Heart Block First Degree Publications (1340)
Heart Block First Degree Publications
CAD was defined as the presence of any degree of narrowing in at least one major coronary artery or its first order branch. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis. CAD was categorized as single vessel disease (SVD), double vessel disease (DVD), or triple vessel disease (TVD); and obstructive CAD in the arteries supplying the conduction system was sub-classified according to Mosseri's classification.
Out of 100 patients (mean age 64.6±10.7 years), 45 (45%) had CAD. 29% patients had obstructive CAD while 16% had non-obstructive CAD. 53.3% patients had SVD, 15.6% had DVD and 31.1% had TVD. Among patients with obstructive CAD; Type I, II, III and IV coronary anatomies were present in 6.9%, 34.5%, 10.3% and 48.3% patients respectively. Presence of CAD significantly correlated with dyslipidemia (p=0.047), history of smoking (p=0.025), and family history of CAD (p=0.002).
Angiographic CAD is observed in a substantial proportion of patients with symptomatic bradyarrhythmias and risk factors for CAD. It could be argued that such patients should undergo a coronary work-up before pacemaker implantation. Treatment of concomitant CAD is likely to improve the long term prognosis of these patients.
In a subset of 204 patients, we monitored cardiac and pulmonary adverse effects following treatment initiation.
The overall annualized relapse rate (ARR) was 0.37 (95% CI 0.31-0.44); 0.22 (95% CI 0.03-0.81) in de novo-treated patients, 0.29 (95% CI; 0.23-0.37) in patients switching from IFN-beta or GA and 0.46 (9 5% CI 0.34-0.60) after natalizumab. In the subset of 204 patients, 8 (3.9%) required prolonged cardiac monitoring due to bradycardia and/or second-degree AV block type I. All patients recovered spontaneously. Two patients discontinued fingolimod. Eleven (5.4%) patients reported respiratory complaints and two of these patients discontinued treatment.
Fingolimod appears to be safe and effective in MS patients in a clinical setting. Mild cardiac adverse effects occurred at a similar rate as in clinical trials.
Electric cardioversion in X-ray operating room conditions was performed on all patients. After successful restoration of sinus rhythm, electrophysiological examination (EP) of heart was carried out. Then, on the first or second day after EP study, Maze III procedure combined with a mitral valve operation was performed.
Following the results of Maze III procedure combined with correction of valve disease, disposal of AF was observed in 95% of patients. 46% of patients had stable sinus rhythm to the moment of discharge from the hospital. 24% of patients had atrial rhythm with the maximum heart rate of 80-110 bpm (according to results of 24-hour Holter monitoring). For 25% of patients, it was necessary to implant a pacemaker. According to results of EP study, 13% of these patients suffered from sick sinus syndrome before operation. For 9% of the remaining 12% of patients, the indications for pacemaker implantation were atrioventricular nodal rhythm with low heart rate and pauses more than 3 sec long. For 1% of patients the indication was second degree AV block (type 2) and second degree SA block (type 2); for 1% the indication was complete heart block, and for 1% it was atrial rhythm and pauses more than 3 sec long. 13% of patients with an atrial rhythm and normal heart rate developed typical atrial flutter (AFL) in the early postoperative period. For all of them the RF catheter ablation with linear ablation of the right atrial isthmus and creation of isthmus block was effective, and further recurrence of AFL was not observed.
In the early postoperative period Maze III procedure combined with a mitral valve operation proved to be an effective surgical technique of treatment of persistent and long-standing persistent forms of AF. Only 12% of patients had dysfunction of sinus node work due to iatrogenesis.
Our case illustrates the importance of early recognition and anticipation of progressive cardiac conduction abnormalities in patients presenting with Lyme disease.
We planned to examine laboratory data, echocardiography, Holter monitoring, and gallium-67 scintigraphy. Before he went through all these exams, he developed ventricular tachycardia. After defibrillation was performed, his electrocardiogram revealed complete atrioventricular block. We observed elevation of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels. In addition, both of gallium-67 scintigraphy and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed abnormal uptake in the ventricular septum. We diagnosed the patient with cardiac sarcoidosis associated with these arrhythmias. We started treatment with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1 g daily). After 3 days of steroid pulse therapy, we administered prednisolone 30 mg daily. On day 15, electrocardiogram changed from complete atrioventricular block to first-degree atrioventricular block and CRBBB. He was discharged with no progression with cardiac sarcoidosis for 2 years.
3 years) who were divided into two groups of 16 subjects. One group included 16 continuously training freedivers at the "high achievers in sports" level (DIVERS group). The CONTROL group included 16 healthy young men not involved in sports. The subjects were monitored using 24-h electrocardiogram (ECG), and echocardiological study (EchoCG) for all the subjects was performed. The mean heart rate in the DIVERS group was 69.5 ± 1.7 bpm compared with 70.9 ± 1.5 bpm in the CONTROL group. The minimal heart rate was 42.3 ± 1.0 bpm in the DIVERS group and 48.8 ± 1.7 bpm in the CONTROL group (P < 0.005). The maximal heart rate was 132.8 ± 4.6 bpm in the DIVERS group and 132.1 ± 2.9 bpm in the CONTROL group. ECG analysis revealed supraventricular arrhythmias in the DIVERS group: four of the DIVERS (25%) exhibited supraventricular couplets and triplets, three (19%) exhibited transient first- and second-degree AV blocks (Mobitz type 1) at night, and one (6%) exhibited a second-degree sinoatrial block at night. According to the echocardiogram, the DIVERS had slightly larger left ventricles (5.1 ± 1.33, P < 0.05) and left atriums (41.1 ± 12.7) compared with the CONTROL group without exceeding the normal values. The right ventricle volume (3.6 ± 0.69, P < 0.05) was somewhat above the upper normal value (up to 3.5 cm). In conclusion, freediving athletes exhibited changes in their cardiac status, most likely due to the regular exercise, that were not associated with regular maximal voluntary breath-holds. These changes are within the normal physiological values and do not limit their freediving practice.
The primary end point was heart failure (HF) or death. Secondary end points were HF only and all-cause death.
In patients with a prolonged PR-interval, CRT-D treatment related to a 67 % significant reduction in the risk of HF/death (HR = 0.33, 95 % CI 0.16-0.69, p = 0.003), 69 % decrease in HF (HR = 0.31, 95 % CI 0.14-0.68, p = 0.003), and 76 % reduction in the risk of death (HR = 0.24, 95 % CI 0.07-0.80, p = 0.020) compared to ICD-only (median follow-up 5.8 years). In normal PR-interval patients, CRT-D therapy was associated with a trend towards increased risk of HF/death (HR = 1.49, 95 % CI 0.98-2.25, p = 0.061), and significantly increased mortality (HR = 2.27, 95 % CI 1.16-4.44, p = 0.014). Significant statistical interaction with the PR-interval was demonstrated for all end points. Results were consistent for QRS 130-150 ms and QRS > 150 ms.
In MADIT-CRT, non-LBBB patients with a prolonged PR-interval derive sustained long-term clinical benefit with reductions in heart failure or death from CRT-D implantation, compared to an ICD-only. Our findings support implantation of CRT-D in non-LBBB patients with prolonged PR-interval irrespective of baseline QRS duration.
CMR examinations from 43 patients with LBBB on their electrocardiogram, but without significant focal structural abnormalities, and from 43 age- and gender-matched normal controls were retrospectively reviewed. The following mechanical features of LBBB were evaluated: septal flash (SF), apical rocking (AR), delayed aortic valve opening measured relative to both end-diastole (AVOED) and pulmonic valve opening (AVOPVO), delayed left-ventricular (LV) free-wall contraction, and curvatures of the septum and LV free-wall. Septal displacement curves were also generated, using feature-tracking techniques. The echocardiographic findings of LBBB were also reviewed in those subjects for whom they were available. LBBB was significantly associated with the presence of SF and AR; within the LBBB group, 79 % had SF and 65 % had AR. Delayed AVOED, AVOPVO, and delayed LV free-wall contraction were significantly associated with LBBB. AVOED and AVOPVO positively correlated with QRS duration and negatively correlated with ejection fraction. Hearts with electrocardiographic evidence of LBBB showed lower septal-to-LV free-wall curvature ratios at end-diastole compared to normal controls. CMR can be used to identify and evaluate mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with LBBB. None of the normal controls showed the mechanical features associated with LBBB. Moreover, not all patients with LBBB showed the same degree of mechanical dyssynchrony, which could have implications for CRT.
Markers of prognosis and risk were identified upon comparison of these two groups. A history of malignant syncope was strong predictors of ventricular arrhythmic events. Family history of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and mutations in the SCN5A gene did not associate with increased risk. Symptomatic patients presented with significantly abnormal baseline electrical characteristics when compared with the asymptomatic cohort, including spontaneous type I electrocardiograph (ECG) patterns, sinus node dysfunction (SND), first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, and intra-ventricular conduction delay. The symptomatic group more frequently exhibited atrial arrhythmias. Electrophysiological studies resulted positive more frequently in symptomatic patients, but no risk association for future events could be determined. During the follow-up period (mean: 65 months), 10 arrhythmic events occurred in nine symptomatic patients (event rate: 4.5% per year). No events occurred in the asymptomatic group. Variables significantly associated with arrhythmic events during follow-up were presence of symptoms at diagnosis and spontaneous type I ECG. The presence of atrial arrhythmias and conduction abnormalities was also associated with the risk of arrhythmic events during follow-up.
Symptomatic BS in the young age is a rare but malignant condition that can manifest with a spectrum of electrical abnormalities (i.e. SND, atrial tachycardias, AV block, and infra-nodal conduction delay) and result in the extreme cases in lethal arrhythmic events and SCD.
Six patients (6%) had a permanent pacemaker (PPM) preoperatively and were excluded from the present study. Mean electrocardiographic follow-up was 14.6 ± 6.0 months.
Mean age was 79.2 ± 4.8 years (52% female). During the postoperative period, 34 patients (34%) had first-degree atrioventricular block, 2 (2%) had Mobitz-II atrioventricular block, and 16 (16%) had complete atrioventricular block. New-onset left bundle branch block and right bundle branch block were observed in 33 patients (33%) and 22 patients (22%), respectively. Inhospital postoperative PPM implantation was required in 23 patients (23%). Preoperative aortic valve area, age more than 85 years, and preoperative right bundle branch block were found to be independently associated with inhospital PPM implantation or new-onset postoperative conduction disorder. At follow-up, 3 more patients (3%) underwent PPM implantation. The cumulative incidences of PPM dependency and ventricular pacing more than 25% of the time were 18% ± 11% and 21% ± 10%, respectively, at 18 months.
In the present study, the postoperative PPM implantation rate (23%) after sutureless AVR with the Perceval S prosthesis was high. Surgical strategies aimed at mitigating this risk should be further investigated.