Halothane Hepatotoxicity Publications (224)


Halothane Hepatotoxicity Publications

1. Drug-induced liver injury is difficult to predict at the pre-clinical stage. This study aimed to clarify the roles of caspase-8 and -9 in CYP2E1 metabolite-induced liver injury in both rats and cell cultures in vitro treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), halothane or sevoflurane. Read More

The human hepatocarcinoma functional liver cell line was maintained in 3-dimensional culture alone or in co-culture with human acute monocytic leukemia cells. 2. In vivo, laboratory indices of liver dysfunction and histology were normal after administration of sevoflurane. CCl4 treatment increased blood AST/ALT levels, liver caspase-3 and -9 activities and liver malondialdehyde, accompanied by centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis. Halothane increased AST/ALT levels, caspase-3 and -8 activities (but not malondialdehyde) concomitant with widespread hepatotoxicity. In vitro, CCl4 treatment increased caspase-9 activity and decreased both mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and cell viability. In co-culture, halothane increased caspase-8 activity and decreased MMP and cellular viability. There were no toxic responses in CYP2E1 knockdown in monoculture and co-culture. 3. CYP2E1-inducing compounds play a pivotal role in halogenated hydrocarbon toxicity. 4. Changes in hepatocyte caspase-8 and -9 activities could be novel biomarkers of metabolites causing DILI, and in pre-clinical development of new pharmaceuticals can predict nascent DILI in the clinical stage.

Hepatology 2015 Aug 25;62(2):546-57. Epub 2015 Mar 25.
Molecular and Cellular Toxicology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Clinical evidence suggests that many cases of serious idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury are mediated by the adaptive immune system in response to hepatic drug-protein adducts, also referred to as "drug-induced allergic hepatitis"; but detailed mechanistic proof has remained elusive due to the lack of animal models. We have hypothesized that drug-induced allergic hepatitis is as rare in animals as it is in humans due at least in part to the tolerogenic nature of the liver. We provide evidence that immune tolerance can be overcome in a murine model of halothane-induced liver injury initiated by trifluoroacetylated protein adducts of halothane formed in the liver. Read More

Twenty-four hours after female Balb/cJ mice were initially treated with halothane, perivenous necrosis and an infiltration of CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells were observed in the liver. Further study revealed a subpopulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells within the CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cell fraction that inhibited the proliferation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. When CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells were depleted from the liver with Gr-1 antibody treatment, enhanced liver injury was observed at 9 days after halothane rechallenge. Toxicity was associated with increased serum levels of interleukin-4 and immunoglobulins G1 and E directed against hepatic trifluoroacetylated protein adducts, as well as increased hepatic infiltration of eosinophils and CD4(+) T cells, all features of an allergic reaction. When hepatic CD4(+) T cells were depleted 5 days after halothane rechallenge, trifluoroacetylated protein adduct-specific serum immunoglobulin and hepatotoxicity were reduced.
Our data provide a rational approach for developing animal models of drug-induced allergic hepatitis mediated by the adaptive immune system and suggest that impaired liver tolerance may predispose patients to this disease.

Iran Red Crescent Med J
Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014 Sep 5;16(9):e20153. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
Department of Molecular Hepatology, Middle East Liver Disease Center, Tehran, IR Iran ; Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Halogenated inhalational anesthetics are currently the most common drugs used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Postoperative hepatic injury has been reported after exposure to these agents. Based on much evidence, mechanism of liver toxicity is more likely to be immunoallergic. Read More

The objective of this review study was to assess available studies on hepatotoxicity of these anesthetics.
We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Index Copernicus, EBSCO and the Cochrane Database using the following keywords: "inhalational Anesthetics" and "liver injury"; "inhalational anesthetics" and "hepatotoxicity"; "volatile anesthetics" and "liver injury"; "volatile anesthetics" and hepatotoxicity for the period of 1966 to 2013. Fifty two studies were included in this work.
All halogenated inhalational anesthetics are associated with liver injury. Halothane, enflurane, isoflurane and desflurane are metabolized through the metabolic pathway involving cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and produce trifluoroacetylated components; some of which may be immunogenic. The severity of hepatotoxicity is associated with the degree by which they undergo hepatic metabolism by this cytochrome. However, liver toxicity is highly unlikely from sevoflurane as is not metabolized to trifluoroacetyl compounds.
Hepatotoxicity of halogenated inhalational anesthetics has been well documented in available literature. Halothane-induced liver injury was extensively acknowledged; however, the next generation halogenated anesthetics have different molecular structures and associated with less hepatotoxicity. Although anesthesia-induced hepatitis is not a common occurrence, we must consider the association between this disorder and the use of halogenated anesthetics.

Hepat Mon
Hepat Mon 2011 Jan;11(1):3-6
Department of Gastroenterology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
Toxicol. Sci.
Toxicol Sci 2011 Apr 18;120(2):507-18. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1302, USA.

Severe halothane (HAL)-induced hepatotoxicity occurs in one in 6000-30,000 patients by an unknown mechanism. Female sex is a risk factor in humans and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that a sex difference in natural killer (NK) cell activity contributes to HAL-induced liver injury. Read More

HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-γ knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-γ compared with immunoglobulin G-treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-γ and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity.

J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010 May 2;333(2):364-72. Epub 2010 Feb 2.
Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro-ethane) is an inhaled anesthetic that induces severe, idiosyncratic liver injury, i.e., "halothane hepatitis," in approximately 1 in 20,000 human patients. Read More

We used known human risk factors (female sex, adult age, and genetics) as well as probable risk factors (fasting and inflammatory stress) to develop a murine model with characteristics of human halothane hepatitis. Female and male BALB/cJ mice treated with halothane developed dose-dependent liver injury within 24 h; however, the liver injury was severe only in females. Livers had extensive centrilobular necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and steatosis. Fasting rendered mice more sensitive to halothane hepatotoxicity, and 8-week-old female mice were more sensitive than males of the same age or than younger (4-week-old) females. C57BL/6 mice were insensitive to halothane, suggesting a strong genetic predisposition. In halothane-treated females, plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater than in males, and neutrophils were recruited to liver more rapidly and to a greater extent. Anti-CD18 serum attenuated halothane-induced liver injury in female mice, suggesting that neutrophil migration, activation, or both are required for injury. Coexposure of halothane-treated male mice to lipopolysaccharide to induce modest inflammatory stress converted their mild hepatotoxic response to a pronounced, female-like response. This is the first animal model of an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction that is based on human risk factors and produces reproducible, severe hepatitis from halothane exposure with lesions characteristic of human halothane hepatitis. Moreover, these results suggest that a more robust innate immune response underlies the predisposition of female mice to halothane hepatitis.

Hepatology 2009 Jan;49(1):215-26
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA.

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a challenging problem in drug development and clinical practice. Patient susceptibility to DILI is multifactorial, making these reactions difficult to predict and prevent. Clinical observations have suggested that concurrent bacterial and viral infections represent an important risk factor in determining patient susceptibility to developing adverse drug reactions, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. Read More

In the present study, we employed the viral RNA mimetic (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [polyI:C]) to emulate viral infection and examined its effect on halothane-induced liver injury. Although pretreatment of mice with polyI:C attenuated halothane hepatotoxicity due to its inhibitory effect on halothane metabolism, posttreatment significantly exacerbated liver injury with hepatocellular apoptosis being significantly higher than that in mice treated with polyI:C alone or halothane alone. The pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk suppressed liver injury induced by polyI:C/posthalothane cotreatment, suggesting that the increased hepatocyte apoptosis contributes to the exacerbation of liver injury. Posttreatment with polyI:C also caused activation of hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) and natural killer (NK) cells and upregulated multiple proapoptotic factors, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), NK receptor group 2, member D (NKG2D), and Fas ligand (FasL). These factors may play important roles in mediating polyI:C-induced hepatocyte apoptosis.
This is the first study to provide evidence that concurrent viral infection can inhibit cytochrome (CYP)450 activities and activate the hepatic innate immune system to proapoptotic factors. DILI may be attenuated or exacerbated by pathogens depending on the time of infection.

Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2008 Oct;30(8):627-31
Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2008 Nov;4(11):1415-27
University of Liverpool, MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, L69 3GE, UK.