Heatstroke Publications (3131)

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Heatstroke Publications

2017Jan
Chem. Biol. Interact.
Chem Biol Interact 2017 Jan 16. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Heat stroke is characterilized by hyperthermia, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure including arterial hypotension. This definition can be fulfilled by a rat model of heat stroke used in the present study. Anesthetized animals were exposed to heat exposure (43 °C for 70 min) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C) for recovery. Read More

One hour before heat exposure, an intraperitoneal dose of quercetin (30 mg/kg) or vehicle (normal saline 1 ml/kg) was administered to the experimental groups of rats. Additional injection was administered immediately after the onset of heat stroke. Immediately after the onset of heat stroke. Vehicle-treated rats displayed (i) hyperthermia; (ii) suppressed left ventricular function; (iii) decreased contents of cardiac total antioxiant capacity (e.g., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase); (iv) increased contents of cardiac oxidative capacity malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; (v) increased cardiac levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6; and (vi) decreased cardiac levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10. Histopathologic and survival observation provided supportive evidence for biochemical analyses. These heat stroke reactions all can be significantly attenuated by quercetin therapy. Our data suggest that quercetin therapy might improve outcomes of heat stroke in rats by attenuating excessive hyperthermia as well as myocardial injury. The protective effects of quercetin could be attributed to anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.

2017Jan
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
Department of Physiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

There is growing appreciation that mRNA regulation plays important roles in disease and injury. mRNA regulation and ribonomics occur in brain ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) following stroke and cardiac arrest and resuscitation. It was recognized over 40 years ago that translation arrest (TA) accompanies brain I/R and is now recognized as part of the intrinsic stress responses triggered in neurons. Read More

However, neuron death correlates to a prolonged TA in cells fated to undergo delayed neuronal death (DND). Dysfunction of mRNA regulatory processes in cells fated to DND prevents them from translating stress-induced mRNAs such as heat shock proteins. The morphological and biochemical studies of mRNA regulation in postischemic neurons are discussed in the context of the large variety of molecular damage induced by ischemic injury. Open issues and areas of future investigation are highlighted. A sober look at the molecular complexity of ischemia-induced neuronal injury suggests that a network framework will assist in making sense of this complexity. The ribonomic network sits between the gene network and the various protein and metabolic networks. Thus, targeting the ribonomic network may prove more effective at neuroprotection than targeting specific molecular pathways, for which all efforts have failed to the present time to stop DND in stroke and after cardiac arrest. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

2016Dec
Phys Rev E
Phys Rev E 2016 Dec 6;94(6-1):062109. Epub 2016 Dec 6.
Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.

We present a comprehensive theory of heat engines (HE) based on a quantum-mechanical "working fluid" (WF) with periodically modulated energy levels. The theory is valid for any periodicity of driving Hamiltonians that commute with themselves at all times and do not induce coherence in the WF. Continuous and stroke cycles arise in opposite limits of this theory, which encompasses hitherto unfamiliar cycle forms, dubbed here hybrid cycles. Read More

The theory allows us to discover the speed, power, and efficiency limits attainable by incoherently operating multilevel HE depending on the cycle form and the dynamical regimes.

2017Jan
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2017 Jan;10(1)
From the Department of Epidemiology (M.S.L., E.B.L.) and Department of Biostatistics (G.H.), School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics and Department of Statistics & Probability, Michigan State University, East Lansing (G.d.l.C.); Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (M.Z.A.-H.); Division of General Internal Medicine, Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (M.M.S.); and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (L.A.M.).

Geographic variations in cardiovascular mortality are substantial, but descriptions of geographic variations in major cardiovascular risk factors have relied on data aggregated to counties. Herein, we provide the first description of geographic variation in the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking within and across US counties.
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline risk factor measurements and latitude/longitude of participant residence collected from 2003 to 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke). Read More

Of the 30 239 participants, all risk factor measurements and location data were available for 28 887 (96%). The mean (±SD) age of these participants was 64.8(±9.4) years; 41% were black; 55% were female; 59% were hypertensive; 22% were diabetic; and 15% were current smokers. In logistic regression models stratified by race, the median(range) predicted prevalence of the risk factors were as follows: for hypertension, 49% (45%-58%) among whites and 72% (68%-78%) among blacks; for diabetes mellitus, 14% (10%-20%) among whites and 31% (28%-41%) among blacks; and for current smoking, 12% (7%-16%) among whites and 18% (11%-22%) among blacks. Hypertension was most prevalent in the central Southeast among whites, but in the west Southeast among blacks. Diabetes mellitus was most prevalent in the west and central Southeast among whites but in south Florida among blacks. Current smoking was most prevalent in the west Southeast and Midwest among whites and in the north among blacks.
Geographic disparities in prevalent hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking exist within states and within counties in the continental United States, and the patterns differ by race.

2017Jan
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2017 Jan.;18(1):79-84
College of Pharmacy, Hubei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430065, China.
2016Nov
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2016 Nov;34(11):819-821
Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009, China.

Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces. Read More

The poisoning chemicals included nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, chlorine, phos-phorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, silane, and so on; the workplaces in-cluded the area of producing battery slides and auxiliary producing area. Among the nine enterprises, gas detec-tors were installed in special gas supplying stations and sites, but the height, location and alarmvalues of gas detectors in six enterprises were not according with standard criteria; emergency shower and eyewash equip-ment were installed in workplaces with strong corrosive chemicals, but the issues of waste water were not solved; ventilation systems were set in the workplaces with ammonia and silane, but not qualified with part lo-cations and parameters in two enterprises; warehouses with materials of acid, alkali, chemical ammonia and phosphorus oxychloride were equipped with positive - pressure air respirator resuscitator and emergency cabi-nets, but with insufficient quantity in seven enterprises and expiration in part of products. The error rate of set-up emergency program and wearing chemical cloth were 30%~100% and 10%~30%, respectively. Among the nine enterprises, there were emergency rescue plans for dangerous chemical accidents, but without profession-al heatstroke and irradiation accident emergency plans, lack of archives of descripting and evaluating for pro-cessing in emergency exercises as well. There were emergency rescue agreements between enterprises and medi-cal institutions which varied in occupational poisoning rescue capacities and were lack of training and exercise regularly. Conclusion: There were a variety of occupational hazard factors in Silicon solar cell producing enter-prises including potential chemical burns, acute poisoning, occupational heatstroke, accident risk of ionizing radiation, and we must strengthen the management of emergency rescue for Silicon solar cell producing enter-prises.

2016Dec
Oncotarget
Oncotarget 2016 Dec 25. Epub 2016 Dec 25.
Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, P.R. China. Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou, P.R. China.

Heat stress can induce the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HUVEC cells, indicating that apoptosis may be a prominent pathological feature of heat stroke, however, little is known about the precise mechani sms involved in it. In this study, we describe the apoptotic effect of intense heat stress on HUVEC cells and our investigation of its underlying mechanisms. Treatment of cells with intense heat stress induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a concomitant increase in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Read More

Furthermore, by over-expression of MnSOD and GPx in cells, we show that ROS, and especially superoxide, is the primary oxidative species induced by intense heat stress and responsible for cell death. In addition, we explored the mechanism by which superoxide regulates the apoptotic effect of intense heat stress, and found that it involved Bcl-2 down-regulation through ubiquitin - proteasomal degradation. Superoxide production also led to Bcl-2 dephosphorylation through inactivation of MAP kinase ERK1/2, which promoted Bcl-2 ubiquitination. Taken together, these findings describe a novel pathway downstream of heat stress-induced apoptosis in HUVEC cells, and provide new insight into the process of redox-mediated down-regulation of Bcl-2 and apoptosis induction. These results could be important in the understanding of pathogenesis of heat stroke and for the development of preventive and treatment measures, both of which are currently lacking.

2016Dec
Int J Occup Saf Ergon
Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2016 Dec 20:1-30. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
a Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), Environmental Extremes Laboratory , University of Brighton , UK.
2016Dec
Int J Biometeorol
Int J Biometeorol 2016 Dec 15. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Puerto Rico-Carolina Campus, P.O. Box 4800, Carolina, 00984-4800, Puerto Rico.

Extreme heat episodes are becoming more common worldwide, including in tropical areas of Australia, India, and Puerto Rico. Higher frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat episodes are triggering public health issues in most mid-latitude and continental cities. With urbanization, land use and land cover have affected local climate directly and indirectly encouraging the Urban Heat Island effect with potential impacts on heat-related morbidity and mortality among urban populations. Read More

However, this association is not completely understood in tropical islands such as Puerto Rico. The present study examines the effects of heat in two municipalities (San Juan and Bayamón) within the San Juan metropolitan area on overall and cause-specific mortality among the population between 2009 and 2013. The number of daily deaths attributed to selected causes (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, chronic lower respiratory disease, pneumonia, and kidney disease) coded and classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases was analyzed. The relations between elevated air surface temperatures on cause-specific mortality were modeled. Separate Poisson regression models were fitted to explain the total number of deaths as a function of daily maximum and minimum temperatures, while adjusting for seasonal patterns. Results show a significant increase in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Stroke (relative risk = 16.80, 95% CI 6.81-41.4) and cardiovascular diseases (relative risk = 16.63, 95% CI 10.47-26.42) were the primary causes of death most associated with elevated summer temperatures. Better understanding of how these heat events affect the health of the population will provide a useful tool for decision makers to address and mitigate the effects of the increasing temperatures on public health. The enhanced temperature forecast may be a crucial component in decision making during the National Weather Service Heat Watches, Advisories, and Warning process.