Halothane Hepatotoxicity Publications (224)
Halothane Hepatotoxicity Publications
The human hepatocarcinoma functional liver cell line was maintained in 3-dimensional culture alone or in co-culture with human acute monocytic leukemia cells. 2. In vivo, laboratory indices of liver dysfunction and histology were normal after administration of sevoflurane. CCl4 treatment increased blood AST/ALT levels, liver caspase-3 and -9 activities and liver malondialdehyde, accompanied by centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis. Halothane increased AST/ALT levels, caspase-3 and -8 activities (but not malondialdehyde) concomitant with widespread hepatotoxicity. In vitro, CCl4 treatment increased caspase-9 activity and decreased both mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell viability. In co-culture, halothane increased caspase-8 activity and decreased MMP and cellular viability. There were no toxic responses in CYP2E1 knockdown in monoculture and co-culture. 3. CYP2E1-inducing compounds play a pivotal role in halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity. 4. Changes in hepatocyte caspase-8 and -9 activities could be novel biomarkers of metabolites causing DILI, and in pre-clinical development of new pharmaceuticals can predict nascent DILI in the clinical stage.
Twenty-four hours after female Balb/cJ mice were initially treated with halothane, perivenous necrosis and an infiltration of CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells were observed in the liver. Further study revealed a subpopulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells within the CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cell fraction that inhibited the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. When CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells were depleted from the liver with Gr-1 antibody treatment, enhanced liver injury was observed at 9 days after halothane rechallenge. Toxicity was associated with increased serum levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulins G1 and E directed against hepatic trifluoroacetylated protein adducts, as well as increased hepatic infiltration of eosinophils and CD4(+) T cells, all features of an allergic reaction. When hepatic CD4(+) T cells were depleted 5 days after halothane rechallenge, trifluoroacetylated protein adduct-specific serum immunoglobulin and hepatotoxicity were reduced.
Our data provide a rational approach for developing animal models of drug-induced allergic hepatitis mediated by the adaptive immune system and suggest that impaired liver tolerance may predispose patients to this disease.
The objective of this review study was to assess available studies on hepatotoxicity of these anesthetics.
We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Index Copernicus, EBSCO and the Cochrane Database using the following keywords: "inhalational Anesthetics" and "liver injury"; "inhalational anesthetics" and "hepatotoxicity"; "volatile anesthetics" and "liver injury"; "volatile anesthetics" and hepatotoxicity for the period of 1966 to 2013. Fifty two studies were included in this work.
All halogenated inhalational anesthetics are associated with liver injury. Halothane, enflurane, isoflurane and desflurane are metabolized through the metabolic pathway involving cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and produce trifluoroacetylated components; some of which may be immunogenic. The severity of hepatotoxicity is associated with the degree by which they undergo hepatic metabolism by this cytochrome. However, liver toxicity is highly unlikely from sevoflurane as is not metabolized to trifluoroacetyl compounds.
Hepatotoxicity of halogenated inhalational anesthetics has been well documented in available literature. Halothane-induced liver injury was extensively acknowledged; however, the next generation halogenated anesthetics have different molecular structures and associated with less hepatotoxicity. Although anesthesia-induced hepatitis is not a common occurrence, we must consider the association between this disorder and the use of halogenated anesthetics.
Hepatotoxicity is most likely to be immune-related, based on much evidence. Free radicals that are produced by the metabolism of halothane in the liver can modify cellular proteins and introduce neo-antigens to the immune system. Sensitization to these neo-antigens induces a more severe response after multiple exposures; most cases of type 2 hepatitis occur after repeated contact. New halogenated anesthetics such as enflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, are not metabolized in the liver, causing few cases of sensitization. Compared with halothane, these anesthetics are expensive. As a result, replacement of halothane with new halogenated anesthetics requires a precise cost-benefit analysis, especially in developing countries that have low health care budgets.
HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-γ knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-γ compared with immunoglobulin G-treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-γ and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity.
We used known human risk factors (female sex, adult age, and genetics) as well as probable risk factors (fasting and inflammatory stress) to develop a murine model with characteristics of human halothane hepatitis. Female and male BALB/cJ mice treated with halothane developed dose-dependent liver injury within 24 h; however, the liver injury was severe only in females. Livers had extensive centrilobular necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and steatosis. Fasting rendered mice more sensitive to halothane hepatotoxicity, and 8-week-old female mice were more sensitive than males of the same age or than younger (4-week-old) females. C57BL/6 mice were insensitive to halothane, suggesting a strong genetic predisposition. In halothane-treated females, plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater than in males, and neutrophils were recruited to liver more rapidly and to a greater extent. Anti-CD18 serum attenuated halothane-induced liver injury in female mice, suggesting that neutrophil migration, activation, or both are required for injury. Coexposure of halothane-treated male mice to lipopolysaccharide to induce modest inflammatory stress converted their mild hepatotoxic response to a pronounced, female-like response. This is the first animal model of an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction that is based on human risk factors and produces reproducible, severe hepatitis from halothane exposure with lesions characteristic of human halothane hepatitis. Moreover, these results suggest that a more robust innate immune response underlies the predisposition of female mice to halothane hepatitis.
In the present study, we employed the viral RNA mimetic (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [polyI:C]) to emulate viral infection and examined its effect on halothane-induced liver injury. Although pretreatment of mice with polyI:C attenuated halothane hepatotoxicity due to its inhibitory effect on halothane metabolism, posttreatment significantly exacerbated liver injury with hepatocellular apoptosis being significantly higher than that in mice treated with polyI:C alone or halothane alone. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk suppressed liver injury induced by polyI:C/posthalothane cotreatment, suggesting that the increased hepatocyte apoptosis contributes to the exacerbation of liver injury. Posttreatment with polyI:C also caused activation of hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) and natural killer (NK) cells and upregulated multiple proapoptotic factors, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), NK receptor group 2, member D (NKG2D), and Fas ligand (FasL). These factors may play important roles in mediating polyI:C-induced hepatocyte apoptosis.
This is the first study to provide evidence that concurrent viral infection can inhibit cytochrome (CYP)450 activities and activate the hepatic innate immune system to proapoptotic factors. DILI may be attenuated or exacerbated by pathogens depending on the time of infection.
Rats in group H were exposed to 1.5% halothane (in 50% oxygen/50% air) for 2 h on days 10 and 13. Group L received 25 mg/kg/day lycopene, group E received 100 IU/kg/day vitamin E and group LE received lycopene and vitamin E for 13 days. Similar to group H, groups L, E and LE were exposed to halothane. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant level (TOL) and sulfhydryl=thiol groups (SH) were measured. Histopathological examinations were carried out using light microscopy, and histopathological findings were graded on a scale of 0-6. There were no significant differences among the groups in TAC, TOL and SH values (P > 0.05). Liver injury was observed in the four treatment groups; the mean degree of damage was more severe in group H compared to groups E, L and LE: 2.14 +/- 0.37, 1.50 +/- 0.54, 0.85 +/- 0.69 and 0.83 +/- 0.75, respectively. This study found that both lycopene and vitamin E reduce halothane-induced hepatotoxicity, although the effect of vitamin E was not statistically significant.
However, questions surrounding the importance of chemically reactive metabolites still remain. Increasing evidence now exists for the multi-factorial nature of DILI, in particular the role played by the host immune system or disease state in the pathogenesis of DILI. This review aims to evaluate the current measures for the prediction and diagnosis of DILI and to highlight investigations being made to understand the multidimensional nature. Some of the steps being made to generate improved physiological systems to identify more sensitive, reflective mechanism-based biomarkers to aid the earlier identification of DILI and develop safer medicines are also discussed.
The breakthrough came with the introduction of a non-flammable volatile anesthetic called halothane in 1955. The drug was approved by the FDA in 1958 and quickly became the most commonly used agent in the United States. It was a quantum leap forward in the safety of anesthetic drugs. It became obsolete in 1988 because of hepatotoxicity. Three eminent anesthesiologists: Drs. Abajian of Vermont, Siker of Pittsburgh and Stephen of Duke could have been the first to use halothane in the USA. My review of the documents and writings of the three confirm that Dr. C. Ronald Stephen of Duke University was indeed the first to use and publish on halothane anesthesia in the USA.