Guillain-Barre Syndrome Publications (8467)

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Guillain-Barre Syndrome Publications

2016Dec
2016Dec
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
Scand J Gastroenterol 2016 Dec 8:1-4. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
a Instituto Alfa de Gastroenterologia , Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil.

We report the case of a 64-year-old patient diagnosed with extensive ileal Crohn´s disease who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome after starting biological therapy with adalimumab. Neurologic involvement associated with inflammatory bowel diseases is recognized as an extra-intestinal manifestation. After the breakthrough of antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α) agents, an increasing number of cases of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies have been reported; however, only one case has been described in a patient with Crohn´s disease. Read More

Although a causal relationship between Guillain-Barré syndrome and TNF-α antagonist therapy cannot be proven, this report emphasizes the need to monitor for neurologic signs and symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, with or without biological therapy, to avoid severe and irreversible complications associated with demyelinating diseases.

2016Dec
Neuron
Neuron 2016 Dec;92(5):949-958
Laboratory for Pediatric Brain Disease, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Rady Children's Institute of Genomic Medicine, Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Zika virus (ZIVK) represents a new threat to global health, with particular relevance to neuroscientists, due to associated newborn and adult neurological disease. Consequences of vertical infection include microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and consequences of adult infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and meningoencephalitis. Recent data suggest specific vulnerability of neural progenitors to infection, leading to cell death and brain calcification, reminiscent of other viral syndromes. Read More

Prevailing models suggest entry into neuronal stem cells through transmembrane receptors, hijacking cellular signaling to interfere with neurogenesis and cell survival. Mechanisms of adult neurological disease are unknown, but recent evidence suggests propensity for infection of adult neural stem cells. Efforts focused on mechanisms of pathogenesis, vulnerabilities, and treatments are urgently needed.

2016Dec
Medicine (Baltimore)
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Dec;95(49):e5580
aDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon bDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon, South Korea.
2016Jun
J R Coll Physicians Edinb
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2016 Jun;46(2):103-105
T Solomon, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Ronald Ross Building, 8 West Derby Street, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK, E-mail

The performance and interpretation of laboratory tests for Zika virus (ZKV) continue to be evaluated. Serology is cross-reactive, laborious and frequently difficult to interpret and serum was initially solely recommended for molecular diagnosis. ZKV testing was initiated January 2016 in New York State for symptomatic patients, pregnant women, their infants, and patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, who traveled to areas with ZKV transmission. Read More

Subsequently, eligibility was expanded to pregnant women with sexual partners with similar travel history. Serum and urine collected within four weeks of symptom onset or six weeks of travel were tested with real-time RT-PCR assays targeting the ZKV envelope and NS2B genes. In this review of lessons learned from the first 80 positive cases in NYS, ZKV RNA was detected in urine only in 50 patients, serum only in 19 patients and both samples concurrently in 11 patients, with average viral loads in urine a log higher than in serum. Among 93 positive samples from the 80 patients, 41 were positive on both gene assays, 52 on the envelope only, and none on the NS2B only. Of the 80 infected patients, 74 (93%) would have been resulted as 'not detected' or 'equivocal', if the "two target positive requirement" in initial federal guidance to public health laboratories was enforced, urine was not tested, or extended eligibility time for molecular testing was not implemented. These changes facilitated more extensive molecular diagnosis of ZKV, reducing reliance on time-consuming and potentially inconclusive serology.

2016Dec
J. Trop. Pediatr.
J Trop Pediatr 2016 Dec 5. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
Department of Pediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.

In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared Zika virus (ZIKV) infection a public health emergency of international concern, given the precipitous spread of the virus across the Americas. Unlike arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Dengue, which have also recently emerged in the western hemisphere, ZIKV was identified in communities where concurrent neurologic conditions such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre (GB) syndrome were occurring at alarming rates. Thus, investigations to systematically evaluate the link between ZIKV, congenital malformations (including microcephaly) and GB syndrome remain a top priority. Read More

2016Nov
Clin Neurophysiol
Clin Neurophysiol 2016 Nov 20;128(1):215-219. Epub 2016 Nov 20.
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Fisher syndrome (FS), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia. The lesion sites for these unique clinical features include the oculomotor nerves and group 1a neurons in the dorsal root ganglion, and the presence of FS is determined by the expression of ganglioside GQ1b in the human nervous system. Neurophysiological findings suggest that ataxia and areflexia are due to an impaired proprioceptive afferent system. Read More

Typically, the soleus H-reflex is absent and a body-sway analysis using posturography shows a 1-Hz peak, which indicates proprioception dysfunction. Sensory nerve action potentials and somatosensory-evoked potentials are abnormal in approximately 30% of FS patients, indicating the occasional involvement of cutaneous (group 2) afferents. During the disease course, approximately 15% of FS patients suffer an overlap of axonal GBS with nerve conduction abnormalities that reflect axonal dysfunction. This review summarizes electrophysiological abnormalities and their clinical significance in FS.

2016Dec
Antiviral Res.
Antiviral Res 2016 Dec 2. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
Center for Predictive Medicine for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, KY, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Louisville, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies have clearly underscored the association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and severe neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the historical complacency surrounding this virus, however, no significant antiviral screenings have been performed to specifically target ZIKV. As a result, there is an urgent need for a validated screening method and strategy that is focused on highlighting potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors that can be further advanced via rigorous validation and optimization. Read More

To address this critical gap, we sought to test whether a cell-based assay that measures protection from the ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect could serve as a high-throughput screen assay for discovering novel anti-ZIKV inhibitors. Employing this approach, we tested the anti-ZIKV activity of previously known broad-spectrum antiviral compounds and discovered several compounds (e.g., NITD008, SaliPhe, and CID 91632869) with anti-ZIKV activity. Interestingly, while GTP synthesis inhibitors (e.g., ribavirin or mycophenolic acid) were too toxic or showed no anti-ZIKV activity (EC50 > 50 μM), ZIKV was highly susceptible to pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors (e.g., brequinar) in the assay. We amended the assay into a high-throughput screen (HTS)-compatible 384-well format and then screened the NIH Clinical Compound Collection library, which includes a total of 727 compounds organized, using an 8-point dose response format with two Zika virus strains (MR766 and PRVABC59, a recent human isolate). The screen discovered 6-azauridine and finasteride as potential anti-ZIKV inhibitors with EC50 levels of 3.18 and 9.85 μM for MR766, respectively. We further characterized the anti-ZIKV activity of 6-azauridine and several pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors such as brequinar in various secondary assays including an antiviral spectrum test within flaviviruses and alphaviruses, Western blot (protein), real-time PCR (RNA), and plaque reduction assays (progeny virus). From these assays, we discovered that brequinar has potent anti-ZIKV activity. Our results show that a broad anti-ZIKV screen of compound libraries with our CPE-based HTS assay will reveal multiple chemotypes that could be pursued as lead compounds for therapies to treat ZIKV-associated diseases or as molecular probes to study the biology of the ZIKV replication mechanism.

2016Dec
Brain Nerve
Brain Nerve 2016 Dec;68(12):1423-1429
Department of Neurology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine.

The efficacy of plasma exchange (PE) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapies for Guillain-Barré syndrome have been established by numerous randomized controlled trials. However, 10-20 % of GBS patients cannot walk without aid after one year from onset of the disease. Thus, new treatment is required for these intractable cases. Read More

The Japan GBS outcome study (J-GOS) has been conducted to identify clinical or biological markers that predict the prognosis of Japanese GBS patients at an early stage. In the future, we expect to provide intractable patients so predicted with novel therapy, including molecular target drugs.