Hypothermia Publications (41068)

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Hypothermia Publications

Sepsis is dysregulated systemic inflammatory response which can lead to tissue damage, organ failure, and death. With an estimated 30 million cases per year, it is a global public health concern. Severe infections leading to sepsis account for more than half of all under five deaths and around one quarter of all neonatal deaths annually. Read More

Most of these deaths occur in low and middle income countries and could be averted by rapid assessment and appropriate treatment. Evidence suggests that service provision and quality of care pertaining to sepsis management in resource poor settings can be improved significantly with minimum resource allocation and investments. Cognizant of the stark realities, a project titled 'Interrupting Pathways to Sepsis Initiative' (IPSI) introduced a package of interventions for improving quality of care pertaining to sepsis management at 2 sub-district level public hospitals in rural Bangladesh. We present here the quality improvement process and achievements regarding some fundamental steps of sepsis management which include rapid identification and admission, followed by assessment for hypoxemia, hypoglycaemia and hypothermia, immediate resuscitation when required and early administration of parenteral broad spectrum antibiotics.
Key components of the intervention package include identification of structural and functional gaps through a baseline environmental scan, capacity development on protocolized management through training and supportive supervision by onsite 'Program Coaches', facilitating triage and rapid transfer of patients through 'Welcoming Persons' and enabling rapid treatment through 'Task Shifting' from on-call physicians to on-duty paramedics in the emergency department and on-call physicians to on-duty nurses in the inpatient department.
From August, 2013 to March, 2015, 1,262 under-5 children were identified as syndromic sepsis in the emergency departments; of which 82% were admitted. More neonates (30%) were referred to higher level facilities than post-neonates (6%) (p<0.05). Immediately after admission, around 99% were assessed for hypoxemia, hypoglycaemia and hypothermia. Around 21% were hypoxemic (neonate-37%, post-neonate-18%, p<0.05), among which 94% received immediate oxygenation. Vascular access was established in 78% cases and 85% received recommended broad spectrum antibiotics parenterally within 1 hour of admission. There was significant improvement in the rate of establishing vascular access and choice of recommended first line parenteral antibiotic over time. After arrival in the emergency department, the median time taken for identification of syndromic sepsis and completion of admission procedure was 6 minutes. The median time taken for completion of assessment for complications was 15 minutes and administration of first dose of broad spectrum antibiotics was 35 minutes. There were only 3 inpatient deaths during the reporting period.
Needs based health systems strengthening, supportive-supervision and task shifting can improve the quality and timeliness of in-patient management of syndromic sepsis in resource limited settings.

2017Jan
PLoS ONE
PLoS One 2017 23;12(1):e0170711. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated the association of body temperature patterns with neurological outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). Between December 2013 and December 2015, we enrolled 48 patients with cardiac arrest who survived for at least 24 hours after ECPR. Based on their body temperature patterns and the intention to control fever, we divided the patients into those in whom fever was actively controlled (N = 25), those with normothermia (N = 17), and those with unintended hypothermia (N = 6). Read More

The primary outcome was the Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) scale at discharge. Of the 48 ECPR patients, 23 patients (47.9%) had good neurological outcomes (CPC 1 and 2) and 27 patients (56.3%) survived to discharge. The normothermia group showed a pattern of higher temperatures compared with the other groups during 48 hours after ECPR. Not only poor neurological outcomes but also intensive care unit (ICU) mortality occurred more often in the unintended hypothermia group than in the other two groups, regardless of the fever control strategy (p = 0.023 and p = 0.002, respectively). There were no differences in neurological outcomes and ICU mortality between the actively controlled fever group and the normothermia group (p = 0.845 and p = 0.616, respectively). Unintentionally sustained hypothermia may be associated with poor neurological outcomes after ECPR. These findings suggest that patients who are unable to generate a fever following ECPR may incur severe hypoxic brain injury.

2017Jan
J. Child Neurol.
J Child Neurol 2017 Jan 1:883073816689325. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
3 Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Women & Children's Hospital of New York, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.
2017Jan

Amitraz is a pesticide used worldwide on animals and in agriculture. It contains triazapentadiene, which is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist. Amitraz poisoning is fairly uncommon in humans and occurs via oral, dermal or inhalational routes. Read More

Only a limited number of case reports of human intoxication have been published and most of them are of accidental ingestion by children.
A twenty-year-old Sri Lankan female presented following self-ingestion of 20 ml of amitraz resulting in 37.8 mg/ kg of amitraz poisoning. She lost consciousness after 20 min of ingestion, developed bradycardia and hypotension, which needed intravenous fluid resuscitation and dobutamine. Gastric lavage was performed. Her bradycardia persisted for 36 h and she was drowsy for 48 h. She did not develop respiratory depression, convulsions or hypothermia and the urine output was normal. Arterial blood gas revealed mild respiratory alkalosis. She recovered fully within 48 h and was discharged on day 3.
The clinical manifestations of amitraz (impaired consciousness, drowsiness, vomiting, disorientation, miosis, mydriasis, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypothermia, generalized seizures, hyperglycemia and glycosuria) can be explained by the agonist action of amitraz on α1 and α2 receptors. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic with monitoring of nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Activated charcoal may still be considered for treatment and the place for gastric lavage is controversial. Atropine is effective for symptomatic bradycardia and inotropic support is needed for hypotension that does not respond to fluid resuscitation. Diazepam or Lorazepam is used for convulsions and some patients may require intubation and ICU care. Several α2 adrenergic antagonists like yohimbine have been tried on animals, which have successfully reversed the effects of amitraz. Since the majority of amitraz poisoning cases are due to accidental ingestion, manufactures, regulatory authorities and national poisons control centers have a significant role to play in minimizing its occurrence.

2017Jan
Int. J. Neurosci.
Int J Neurosci 2017 Jan 23:1-31. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
a Department of Neurology , Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University , Guangzhou , China.

The narrow therapeutic time window and risk of intracranial hemorrhage largely restrict the clinical application of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. Adjunctive treatments added to rt-PA may be beneficial to improve the capacity of neural cell to withstand ischemia, and to reduce the hemorrhage risk as well. This review aims to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of adjunctive treatments in combination with thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Read More

Relevant studies were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE database. In this review, we first interpret the potential role of adjunctive treatments to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Furthermore, we summarize the current clinical evidence for the combination of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and various adjunctive therapies in acute ischemic stroke, either pharmaceutical or non-pharmaceutical therapy, and discuss the mechanisms of some promising treatments, including uric acid, fingolimod, minocycline, remote ischemic conditioning, hypothermia, transcranial laser therapy. Even though fingolimod, minocycline, hypothermia, and remote ischemic conditioning have yielded promising results, they still need to be rigorously investigated in further clinical trials. Further trials should also focus on neuroprotective approach with pleiotropic effects or combined agents with multiple protective mechanisms.

of the study We sought to assess the relationship between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and clinical outcomes in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
We identified consecutive comatose survivors of OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm treated with targeted temperature management. We examined clinical outcomes in relation to mean MAP (measured hourly) during the first 96hours of hospitalization. Read More

Mean MAP was examined as both a continuous variable and a categorical variable consisting of 3 pre-specified strata: <70mmHg, 70 to <80mmHg, and ≥80mmHg. Co-primary outcomes were the rates of death and severe neurological dysfunction at discharge.
We identified 122 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Death occurred in 29 patients (24%) and severe neurological dysfunction in 39 (32%). Higher mean MAPs were associated with lower odds of death (OR 0.55 per 5mmHg increase; 95%CI 0.38-0.79; p=0.002) and severe neurological dysfunction (OR 0.66 per 5mmHg increase; 95%CI 0.48-0.90; p=0.01). After adjustment for differences in patient, index event, and treatment characteristics, higher mean MAPs remained associated with lower odds of death (OR 0.60 per 5mmHg increase; 95%CI 0.40-0.89; p=0.01) but not severe neurological dysfunction (OR 0.73 per 5mmHg increase; 95%CI 0.51-1.03; p=0.07). The relationship between mean MAP and the odds of death (p-interaction=0.03) and severe neurological dysfunction (p-interaction=0.03) was attenuated by increased patient age.
In comatose survivors of OHCA treated with target temperature management, a higher mean MAP during the first 96hours of admission is associated with increased survival. The association between mean MAP and clinical outcomes appears to be attenuated by increased age.

2017Jan
Arthroscopy
Arthroscopy 2017 Jan 18. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) characterize cases of fluid extravasation during hip arthroscopy and explore common factors among them and (2) describe management strategies and outcomes of this complication.
The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed were searched and screened in duplicate. Data regarding patient demographics, fluid management, presentation, management, and outcomes were collected. Read More

Study quality was assessed in duplicate using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies Criteria.
Fourteen studies (1,286 patients) were included. Twenty-two occurrences of symptomatic fluid extravasation were reported in 21 patients (1.6% of total patients; one patient had fluid extravasation during 2 separate hip arthroscopies). Two studies of normal fluid extravasation in asymptomatic patients reported 1.13 to 3.06 L of extravasated fluid observed on computed tomography. Nine case studies were included, which provided detailed patient and surgical information. Of these 9 patients (10 cases) with a mean age of 38.2 years old (range, 15 to 55 years), 6 were female. Signs of fluid extravasation included abdominal distension (89%), hypothermia (56%), hypotension. and metabolic acidosis (33% each). Four patients required surgical intervention, while 3 underwent paracentesis. Two patients were managed conservatively. All patients stabilized and were discharged, with one patient reporting abdominal complaints at latest follow-up (length of follow-up unspecified).
Fluid extravasation is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of hip arthroscopy. It is important for surgeons and anaesthesiologists to be aware of its existence in order to recognize and manage it promptly. Most patients require interventional management by surgery or paracentesis, but some stabilize with conservative management.
Level IV, systematic review of Level IV studies.

2017Feb
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Feb;103(2):e203-e206
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xiangya Haikou Hospital of Central South University, Haikou Municipal Hospital, Haikou Vascular Disease Research Institute, HaiKou city, China.
2017Jan
BMJ Case Rep
BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jan 20;2017. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
2017Jan
Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2017 Jan 12. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
HMRI Cardiovascular Research Institute, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, 10 Pico Street, Pasadena, CA 91105, United States; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine of the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90017-2395, United States.

Adjunctive therapies, given in addition to reperfusion to reduce myocardial infarct size, have been disappointing based on clinical trials. New therapeutic targets independent of infarct size modification are needed. The no-reflow phenomenon occurs commonly after the infarct-related coronary artery is opened and predicts poor clinical outcome. Read More

We investigated the effects of a single application of delayed (post-reperfusion) therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in a rat model of coronary artery occlusion/reperfusion.
Rats were subjected to 60min of coronary artery occlusion followed by 3h of reperfusion. Rats were divided into normothermic (n=5) and TH (n=5) groups. In the TH, hypothermia was initiated at 1min after coronary artery reperfusion by pumping room-temperature (22°C) saline into and out of the thoracic cavity for 1h. This decreased intrathoracic temperature to around 26°C within 12min. At 3h after reperfusion, hearts were excised for infarct size and no-reflow zone measurement.
Ischemic risk area and infarct size were similar between the 2 groups. No-reflow area (expressed as % of risk area) was significantly reduced in TH group (18.0±4.4%) compared with normothermic group (39.5±2.9%,P=0.005). When expressed as % of necrotic area, no-reflow area was reduced by more than half in TH group (25.5±6.4%) versus innormothermic group (54.4±5.3%,P=0.01).
In this preliminary study, hypothermia initiated after reperfusion following 60min of coronary artery occlusion had no effect on infarct size yet substantially reduced the extent of no-reflow.