LP Lumbar Puncture Publications (8191)
LP Lumbar Puncture Publications
PTC was defined as presence of intracranial hypertension (CSF opening pressure>25cmH2O) and absence of space-occupying lesions in brain MR images.
A total of 12 children with PTC were included; mean age was 10 years and 90% were girls. Weight was normal in all patients. Eighty-two percent of the patients had symptoms: headache (66%), diplopia (8%), and visual loss (8%). All of them displayed papilloedema (17% unilaterally). Lumbar puncture (LP) provided the diagnosis in all cases and 91% showed no relevant MRI findings. A potential cause of PTC was identified in 5 cases: pharmacological treatment in 2 and infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae [M. pneumoniae]) in 3. Ninety-one per cent of the patients received treatment: 75% underwent several LPs and 42% received acetazolamide and/or prednisone. Outcomes were favourable in all cases.
The incidence of PTC was estimated at approximately 1 case per 100 000 children/years, in line with data reported by previous studies. Overweight was not found to be a risk factor for PTC in this population. M. pneumoniae infection may trigger PTC and cause recurrences at later stages. The absence of symptoms seems to be independent from the degree of intracranial hypertension. Acetazolamide treatment is effective in most cases, and it represents a viable alternative to repeated LP.
Retrospective observational study.
The single center study in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Participants were 312 adults with neck or upper extremity pain caused by cervical lesion such as cervical herniated nucleus pulposus (HNPs). They underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with severe cervical spinal stenosis, prior posterior cervical spine surgery, or other anatomical abnormalities of the vertebral laminae were excluded from the study. By using axial T2-weighted spin-echo MRI, we defined the area between the spinous processes as the anterior posterior zone 1 (APZ1), and the area lateral to the spinous processes as the anterior posterior zone 2 (APZ2). Line 1 was drawn along the ventral margin of lamina that confined APZ1, and line 2 was similarly drawn in order to define APZ2. The angles between the midsagittal line and lines 1 and 2 were defined as angle 1 and angle 2, respectively. Angles were measured at the C5-6, C6-7, and C7-T1 levels, on both right and left sides at each level.
Angle 1 values (in degrees) at right C5-6, left C5-6, right C6-7, left C6-7, right C7-T1, and left C7-T1 were 62.54 ± 10.52, 64.34 ± 9.86, 62.03 ± 10.27, 62.87 ± 10.64, 61.64 ± 11.0, and 62.58 ± 10.83, respectively. Angle 2 values at right C5-6, left C5-6, right C6-7, left C6-7, right C7-T1, and left C7-T1 were 50.44 ± 6.84, 50.77 ± 7.00, 49.15 ± 6.07, 49.89 ± 6.45, 50.84 ± 6.68, and 50.24 ± 6.60, respectively. There were significant differences between angles 1 and 2 at each level.
This study is a retrospective review and did not employ controls, blinding, or randomization. Additionally, the optimal CLO angles for CILESIs and cervicothoracic interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CTILESIs) have not been assessed in clinical studies. Another limitation is that we divided lamina into only APZ1 and APZ2.
During CILESIs, a contralateral oblique (CLO) view at 60 degrees is superior to other angles for visualizing the epidural space when the needle tip is placed in the interlaminar space and within the spinous processes margin. When the needle tip is placed in the interlaminar space and lateral to the spinous processes, a CLO view at 50 degrees is most appropriate.Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval number: S2016-0390-0001Key words: Chronic neck pain, chronic upper extremity pain, cervical epidural injections, cervical interlaminar steroid injections, steroid, needle tip position, needle tip visualization, fluoroscopy, complication, contralateral oblique view.
A total of 120 parturients in early labor were randomly assigned to EPL, DPE, or CSE groups. Initial dosing for EPL and DPE consisted of epidural 20 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine plus fentanyl 2 μg/mL over 5 minutes, and for CSE, intrathecal 0.25% bupivacaine 1.7 mg and fentanyl 17 μg. Upon block completion, a blinded coinvestigator assessed the outcomes. Two blinded obstetricians retrospectively interpreted uterine contractions and fetal heart rate tracings 1 hour before and after the neuraxial technique. The primary outcome was time to numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) ≤ 1 analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard model. Secondary outcomes included block quality, maternal adverse effects, uterine contraction patterns, and fetal outcomes analyzed by using the χ test with Yates continuity correction.
There was no significant difference in the time to NPRS ≤ 1 between DPE and EPL (hazard ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.4, P = .21). DPE achieved NPRS ≤ 1 significantly slower than CSE (hazard ratio 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59, P = .0001). The median times (interquartile range) to NPRS ≤ 1 were 2 (0.5-6) minutes for CSE, 11 (4-120) minutes for DPE, and 18 (10-120) minutes for EPL. Compared with EPL, DPE had significantly greater incidence of bilateral S2 blockade at 10 minutes (risk ratio [RR] 2.13; 95% CI 1.39-3.28; P < .001), 20 minutes (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.26-2.03; P < .001), and 30 minutes (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.30; P < .034), a lower incidence of asymmetric block after 30 minutes (RR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.51; P < .001) and physician top-up intervention (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23-0.86; P = .011). Compared with CSE, DPE had a significantly lower incidence of pruritus (RR 0.15; 95% CI 0.06-0.38; P < .001), hypotension (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.15-0.98; P = .032), combined uterine tachysystole and hypertonus (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.60; P < .001), and physician top-up intervention (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23-0.86; p = .011).
Analgesia onset was most rapid with CSE with no difference between DPE and EPL techniques. The DPE technique has improved block quality over the EPL technique with fewer maternal and fetal side effects than the CSE technique for parturients requesting early labor analgesia.
Therefore, offering this opportunity to ACNP students in a controlled environment of simulation laboratory can be a win-win for the practitioner, the consumer as well as the health care industry at large. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of the role of simulation as a teaching method for invasive procedures such as Central Venous Catheterization (CVC), Arterial Catheters (AC), Thoracentesis, Paracentesis, Lumbar Puncture (LP), and Endotracheal intubation for ACNPs. One such simulation program was launched for teaching ACNP students the CVCs and ACs under ultrasound guidance. The launch of the program was overwhelmingly effective and the results of the survey of participating students showed significant improvement in their knowledge, skills and attitudes.
The L3-4 interspace was selected as the puncture site, and subarachnoid injection of 2.5 mL 0.5% hypobaric ropivacaine was administered. After the epidural catheter was inserted and fixed, the patient's position was changed to the left-leaning supine position. The blood pressure was measured once every 1 min followed by once every 3 min after the delivery. The sensory block level was regularly measured.
A total of 88 parturients were included in this study. The incidences of hypotension in the sitting, left-lateral, and right-lateral position groups were 72%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, P = 0.012. Incidence and total dose of the phenylephrine supplement in the sitting position group were significantly higher than in the other two groups. The sitting position group showed a significantly higher block level (T4 [T3, T4]) as compared to the left-lateral (T6 [T5, T6]) and right-lateral position groups (T6 [T4, T6]), P < 0.01. The Apgar scores of neonates at 1 min and 5 min, and the pH values of the umbilical arterial and venous blood were similar among the three groups.
As compared to the lateral positions, CSEA with hypobaric ropivacaine in the sitting position is more likely to cause hypotension and excessively high block level.
Records of patients who received epidural analgesia for labor and vaginal delivery between January 2011 and June 2015 were reviewed. Body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status and age were analyzed. Chi-squared analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the incidence and severity of dural puncture headaches with body mass index.
A total of 17497 epidurals were placed for vaginal deliveries. Of these 164 patients met our criteria for accidental dural puncture, of whom 51.2% developed dural puncture headaches. Of patients who developed a dural puncture headache 35.7% required an epidural blood patch. Data analysis showed no significant difference between body mass index and incidence of dural puncture headaches regardless of body mass index classification (P>0.05). There was no association between body mass index and the intensity of dural puncture headaches (P=0.29).
Patients with a high body mass index do not appear to be protected from experiencing a dural puncture headache after an accidental dural puncture during placement of labor epidural analgesia. Additionally, the intensity of dural puncture headaches does not vary with body mass index.
Systematic review of literature on PubMed for cases of acute nontraumatic noniatrogenic SSDHs in adults (≥18 y of age). A total of 122 cases were reviewed including 2 cases from our hospital.
There was a slight preponderance of female patients with spontaneous SSDHs and the mean age was 60 years. Spontaneous SSDHs were mostly located in the thoracic region (40%). Motor symptoms were most frequent (89%), followed by pain. Sensory deficits were present in 64%, of which 81% had a sensory level. In 6% radiculating pain, without any focal neurological deficits, was the presenting symptom. SSDHs were mainly caused by a coagulopathy (48%), predominantly due to the use of coumarins (34%). Other causes were underlying (vascular) malformations and vasculitis. Forty-three percent the SSDHs was idiopathic. 72% of patients underwent a decompressive laminectomy. 59% had a favorable outcome and 34% had a poor outcome.
Spontaneous SSDHs were predominantly located in the thoracic spine, presenting with paraparesis/paraplegia, sensory level and pain. Over 40% was caused by a coagulation defect, most frequently due to coumarins. Six percent of patients presented with radiculating pain without any focal neurological deficits.
) and on the anaesthetic techniques usually used in 5 surgical situations eligible for outpatient surgery (knee arthroscopy, inguinal hernia, transobturator tape, haemorrhoids, varicose veins in the lower limbs).
Responses from 703 anaesthesiologists were analysed. Spinal anaesthesia was usually performed in a sitting position (76 %) using a Whitacre needle (60 %) with a 25 G (57 %) diameter. Ultrasound before puncture was reported in 26 % of cases due to obesity or spinal abnormalities. Among the 5 surgical situations eligible for outpatient spinal anaesthesia, the technique was typically proposed in 29-49 % of cases. Bupivacaine was the most used local anaesthetic. Concerns over delays in attaining readiness for hospital discharge, urine retention, operation length, and surgeon's preference were the main reasons for choosing another anaesthetic technique in these situations.
New local anaesthetics are beginning to be used for outpatient spinal anaesthesia due to their interesting pharmacodynamic profile in this context. This study will provide a basis for evaluating future changes in practice.
a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further assure participants and reduce complication rates.
Measurements were obtained while patients were supine and upright. Changes in the ONSD between supine and upright positions [ONSD variability (ONSD-V)] were assessed and compared with those in 60 healthy volunteers. ONSD-V was correlated with relative changes in a validated iNPH severity (Boon) score.
Mean pre-puncture ONSD-V was significantly lower in healthy volunteers and patients with no response to CSF removal (Fisher test) [0.05 ± 0.14 mm (SD)] than in responsive patients [0.37 ± 0.20 mm (SD), P < 0.001]. ONSD-V predicted response to the spinal tap test (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.75 mm, P = 0.011). The higher the ONSD-V, the better the therapeutic effect (χ(2) = 14.980, P < 0.001). The post-spinal tap test ONSD-V correlated significantly with clinical severity in the motor portion of the Boon score [0.16 ± 0.23 mm (SD), P = 0.003].
The ONSD-V before and after spinal tap test correlated well with the clinical effects of CSF removal. Transorbital ultrasonography seems to be a reliable, safe add-on to the Fisher test and may support selection of patients for shunt intervention.