Guillain-Barre Syndrome Publications (8381)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome Publications
Further, it is not clear whether ZIKV strains from other genetic lineages can be transmitted by American Aedes aegypti populations, and whether the scope of the current epidemic is in part facilitated by viral factors such as enhanced replicative fitness or increased vector competence. Therefore, we characterized replication of three ZIKV strains, one from each of the three phylogenetic clades in several cell lines and assessed their abilities to be transmitted by Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, laboratory colonies of different Culex spp. were infected with an American outbreak strain of ZIKV to assess VC. Replication rates were variable and depended on virus strain, cell line and MOI. African strains used in this study outcompeted the American strain in vitro in both mammalian and mosquito cell culture. West and East African strains of ZIKV tested here were more efficiently transmitted by Ae. aegypti from Mexico than was the currently circulating American strain of the Asian lineage. Long-established laboratory colonies of Culex mosquitoes were not efficient ZIKV vectors. These data demonstrate the capacity for additional ZIKV strains to infect and replicate in American Aedes mosquitoes and suggest that neither enhanced virus replicative fitness nor virus adaptation to local vector mosquitoes seems likely to explain the extent and intensity of ZIKV transmission in the Americas.
1 times the baseline, and long-term care needs are predicted to be 3-5 times greater than in years with no Zika virus.
Serological and other immunological studies, and retrospective analysis of patient records.
The clinical findings comprised motor, sensory (including severe pain) and autonomic symptoms. While one patient presented with subacute symptoms mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the symptoms progressed slowly in two other patients. Electrophysiology revealed delayed F waves; a decrease in motor and sensory action potentials and conduction velocities; delayed motor latencies; signs of denervation, indicating sensorimotor radiculopolyneuropathy of the mixed type; and no conduction blocks. ITPR1-IgG belonged to the complement-activating IgG1 subclass in the severely affected patient but exclusively to the IgG2 subclass in the two more mildly affected patients. Cerebrospinal fluid ITPR1-IgG was found to be of predominantly extrathecal origin. A (3)H-thymidine-based proliferation assay confirmed the presence of ITPR1-reactive lymphocytes among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Immunophenotypic profiling of PBMCs protein demonstrated predominant proliferation of B cells, CD4 T cells and CD8 memory T cells following stimulation with purified ITPR1 protein. Patient ITPR1-IgG bound both to peripheral nervous tissue and to lung tumour tissue. A nerve biopsy showed lymphocyte infiltration (including cytotoxic CD8 cells), oedema, marked axonal loss and myelin-positive macrophages, indicating florid inflammation. ITPR1-IgG serum titres declined following tumour removal, paralleled by clinical stabilization.
Our findings expand the spectrum of clinical syndromes associated with ITPR1-IgG and suggest that autoimmunity to ITPR1 may underlie peripheral nervous system diseases (including GBS) in some patients and may be of paraneoplastic origin in a subset of cases.
Recent evidence suggests a potential role of the Zika virus as a trigger for the syndrome. The diagnosis of Guillain-Barré is clinical. Supportive measures include venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, aggressive physical therapy, pressure ulcer prevention, enteral nutrition, and respiratory support. The mainstay of management comprises plasmapheresis or administration of intravenous immunoglobulins. Affected patients must be closely monitored for development of respiratory failure and autonomic dysfunction. Treatment during pregnancy should follow the same principles as for nonpregnant individuals.
Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery. The goal of this research was the identification of serum biomarkers associated with recovery from GBS. To address this objective, a quantitative proteomics approach was used to characterize differences in the serum proteome between a GBS patient and her healthy identical twin in order to lessen variations due to differences in genetic background, and with additional serum samples collected from unrelated GBS (N = 3) and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) (N = 3) patients with similar medications. Proteomics results were then validated by ELISA using sera from additional GBS patients (N = 5) and healthy individuals (N = 3). All GBS and SCI patients were recovering from the acute phase of the disease. The results showed that Piccolo, a protein that is essential in the maintenance of active zone structure, constitutes a potential serological correlate of recovery from GBS. These results provided the first evidence for the Piccolo´s putative role in GBS, suggesting a candidate target for developing a serological marker of disease recovery.
We also searched trials registries.
We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of any form of corticosteroid or adrenocorticotrophic hormone versus placebo or supportive care alone in GBS. Our primary outcome was change in disability grade on a seven-point scale after four weeks. Secondary outcomes included time from randomisation until recovery of unaided walking, time from randomisation until discontinuation of ventilation (for those ventilated), death, death or disability (inability to walk without aid) after 12 months, relapse, and adverse events.
The review authors used standard methods expected by Cochrane.
The review authors discovered no new trials in the new searches in June 2009, November 2011, or January 2016. Six trials with 587 participants provided data for the primary outcome. According to moderate quality evidence, the disability grade change after four weeks in the corticosteroid groups was not significantly different from that in the control groups, mean difference (MD) 0.36 less improvement (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.16 more to 0.88 less improvement). In four trials of oral corticosteroids with 120 participants in total, there was very low quality evidence of less improvement after four weeks with corticosteroids than without corticosteroids, MD 0.82 disability grades less improvement (95% CI 0.17 to 1.47 grades less). In two trials with a combined total of 467 participants, there was moderate quality evidence of no significant difference of a disability grade more improvement after four weeks with intravenous corticosteroids (MD 0.17, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.39). According to moderate quality evidence, there was also no significant difference between the corticosteroid treated and control groups for improvement by one or more grades after four weeks (risk ratio (RR) 1.08, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.24) or for death or disability after one year (RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.5). We found high quality evidence that the occurrence of diabetes was more common (RR 2.21, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.12) and hypertension less common (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.41) in the corticosteroid-treated participants.
According to moderate quality evidence, corticosteroids given alone do not significantly hasten recovery from GBS or affect the long-term outcome. According to very low quality evidence, oral corticosteroids delay recovery. Diabetes requiring insulin was more common and hypertension less common with corticosteroids based on high quality evidence.
Herein, we report the expression of an active NS3(pro) domain fused with the NS2B cofactor (NS2BLN NS3(pro) ) in a prokaryotic expression system and profile its specificity for synthesized FRET-type substrate libraries. Our findings pave way for screening potential intracellular substrates of NS3 and for developing specific inhibitors of this ZIKV protease.
With 80% of Zika virus infections being asymptomatic, no rapid test being available to detect the virus, and primary transmission being via the bites of certain mosquitoes, application of quarantine in this setting is not scientifically sound or practically feasible. Rather, public health interventions should focus on preventing bites from infected mosquitoes, counseling pregnant women on the risks of fetal microcephaly and other birth defects, and identifying patients with signs and symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome. As was seen in the Ebola virus disease outbreak of 2014, non-evidence-based factors can influence policy decisions. Public health experts must ensure that policy makers are informed that quarantine is not a scientifically sound approach for the control of Zika virus. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;0:1-3).
The objective of this study was to unveil the relationship between HSV-1 infection and the alteration of cellular ganglioside expression in neuronal and glial cell lines. In addition to these cell lines, several human tumor cell lines including astrocytoma cells, neuroblastoma cells, T-cell leukemia cells and kidney cells derived from normal human and monkey were infected with HSV-1 as well as HSV-2. To measure changes in ganglioside-related gene expressions and gangliosides levels in cells, quantitative PCR and glycosphingolipid-glycomic analysis were performed. Changes in gene expression of glycosyltransferases and sialyltransferases were observed in HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells, although with different trends. 39 glycosphingolipid-glycans were quantitatively analyzed. HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections resulted in changes in the total amount of gangliosides depending on the cell lines used and type of virus. Qualitative changes caused by each infection of HSV-1 and HSV-2 were almost negligible.