compared with echocardiography, grading based on integrated mitral RVol resulted in reclassification of 10% of the patients from severe to non-severe MR and 14% of the patients from non-severe to severe MR.
Integrated mitral RVol is a quantitative parameter of MR severity by combining the true cross-sectional mitral ROA assessed with MDCT and Doppler mitral haemodynamics which resulted in a significant reclassification of MR grade in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR.

Selection of patients who are viable candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), prediction of the response to CRT as well as an optimal definition of a favorable response, all require further exploration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interplay between the prediction of the response to CRT and the definition of a favorable outcome.
Seventy patients who received CRT were included. Read More

All patients met current guideline criteria for CRT. Forty-three echocardiographic parameters were evaluated before CRT and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. M-mode, 2D echocardiography, and Doppler imaging were used to quantify left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, mitral regurgitation, right ventricular systolic function, pulmonary artery pressure, and myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony. The following definitions of a favorable CRT response were used: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement more >5% acutely following CRT, LVEF improvement >20% at 12-month follow-up, and a LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) decrease >15% at 12-month follow-up.
For the LVEF improvement >5%, the best predictor was isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT; P=.035). For improvement of LVEF >20%, the best predictors were left ventricular stroke index (LVSI; P=.044) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS; P=.031). For the drop in left ventricular systolic volume (LVESV >15%), the best predictor was septal-to-lateral wall delay (ΔT) (P=.043, RR=1.023, 95% CI for RR=1.001-1.045).
The definition of a favorable CRT response influenced the optimal predictor variable(s). Standardization of defining a favorable response to CRT is needed to guide clinical decision making processes.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Aomori City Hospital, Aomori, Japan.

An unusual case of posteromedial papillary muscle (PPM) rupture due to isolated left anterior descending (LAD) artery ischaemia, associated with severe myocardial bridge contraction, is presented. The unusual blood supply to the PPM was associated with its apical origin and apex-forming LAD. Read More