Guillain-Barre Syndrome Publications (7958)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Publications
Myasthenic crisis represents the paradigmatic example of the neuromuscular condition that can be best treated with noninvasive ventilation. Timely use of noninvasive ventilation can substantially reduce the duration of ventilatory assistance in these patients. Noninvasive ventilation can also be very helpful after extubation in patients recovering from an acute cause of neuromuscular respiratory failure who have persistent weakness. Noninvasive ventilation can improve quality of survival in patients with advanced motor neuron disorder (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and muscular dystrophies, and can avoid intubation when these patients present to the hospital with acute respiratory failure. Attempting noninvasive ventilation is not only typically unsuccessful in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome, but can also be dangerous in these cases.
Noninvasive ventilation can be very effective to treat acute respiratory failure caused by myasthenia gravis and to prevent reintubation in other neuromuscular patients, but should be used cautiously for other indications, particularly Guillain-Barre syndrome.
The absolute and unique association of GSL to the onset, development and symptomatology of the peripheral neuropathies could be misleading. Here, we report some thoughts on the matter.
Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).
We found that the absolute counts of total memory Tfh cells were significantly increased in AMAN, while no significant difference in AIDP compared with HC. Furthermore, the levels of the three subsets of memory Tfh cells, Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17, were differentially altered in AMAN. The absolute counts of Tfh1, Tfh2 and Tfh17 were all increased to a higher level in AMAN. The ratio of (Tfh2+Tfh17)/Tfh1 and the percentages of ICOS(+) cells in Tfh2 and Tfh17 cells were greater in AMAN when compared to AIDP and HC, and the former had a positive correlation with the severity of both AMAN and AIDP. Conversely, the percentages of PD1(+) cells in Tfh2 and Tfh17 cells were lower in AMAN than in HC. Therefore, circulating memory Tfh2 and Tfh17 cells might promote the autoantibody-related immune response and serve as useful markers to evaluate the progression of AMAN.
Information regarding clinical course and transfers was obtained via neurologists and general practitioners.
87 GBS patients were included with maximal GBS disability score of 1 or 2 (28%), 3 or 4 (53%), 5 (18%) and 6 (1%). Four mildly affected GBS patients were not hospital admitted. Of the 83 hospitalized patients 68 (82%) were initially admitted at a neurology department, 4 (5%) at an ICU, 4 (5%) at pediatrics, 4 (5%) at pediatrics neurology and 3 (4%) at internal medicine. Median hospital stay was 17 days (IQR 11-26 days, absolute range 1-133 days). Transfers between departments or hospitals occurred in 33 (40%) patients and 25 (30%) were transferred 2 times or more. From a cost-effectiveness perspective 21 (25%) of the admissions was suboptimal. Median costs for hospital admission of GBS patients were 15,060 Euro (IQR 11,226-23,683). Maximal GBS disability score was significantly correlated with total length of stay, number of transfers, ICU admission and costs.
Hospital admissions for GBS patients are highly heterogeneous, with frequent transfers and higher costs for those with more severe disease. Future research should aim to develop prediction models to early identify the most cost-effective allocation in individual patients.
The patient was discharged without complication on the 5th postoperative day. He presented Guillain- Barre syndrome after 12 months. He has not completely recovered weakness of upper extremities grade 4/5 with atrophy of both upper extremities remains after 18 months. This disorder is similar to classic GBS. It is important to be alert to de novo autoimmune neurological disorders after cardiac surgery. These disorders are similar to classic autoimmune disease and treated with standard therapies.
Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70's in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a 'dengue-like' syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses whichimposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.
Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three children; two had evidence of enterovirus D68 infection in stool or respiratory samples. We describe the clinical features, epidemiology and state of current investigations for these unusual clusters of illness.
Serum anti-GQ1b IgG antibody was detected. The levels of plasma noradrenaline and dopamine and urinary noradrenaline were elevated. Cardiac [(123)I] metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed a normal H/M rate at the early phase and an elevated washout rate. According to these findings, the patient was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome with cardiac sympathetic hyperactivity. During convalescence, the plasma and urine catecholamine levels fell within the reference ranges, and MIBG scintigraphy showed a decreased washout rate.
However, little data has been published on CSF analysis under non-steady-state conditions after therapeutic apheresis. By reducing serum proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins), while leaving CSF unchanged, therapeutic apheresis might cause spuriously altered intrathecal immunoglobulin fractions.
Based on the incidental finding of plasma exchange-induced increased intrathecal immunoglobulin fractions in a cohort of 12 unsystematically selected patients with various neurological disorders, we retrospectively investigated CSF results that had been raised during routine diagnostic work-up from 41 consecutive neurological patients (predominantly Guillain-Barré syndrome and autoimmune encephalitis) treated with plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption in a tertiary care university hospital in whom lumbar puncture (LP) was performed after a varying number of treatments of therapeutic apheresis.
Only when LP was performed 1 day after therapeutic apheresis, spurious quantitative intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis of at least one subclass (IgG, IgA and/or IgM) was found in 68.4 % of the patients, irrespective of the number of treatments, in all age groups and independent of other previous immunotherapies (e.g., steroids). This phenomenon occurred only transiently and was almost always accompanied by an elevation of the IgG index. In one patient, an elevated IgG index was noticed even 2 days after plasmapheresis. Neither quantitative Ig synthesis, nor elevated IgG index was observed when the LP was performed three or more days after therapeutic apheresis.
Spurious quantitative intrathecal Ig synthesis and increased IgG index are common findings shortly after plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption due to altered serum immunoglobulin levels. Knowledge of this phenomenon is needed for clinicians to prevent false interpretations leading to unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Misdiagnoses can be avoided by considering the characteristic CSF constellation including absence of oligoclonal bands and the close temporal relation to therapeutic apheresis.
Cases and frequency of health services usage due to these three pathogens; associated healthcare costs; direct, out-of-pocket expenses; indirect costs to patients and caregivers.
The median estimated costs to patients and the health service at 2008-9 prices were: Campylobacter £50 million (95% CI: £33m-£75m), norovirus £81 million (95% CI: £63m-£106m), rotavirus £25m (95% CI: £18m-£35m). The costs per case were approximately £30 for norovirus and rotavirus, and £85 for Campylobacter. This was mostly borne by patients and caregivers through lost income or out-of-pocket expenditure. The cost of Campylobacter-related Guillain-Barré syndrome hospitalisation was £1.26 million (95% CI: £0.4m-£4.2m).
Norovirus causes greater economic burden than Campylobacter and rotavirus combined. Efforts to control IID must prioritise norovirus. For Campylobacter, estimated costs should be considered in the context of expenditure to control this pathogen in agriculture, food production and retail. Our estimates, prior to routine rotavirus immunisation in the UK, provide a baseline vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses.
Electro-diagnostic testing confirmed axonal dysfunction and the patient was positive for antiganglioside antibodies. However, the patient developed unilateral left-sided facial weakness. She was managed with further intravenous immunoglobulin and intensive physiotherapy. The outcome for facial palsy was very good, with almost complete resolution after 2 weeks.
Live attenuated vaccines have not been studied adequately in children under 2 years of age to determine the risks of adverse events; more studies are needed to address this and several other priority safety issues with all influenza vaccines in children. All vaccines intended for use in children require safety testing in the target age group, especially in young children. Safety of one influenza vaccine in children should not be extrapolated to assumed safety of all influenza vaccines in children. The low rates of adverse events from influenza vaccines should not be a deterrent to the use of influenza vaccines because of the overwhelming evidence of the burden of disease due to influenza in children.
We were able to distinguish populations of antibodies with different fine specificity. Remarkably, individual patients presented only one or two of them, and different patients had different populations. This restriction in the variability of antibody populations suggests that the appearance of the anti-GM1 antibodies is a random process involving restricted populations of lymphocytes. With the origin of disease-associated anti-GM1 antibodies as a context, this finding could provide explanation for the "host susceptibility factor" observed in GBS following enteritis with GM1 oligosaccharide-carrying strains of Campylobacter jejuni.
Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched, with additional searches of conference abstract books. Questionnaires were sent to organizations worldwide to ascertain unpublished studies. Eligible studies used EHR and regularly assessed pre-specified AE to vaccine(s). Key features of studies were compared descriptively.
From 2779 studies, 31 were included from the USA (23), UK (6), and Taiwan and New Zealand (1 each). These were published/conducted between May 2005 and April 2015. Thirty-eight different vaccines were studied, focusing mainly on influenza (47.4%), especially 2009 H1N1 vaccines. Forty-six analytic approaches were used, reflecting frequency of EHR updates and the AE studied. Poisson-based maximized sequential probability ratio test was the most common (43.5%), followed by its binomial (23.9%) and conditional versions (10.9%). Thirty-seven of 49 analyses (75.5%) mentioned control for confounding, using an adjusted expected rate (51.4% of those adjusting), stratification (16.2%) or a combination of a self-controlled design and stratification (13.5%). Guillain-Barré syndrome (11.9%), meningitis/encephalitis/myelitis (11.9%) and seizures (10.8%) were studied most often.
Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance using EHR has developed over the past decade but is not yet widely used. As more countries have access to EHR, it will be important that appropriate methods are selected, considering the data available and AE of interest. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
However, these therapies remain unsatisfactory for many patients, so numerous other immunotherapeutic strategies have been evaluated, based on their immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory potency. We have performed a large review of the literature about treatment in CIDP, with a special emphasis on novel and alternative immunotherapeutic strategies.
Further studies using primary dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGn) cultures demonstrated that anti-Gg Abs can inhibit neurite outgrowth by targeting gangliosides via activation of the small GTPase RhoA and its associated kinase (ROCK), a signaling pathway common to other established inhibitors of axon regeneration. We aimed to study the molecular basis of the inhibitory effect of anti-Gg abs on neurite outgrowth by dissecting the molecular dynamics of growth cones (GC) cytoskeleton in relation to the spatial-temporal analysis of RhoA activity. We now report that axon growth inhibition in DRGn induced by a well characterized mAb targeting gangliosides GD1a/GT1b involves: i) an early RhoA/ROCK-independent collapse of lamellipodia; ii) a RhoA/ROCK-dependent shrinking of filopodia; and iii) alteration of GC microtubule organization/and presumably dynamics via RhoA/ROCK-dependent phosphorylation of CRMP-2 at threonine 555. Our results also show that mAb 1B7 inhibits peripheral axon regeneration in an animal model via phosphorylation/inactivation of CRMP-2 at threonine 555. Overall, our data may help to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired nerve repair in GBS. Future work should define RhoA-independent pathway/s and effectors regulating actin cytoskeleton, thus providing an opportunity for the design of a successful therapy to guarantee an efficient target reinnervation.
This article presents the experience of plasma exchange in the case of 7-month-old boy diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. A 7-month-old boy was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit with a 10-day history of progressive weakness, feeding difficulty and constipation. He was diagnosed with axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome on the basis of clinical and electromyographical findings. The patient recovered fully with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. Plasma exchange may be a safe option in the treatment in infants with Guillain-Barré syndrome as young as 7-month-age.
After thorough investigations it was revealed as a case of Japanese encephalitis. Our idea of reporting these two cases is to make ourselves aware about this potential complication of these two common infections.
A possible manifestation of a severe attack is rapidly progressing quadriparesis, which may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome. We present four such cases, highlighting that acute porphyria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Three patients presented to Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, SA, with progressive quadriparesis, and one to a private hospital with acute abdominal pain followed by rapidly progressive quadriparesis. Two patients had started antiretroviral therapy before the development of symptoms, and one had started antituberculosis therapy. All patients had marked weakness with depressed reflexes, and showed varying degrees of confusion. An initial diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome led to administration of intravenous immunoglobulins in two patients. On testing for porphyria, it was found that two patients had AIP and two VP. Electrophysiological investigations revealed severe mainly motor axonal neuropathy in all. Two patients deteriorated to the point of requiring mechanical ventilation, and one of them died due to complications of critical illness. Haemin was administered to three patients, but the process of obtaining this medication was slow, which delayed the recommended early administration. The surviving patients showed minimal recovery and remained severely disabled. Porphyric neuropathy should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in a patient with an acute neuropathy, especially in SA. Absence of abdominal pain does not exclude the possibility of porphyria, and attacks may be precipitated by antiretroviral and antituberculosis medication. The outcome of our patients was not favourable; specifically, obtaining haemin was a challenge in the state hospital setting.
The suppression of EAN was associated with an insufficiency of autoreactive T cells, as reflected by inhibited P0 peptide-specific mononuclear cell proliferation and decreased in CD4 and CD8T cells infiltrating into the peripheral nervous system (PNS). BBIC might mediate its therapeutic effects by shifting macrophages from M1 to M2 subtype as evidenced by increasing Arg-1, CD206 and IL-10 and inhibiting IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-12, iNOS and CD40 expressions on macrophages as well as enhancing anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 and decreasing inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 in the PNS.
Our results suggest that BBIC may have therapeutic potential in human GBS and other autoimmune diseases in the future.
Nerve conduction studies were conducted at 4 time points over 6 months. Results Monophasic disease course and presence of cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytological dissociation supported a diagnosis of bifacial weakness with paresthesias. Serial nerve conduction studies demonstrated an evolving demyelinating neuropathy with evidence of distal and proximal demyelination without conduction block, which partially resolved over time. Despite complete resolution of facial weakness within weeks, distal paresthesias persisted beyond 6 months. Discussion This suggests that neuropathy in patients with bifacial weakness and paresthesias is demyelinating and diffuse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) was the most prevalent type of GBS in our locality. As regards the treatment, 32 cases received plasmapheresis while 30 patients received intravenous immunoglobulin. We found a significant decrease in the duration of hospitalization and a significant increase in the number of children with complete recovery in cases treated with plasmapheresis.
GBS is not uncommon in children of Upper Egypt, with AIDP the most prevalent type. Plasmapheresis is the best treatment modalities for GBS as it reduces the duration of hospital stay and hastens the recovery of those children.
Compared with healthy control group, the CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) of GBS group had obvious difference (P<0.05). Of which, the CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) regulatory T cells of the classic GBS group had no significant changes compared with the variant group (P>0.05), as well as the cerebrospinal fluid protein content between classic and variant GBS groups. The decrease of the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-) regulatory T cells suggested abnormal expression of immune function in GBS patients.
The decrease of GBS regulatory T cell number or function indicated that the immune regulatory T cells mediated imbalance of immune regulation involved in the pathogenesis of GBS.