LP Lumbar Puncture Publications (8191)


LP Lumbar Puncture Publications

Neurologia 2017 Jan 9. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
Unidad de Neuropediatría, Servicio de Pediatría, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra, España.

The definition, associated aetiologies, diagnosis, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension, or pseudotumour cerebri (PTC), are constantly being revised in the paediatric population.
Our study included children younger than 15 years old with PTC and attended at a reference hospital in the past 12 years. We analysed the clinical and epidemiological features of our sample and the diagnostic and treatment approaches. Read More

PTC was defined as presence of intracranial hypertension (CSF opening pressure>25cmH2O) and absence of space-occupying lesions in brain MR images.
A total of 12 children with PTC were included; mean age was 10 years and 90% were girls. Weight was normal in all patients. Eighty-two percent of the patients had symptoms: headache (66%), diplopia (8%), and visual loss (8%). All of them displayed papilloedema (17% unilaterally). Lumbar puncture (LP) provided the diagnosis in all cases and 91% showed no relevant MRI findings. A potential cause of PTC was identified in 5 cases: pharmacological treatment in 2 and infection (Mycoplasma pneumoniae [M. pneumoniae]) in 3. Ninety-one per cent of the patients received treatment: 75% underwent several LPs and 42% received acetazolamide and/or prednisone. Outcomes were favourable in all cases.
The incidence of PTC was estimated at approximately 1 case per 100 000 children/years, in line with data reported by previous studies. Overweight was not found to be a risk factor for PTC in this population. M. pneumoniae infection may trigger PTC and cause recurrences at later stages. The absence of symptoms seems to be independent from the degree of intracranial hypertension. Acetazolamide treatment is effective in most cases, and it represents a viable alternative to repeated LP.


Chronic neck and upper extremity pain associated with cervical origin is common, and cervical interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CILESIs) are frequently used to manage the symptoms of cervical spinal disorders. However, CILESIs are associated with risks such as dural puncture and cord injury.
We aimed to determine the optimal needle tip visualization, in order to minimize CILESIs-induced complications. Read More

Retrospective observational study.
The single center study in Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Participants were 312 adults with neck or upper extremity pain caused by cervical lesion such as cervical herniated nucleus pulposus (HNPs). They underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with severe cervical spinal stenosis, prior posterior cervical spine surgery, or other anatomical abnormalities of the vertebral laminae were excluded from the study. By using axial T2-weighted spin-echo MRI, we defined the area between the spinous processes as the anterior posterior zone 1 (APZ1), and the area lateral to the spinous processes as the anterior posterior zone 2 (APZ2). Line 1 was drawn along the ventral margin of lamina that confined APZ1, and line 2 was similarly drawn in order to define APZ2. The angles between the midsagittal line and lines 1 and 2 were defined as angle 1 and angle 2, respectively. Angles were measured at the C5-6, C6-7, and C7-T1 levels, on both right and left sides at each level.
Angle 1 values (in degrees) at right C5-6, left C5-6, right C6-7, left C6-7, right C7-T1, and left C7-T1 were 62.54 ± 10.52, 64.34 ± 9.86, 62.03 ± 10.27, 62.87 ± 10.64, 61.64 ± 11.0, and 62.58 ± 10.83, respectively. Angle 2 values at right C5-6, left C5-6, right C6-7, left C6-7, right C7-T1, and left C7-T1 were 50.44 ± 6.84, 50.77 ± 7.00, 49.15 ± 6.07, 49.89 ± 6.45, 50.84 ± 6.68, and 50.24 ± 6.60, respectively. There were significant differences between angles 1 and 2 at each level.
This study is a retrospective review and did not employ controls, blinding, or randomization. Additionally, the optimal CLO angles for CILESIs and cervicothoracic interlaminar epidural steroid injections (CTILESIs) have not been assessed in clinical studies. Another limitation is that we divided lamina into only APZ1 and APZ2.
During CILESIs, a contralateral oblique (CLO) view at 60 degrees is superior to other angles for visualizing the epidural space when the needle tip is placed in the interlaminar space and within the spinous processes margin. When the needle tip is placed in the interlaminar space and lateral to the spinous processes, a CLO view at 50 degrees is most appropriate.Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval number: S2016-0390-0001Key words: Chronic neck pain, chronic upper extremity pain, cervical epidural injections, cervical interlaminar steroid injections, steroid, needle tip position, needle tip visualization, fluoroscopy, complication, contralateral oblique view.

Anesth. Analg.
Anesth Analg 2017 Jan 5. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; †Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; ‡Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; §Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and ‖Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

The dural puncture epidural (DPE) technique is a modification of the combined spinal epidural (CSE) technique, where a dural perforation is created from a spinal needle but intrathecal medication administration is withheld. The DPE technique has been shown to improve caudal spread of analgesia compared with epidural (EPL) technique without the side effects observed with the CSE technique. We hypothesized that the onset of labor analgesia would follow this order: CSE > DPE > EPL techniques. Read More

A total of 120 parturients in early labor were randomly assigned to EPL, DPE, or CSE groups. Initial dosing for EPL and DPE consisted of epidural 20 mL of 0.125% bupivacaine plus fentanyl 2 μg/mL over 5 minutes, and for CSE, intrathecal 0.25% bupivacaine 1.7 mg and fentanyl 17 μg. Upon block completion, a blinded coinvestigator assessed the outcomes. Two blinded obstetricians retrospectively interpreted uterine contractions and fetal heart rate tracings 1 hour before and after the neuraxial technique. The primary outcome was time to numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) ≤ 1 analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard model. Secondary outcomes included block quality, maternal adverse effects, uterine contraction patterns, and fetal outcomes analyzed by using the χ test with Yates continuity correction.
There was no significant difference in the time to NPRS ≤ 1 between DPE and EPL (hazard ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-2.4, P = .21). DPE achieved NPRS ≤ 1 significantly slower than CSE (hazard ratio 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59, P = .0001). The median times (interquartile range) to NPRS ≤ 1 were 2 (0.5-6) minutes for CSE, 11 (4-120) minutes for DPE, and 18 (10-120) minutes for EPL. Compared with EPL, DPE had significantly greater incidence of bilateral S2 blockade at 10 minutes (risk ratio [RR] 2.13; 95% CI 1.39-3.28; P < .001), 20 minutes (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.26-2.03; P < .001), and 30 minutes (RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.30; P < .034), a lower incidence of asymmetric block after 30 minutes (RR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.51; P < .001) and physician top-up intervention (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23-0.86; P = .011). Compared with CSE, DPE had a significantly lower incidence of pruritus (RR 0.15; 95% CI 0.06-0.38; P < .001), hypotension (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.15-0.98; P = .032), combined uterine tachysystole and hypertonus (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.60; P < .001), and physician top-up intervention (RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.23-0.86; p = .011).
Analgesia onset was most rapid with CSE with no difference between DPE and EPL techniques. The DPE technique has improved block quality over the EPL technique with fewer maternal and fetal side effects than the CSE technique for parturients requesting early labor analgesia.

Nurse Educ Today
Nurse Educ Today 2017 Mar 22;50:115-118. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
Rutgers University School of Nursing, Newark, NJ 07107, United States.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2016 Dec 27. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Maternal position during induction of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) may affect hemodynamics and block characteristics. This study aimed to assess whether the sitting position is more likely to induce hypotension and higher block level than the lateral position in CSEA with hypobaric ropivacaine.
Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II parturients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomized into three groups: the sitting, left-lateral, and right-lateral position groups. Read More

The L3-4 interspace was selected as the puncture site, and subarachnoid injection of 2.5 mL 0.5% hypobaric ropivacaine was administered. After the epidural catheter was inserted and fixed, the patient's position was changed to the left-leaning supine position. The blood pressure was measured once every 1 min followed by once every 3 min after the delivery. The sensory block level was regularly measured.
A total of 88 parturients were included in this study. The incidences of hypotension in the sitting, left-lateral, and right-lateral position groups were 72%, 38%, and 40%, respectively, P = 0.012. Incidence and total dose of the phenylephrine supplement in the sitting position group were significantly higher than in the other two groups. The sitting position group showed a significantly higher block level (T4 [T3, T4]) as compared to the left-lateral (T6 [T5, T6]) and right-lateral position groups (T6 [T4, T6]), P < 0.01. The Apgar scores of neonates at 1 min and 5 min, and the pH values of the umbilical arterial and venous blood were similar among the three groups.
As compared to the lateral positions, CSEA with hypobaric ropivacaine in the sitting position is more likely to cause hypotension and excessively high block level.

Int J Obstet Anesth
Int J Obstet Anesth 2016 Oct 29. Epub 2016 Oct 29.
Department of Anesthesiology, Montefiore Medical Center, New York, USA.

Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between obesity and development of dural puncture headache following spinal anesthesia. However, few have investigated the relationship between obesity and headaches after accidental dural puncture with an epidural needle. This study explored whether obesity has any association with headaches following an accidental dural puncture. Read More

Records of patients who received epidural analgesia for labor and vaginal delivery between January 2011 and June 2015 were reviewed. Body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status and age were analyzed. Chi-squared analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the incidence and severity of dural puncture headaches with body mass index.
A total of 17497 epidurals were placed for vaginal deliveries. Of these 164 patients met our criteria for accidental dural puncture, of whom 51.2% developed dural puncture headaches. Of patients who developed a dural puncture headache 35.7% required an epidural blood patch. Data analysis showed no significant difference between body mass index and incidence of dural puncture headaches regardless of body mass index classification (P>0.05). There was no association between body mass index and the intensity of dural puncture headaches (P=0.29).
Patients with a high body mass index do not appear to be protected from experiencing a dural puncture headache after an accidental dural puncture during placement of labor epidural analgesia. Additionally, the intensity of dural puncture headaches does not vary with body mass index.

Neurologist 2017 Jan;22(1):34-39
Department of Neurology, Haga Teaching Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Spinal subdural hematomas (SSDHs) are rare. Causes are (1) posttraumatic, (2) iatrogenic (following surgery or lumbar puncture), (3) spontaneous including underlying malformations or coagulation deficits. With a systematic review of literature we want to shed light on the last group: symptomatology, etiology, treatment and outcome will we discussed. Read More

Systematic review of literature on PubMed for cases of acute nontraumatic noniatrogenic SSDHs in adults (≥18 y of age). A total of 122 cases were reviewed including 2 cases from our hospital.
There was a slight preponderance of female patients with spontaneous SSDHs and the mean age was 60 years. Spontaneous SSDHs were mostly located in the thoracic region (40%). Motor symptoms were most frequent (89%), followed by pain. Sensory deficits were present in 64%, of which 81% had a sensory level. In 6% radiculating pain, without any focal neurological deficits, was the presenting symptom. SSDHs were mainly caused by a coagulopathy (48%), predominantly due to the use of coumarins (34%). Other causes were underlying (vascular) malformations and vasculitis. Forty-three percent the SSDHs was idiopathic. 72% of patients underwent a decompressive laminectomy. 59% had a favorable outcome and 34% had a poor outcome.
Spontaneous SSDHs were predominantly located in the thoracic spine, presenting with paraparesis/paraplegia, sensory level and pain. Over 40% was caused by a coagulation defect, most frequently due to coumarins. Six percent of patients presented with radiculating pain without any focal neurological deficits.

Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care. Nancy University Hospital, Nancy, France.

The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the practice of spinal anaesthesia among French anaesthetists in inpatient and outpatient settings.
A questionnaire was sent to members of the French Association of Anaesthetists involved in regional anaesthesia during the first 4 months of 2015. The questionnaire included items on the practice of spinal anaesthesia (type of needle, local anaesthetic available, puncture and disinfection techniques, etc. Read More

) and on the anaesthetic techniques usually used in 5 surgical situations eligible for outpatient surgery (knee arthroscopy, inguinal hernia, transobturator tape, haemorrhoids, varicose veins in the lower limbs).
Responses from 703 anaesthesiologists were analysed. Spinal anaesthesia was usually performed in a sitting position (76 %) using a Whitacre needle (60 %) with a 25 G (57 %) diameter. Ultrasound before puncture was reported in 26 % of cases due to obesity or spinal abnormalities. Among the 5 surgical situations eligible for outpatient spinal anaesthesia, the technique was typically proposed in 29-49 % of cases. Bupivacaine was the most used local anaesthetic. Concerns over delays in attaining readiness for hospital discharge, urine retention, operation length, and surgeon's preference were the main reasons for choosing another anaesthetic technique in these situations.
New local anaesthetics are beginning to be used for outpatient spinal anaesthesia due to their interesting pharmacodynamic profile in this context. This study will provide a basis for evaluating future changes in practice.

Front Aging Neurosci
Front Aging Neurosci 2016 2;8:296. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
Department of Neurology, Emory University School of MedicineAtlanta, GA, USA; Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases Research, Emory University School of MedicineAtlanta, GA, USA; Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, Emory University School of MedicineAtlanta, GA, USA.

African Americans are under-represented in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related biomarker studies, and it has been speculated that mistrust plays a major factor in the recruitment of African Americans for studies involving invasive procedures such as the lumbar puncture (LP). We set out to determine factors associated with non-participation in a biomarker study aiming to explore cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarker differences between older African Americans and Caucasians. We also surveyed participants' procedure-related perception (a standard medical procedure vs. Read More

a frightening invasive procedure) and reluctance, as well as the rate and type of post-procedure discomfort and complications. Among 288 subjects approached for study participation, 145 (50.3%) refused participation with concerns over LP being the most commonly reported reason. Relatively more African Americans than Caucasians reported concerns over LP as the main reason for non-participation (46% vs. 25%, p = 0.03), but more African Americans also did not provide a specific reason for non-participation. Among those who completed study participation (including the LP), African Americans and Caucasians were similar in pre-LP perceptions and reluctance, as well as post-LP rates of discomfort or complication. Perceiving LP as a frightening invasive procedure, not race, is associated with increased likelihood of post-LP discomfort or complication (RR 6.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-37.0). Our results indicate that LP is a well perceived procedure in a cohort of African American and Caucasian research participants, and is associated with few serious complications. The pre-procedure perception that the LP is a frightening invasive procedure significantly increases the risk of self-reported discomfort of complications, and African Americans may be more likely to turn down study participation because of the LP. Future studies will need to address factors associated with negative LP perceptions to further assure participants and reduce complication rates.

Eur. J. Neurol.
Eur J Neurol 2016 Dec 15. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
Department of Neurology, Clinic for Neurological Rehabiliation II, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal improves clinical symptoms of many patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of changes in the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) with patient responses to CSF removal.
Transorbital ultrasonography was performed to obtain ONSD measurements in 31 patients with iNPH before and after lumbar puncture. Read More

Measurements were obtained while patients were supine and upright. Changes in the ONSD between supine and upright positions [ONSD variability (ONSD-V)] were assessed and compared with those in 60 healthy volunteers. ONSD-V was correlated with relative changes in a validated iNPH severity (Boon) score.
Mean pre-puncture ONSD-V was significantly lower in healthy volunteers and patients with no response to CSF removal (Fisher test) [0.05 ± 0.14 mm (SD)] than in responsive patients [0.37 ± 0.20 mm (SD), P < 0.001]. ONSD-V predicted response to the spinal tap test (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.75 mm, P = 0.011). The higher the ONSD-V, the better the therapeutic effect (χ(2) = 14.980, P < 0.001). The post-spinal tap test ONSD-V correlated significantly with clinical severity in the motor portion of the Boon score [0.16 ± 0.23 mm (SD), P = 0.003].
The ONSD-V before and after spinal tap test correlated well with the clinical effects of CSF removal. Transorbital ultrasonography seems to be a reliable, safe add-on to the Fisher test and may support selection of patients for shunt intervention.