Hypertensive Emergencies Publications (901)


Hypertensive Emergencies Publications

J. Neurol.
J Neurol 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. In a majority of patients the clinical presentation includes elevated arterial blood pressure up to hypertensive emergencies. Neuroimaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging, frequently shows a distinctive parieto-occipital pattern with a symmetric distribution of changes reflecting vasogenic edema. Read More

PRES frequently develops in the context of cytotoxic medication, (pre)eclampsia, sepsis, renal disease or autoimmune disorders. The treatment is symptomatic and is determined by the underlying condition. The overall prognosis is favorable, since clinical symptoms as well as imaging lesions are reversible in most patients. However, neurological sequelae including long-term epilepsy may persist in individual cases.

Pregnancy Hypertens
Pregnancy Hypertens 2016 Oct 7;6(4):418-422. Epub 2016 Oct 7.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States; Botswana-Harvard Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana; Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States.

Perinatal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed to infection, obstetric emergencies, and preterm birth, but less is known about hypertension in pregnancy. Our objective was to characterize the prevalence of hypertension in pregnancy and the impact of hypertension on perinatal outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa.
We performed surveillance of obstetric records at eight of the largest public hospitals in Botswana. Read More

Women were included in this analysis if they were HIV-uninfected and had singleton gestations and at least one prenatal blood pressure measurement.
We measured stillbirth, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and neonatal death in women with and without hypertension in pregnancy.
We included 14,170 pregnancies. Hypertension occurred in 3156 (22.2%) women, with 602 (19.1%) defined as severe. Severe hypertension increased risk of stillbirth (RR 4.4; 95% CI 3.2-6.2), preterm birth (RR 2.5; 95% CI 2.2-2.8), small for gestational age (RR 2.7; 95% CI 2.3-3.1) and neonatal death (RR 5.1; 95% CI 2.9-5.6). Non-severe hypertension increased risk of stillbirth (RR 2.0; 95% CI 1.5-2.7), preterm birth (RR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.3), and small for gestational age (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8). Perinatal outcomes were worse in women with hypertension who had spontaneous preterm birth compared to those who underwent iatrogenic preterm delivery.
Hypertension in pregnancy is common in Botswana and leads to a large number of adverse outcomes. Improved management of hypertension in pregnancy may improve perinatal morbidity and mortality.

J Am Heart Assoc
J Am Heart Assoc 2016 Dec 5;5(12). Epub 2016 Dec 5.
Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.

The incidence of hypertensive emergency in US emergency departments (ED) is not well established.
This study is a descriptive epidemiological analysis of nationally representative ED visit-level data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for 2006-2013. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample is a publicly available database maintained by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Read More

An ED visit was considered to be a hypertensive emergency if it met all the following criteria: diagnosis of acute hypertension, at least 1 diagnosis indicating acute target organ damage, and qualifying disposition (admission to the hospital, death, or transfer to another facility). The incidence of adult ED visits for acute hypertension increased monotonically in the period from 2006 through 2013, from 170 340 (1820 per million adult ED visits overall) to 496 894 (4610 per million). Hypertensive emergency was rare overall, accounting for 63 406 visits (677 per million adult ED visits overall) in 2006 to 176 769 visits (1670 per million) in 2013. Among adult ED visits that had any diagnosis of hypertension, hypertensive emergency accounted for 3309 per million in 2006 and 6178 per million in 2013.
The estimated number of visits for hypertensive emergency and the rate per million adult ED visits has more than doubled from 2006 to 2013. However, hypertensive emergencies are rare overall, occurring in about 2 in 1000 adult ED visits overall, and 6 in 1000 adult ED visits carrying any diagnosis of hypertension in 2013. This figure is far lower than what has been sometimes cited in previous literature.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2017 Feb 8;228:553-557. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Asklepios Klinikum Harburg, Eißendorfer Pferdeweg 52, 21075 Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

To test the hypothesis that more cardiovascular emergencies occur at low rather than at high temperatures under moderate climatic conditions.
This was a prospective observational study performed in a prehospital setting. Data from the Emergency Medical Service in Hamburg (Germany) and from the local weather station were evaluated over a 5-year period. Read More

Temperature data were matched with the associated rescue mission data. Lowess-Regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the temperature and the frequency of individual cardiovascular emergencies. In addition, three threshold-temperatures (0°C, 10°C, 20°C) were defined in order to determine the frequency of cardiovascular emergencies above and below each cut-off value. The severity of emergencies was assessed using the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) scoring system.
A total of 35,390 cardiovascular emergencies were treated by Emergency Physicians. Transient Loss of Consciousness increased at high temperatures (above 20°C): +43% (95%-CI: [27%; 59%]). In contrast, Coronary Artery Disease +26% (95%-CI: [17%; 34%]), Cardiac Pulmonary Edema +21% (95%-CI: [14%; 27%]), Hypertensive Urgency +18% (95%-CI: [10%; 25%]) and Cerebrovascular Accident +17% (95%-CI: [8%; 24%]) increased at low temperatures, particularly below 10°C (significance level for all: p<0.001). No temperature-related effect was seen in Cardiac Arrhythmia and Pulmonary Embolism and no significant correlation was found between the severity of emergencies and temperature.
Our findings suggest that some cardiovascular emergencies such as Coronary Artery Disease, Cardiac Pulmonary Edema, Hypertensive Urgency and Cerebrovascular Accident are more frequent in low temperatures even under mild climatic conditions.

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2016 ;54 Suppl 1:s67-74
División de Investigación en Salud, Hospital de Cardiología, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México.

It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Read More

Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris)
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 2016 Jun 13;65(3):185-90. Epub 2016 May 13.
Service de cardiologie, CHU La Timone, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille, France.

Evaluation of the prevalence and severity of hypertensive emergencies and crisis in an Emergency Service of Timone hospital in Marseille and follow-up of 3 months of hospitalized emergencies.
This study was conducted in the Emergency Department between April 1 and June 30, 2015. All patients with BP>180 and/or 110mmHg was recorded and classified in true emergencies (presence of visceral pain) and hypertensive isolated crisis. Read More

A phone follow-up patients was organized.
During this period, 170 patients were identified: 95 (56%) hypertensive crisis and 75 (44%) hypertensive emergencies: 25 OAP (33%), 18 ischemic stroke (24%), 15 hemorrhagic stroke (20%), 9 angina (12%) and 8 different. The clinical characteristics of hypertensive emergencies are preferentially dyspnea (27%) motor deficit (36%), and chest pain (16%). The BP of hypertensive emergencies at their admission (3 measurements, oscillometric automatic device) is close to the hypertensive crisis (198.17±19.3 to 96.4±21.2mmHg versus 191±31.6 to 96.12±21). The BP controlled after 15minutes of rest is lower for crisis compared to real emergencies (152±47 to 79±28 vs. 174±31 to 86±26). Age emergency is larger (77±14 vs. 67±17), the number of slightly larger drug (1.79 versus 1.67±1±1). Telephone follow-up was performed after an average period of three months. Ninety-nine patients were contacted by telephone: 46 patients who were admitted for hypertensive emergency patients and 53 for a push. Eighteen deaths have been recorded, including 15 among hypertensive emergencies (9 in hemorrhagic stroke, 5 for ischemic stroke, and 1 for OAP) with 5-hospital deaths within 48hours after admission and 10 within 3 months in patients hospitalized with hypertensive emergency or 33%. Seventy-seven patients out of 99 had been reviewed by their attending physicians. A questionnaire was sent by mail to patients who have not answered the phone contacts, and responses are pending.
Hypertensive emergencies hospitalized in Timone Hospital represent 44% of patients hospitalized for emergency HTA. Their gravity is 1/3 since most patients die within three months warranting closer management of these fragile patients by creating a specialized consulting postemergency.

Curr Hypertens Rev
Curr Hypertens Rev 2016 May 10. Epub 2016 May 10.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain medicine and critical care. Room Number 5013, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari nagar, Delhi, India-110029.

Minimal invasive approaches to pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) removal may be complicated by the hemodynamic disturbances that are associated with the catecholamine secretion from the tumour. The anaesthetic and perioperative monitoring techniques need to be customized to handle these complications effectively. This retrospective analysis was undertaken to review the perioperative management of these patients handled by the same anaesthetic and surgical team. Read More

Case details were collected and data analysed for the perioperative management of 29 patients who underwent laparoscopic removal of PCC and PGL. Parameters collected included details of preoperative alpha-and beta blockade, tumour size, number of hypertensive surges, dose of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and other vasodilators used and incidence of postoperative hypotension and other complications.
All patients received prazosin for pre-operative optimization. Hypertensive emergencies were seen in 4 patients during induction and endotracheal intubation and in 1 patient during pneumoperitoneum insufflation. Overall mean number of hypertensive emergencies was 3.41 (SD-2.45). The patients undergoing PGL removal had significantly more crisis compared to those undergoing unilateral PCC removal. The dose of SNP used correlated significantly with tumour size.
Laparoscopic surgery for PCC and PGL removal is associated with hypertensive emergencies which are amenable to usual doses of antihypertensives used intraoperatively. Surgical factors like tumour size and location affect the number of crisis and the dose of anti-hypertensives used more than the anaesthetic drugs and procedures.

Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
Curr Hypertens Rep 2016 Jun;18(6):43
Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

Clinicians make frequent treatment decisions regarding acute blood pressure reduction for the critically ill. Key to the decision making process is a balance between reducing arterial wall stress and maintaining perfusion to vital organs. In this article, we review the physiological considerations underlying acute blood pressure management, including the concept of cerebral autoregulation and its adaptations to chronic hypertension. Read More

We then discuss available pharmacological interventions suited for reducing blood pressure acutely. We also discuss specific blood pressure targets in common critical illnesses and consider future directions in this therapeutic area.

Am J Emerg Med
Am J Emerg Med 2016 Nov 21;34(11):2250.e1-2250.e3. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
Department of Pharmacy, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ. Electronic address:
Integr Blood Press Control
Integr Blood Press Control 2016 16;9:49-58. Epub 2016 Mar 16.
Division of Nephrology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Hypertensive crises in children are medical emergencies that must be identified, evaluated, and treated promptly and appropriately to prevent end-organ injury and even death. Treatment in the acute setting typically includes continuous intravenous antihypertensive medications with monitoring in the intensive care unit setting. Medications commonly used to treat severe hypertension have been poorly studied in children. Read More

Dosing guidelines are available, although few pediatric-specific trials have been conducted to facilitate evidence-based therapy. Regardless of what medication is used, blood pressure should be lowered gradually to allow for accommodation of autoregulatory mechanisms and to prevent cerebral ischemia. Determining the underlying cause of the blood pressure elevation may be helpful in guiding therapy.