Fournier Gangrene Publications (830)
Fournier Gangrene Publications
There are few reports regarding NF as a complication after aesthetic surgical procedures, and a systematic review still lacks.
We have performed a systematic review of English literature on PubMed, covering a period of 30 years. Keywords used were "necrotising fasciitis" matched with "aesthetic surgery complications", "breast surgery", "mammoplasty", "blepharoplasty", "liposuction", "facelift", "rhinoplasty fasciitis", "arm lift", "thigh lift", "otoplasty" and "abdominoplasty fasciitis". No additional search and temporal limitation were set.
Among 3782 papers concerning NF, only 18 were related to NF after an aesthetic surgical procedure. Liposuction was the most affected procedure, with buttocks and lower extremity the most involved anatomical regions. The majority of the infections were monomicrobial, promoted by Streptococcus pyogenes. In most cases, NF occurred within the third post-operative day with non-specific signs and symptoms. In 14 cases, a single or multiple surgical interventions were performed and survival was achieved in 11 patients.
In case of infection after aesthetic surgery, we should always bear in mind NF. Clinical hallmarks still guide NF management. Because early signs and symptoms are usually non-specific, a strict clinical control is highly suggested. Once clinical suspicion is raised, prompt antibacterial therapy should be administered, followed by surgical debridement in case of ineffective response.
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Thirty-five patients were treated. Seventy-seven percent (n = 27) required some form of fecal diversion (21 patients using an endo-rectal tube and six patients undergoing construction of a surgical colostomy). One patient had a pre-existing colostomy before the development of FG. The remaining seven patients underwent conservative wound care with multiple daily dressing changes (no diversion system). Twenty-eight of the 35 patients (80.0%) had long-term follow-up with 100% having completely healed surgical wounds at the final clinic visit. Average time to complete wound healing was 4.8 ± 1.0 mo (range, 1.0-31.0). Of the six patients who underwent colostomy formation, two had their colostomies reversed, two were unacceptable surgical risk and did not undergo reversal (due to uncontrolled diabetes and cardiovascular disease), and two were lost to follow-up. Of the two patients who had their colostomies reversed both had complications from their reversal (leak and urinary retention).
Surgical colostomy may not be mandatory (and might be associated with a high additional morbidity) in FG. With appropriate patient selection, it may be possible to avoid colostomy formation using a less-invasive diversion technology without compromising patient outcomes.
Candida albicans was confirmed; caspofungin followed by fluconazole was administered with excellent results.
The variables studied were: the frequency of ASS among scrotal swellings and urological emergencies, age, consultation period, causes, treatment, post-treatment evolution and hospitalization length.
During the study period, 356 scrotal swellings and 420 urological emergencies were recorded. Thus, 114 cases with ASS accounted for 32.0% of scrotal swellings and 27.1% of urological emergencies. The average age was 42.25 ± 25 years (5 months and 89 years represent the extremes). The median of consultation time was 4 days. The diagnosis at admission was: acute orchiepididymitis (n=66), ASS with abscess formation (n=18), suspicion of torsion of the spermatic cord (n=14), traumatic ASS (10 cases), strangulated inguinoscrotal hernia (06 cases). Treatment was exclusively medical in 66 cases (57.8 %). Surgical exploration, which was indicated in 48 patients, was performed in 45 of them (93.7%), three patients (6.2%) refused it. In total there were 9 cases with orchiectomies and 36 conservative procedures. The average length of stay in hospital was 3 ± 2 days. Eighty-one patients (71.0%) were hospitalized for at least 24 hours. They were divided into two groups: 42 surgical patients and 39 medical patients. No deaths were recorded.
ASS are common in our hospital, people of all ages can be affected. They are dominated by ASS of infectious origin, torsion of the spermatic cord and scrotal trauma. Delayed consultation is often the rule, this may affect functional prognosis of the testicle.
The gold standard therapy of the Fournier's gangrene remains today a complete, early and extended surgical debridement.
In addition, the increasing age and prevalence of diabetes in the population, begs the need for increased clinical awareness of Fournier's gangrene with emphasis on early diagnosis and management. This review aims to highlight the relevant research surrounding Fournier's gangrene, in particular the various prognostic indicators and management strategies.
A search was conducted on the MEDLINE database for all applicable research; clinical reviews, retrospective studies and case reports. In addition to which a search of the European Association of Urology, the British Association for Urological Surgeons and the British Medical Journal was conducted for the most recent recommendations.
Immediate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and urgent surgical debridement are the core managerial principles of Fournier's gangrene. The use of adjunctive therapies such as hyperbaric oxygen and vacuum assisted closure are supported in some aspects of the literature and disputed in others. The lack of randomized controlled studies limits the use of these potential additional therapies to patients unresponsive to conventional management. The value of unprocessed honey as a topical antimicrobial agent has been highlighted in the literature for small lesions in uncomplicated patients.
Fournier's gangrene is a urological emergency with a high mortality rate despite advances in the medical and surgical fields. The aggressive nature of the infection advocates the need for early recognition allowing immediate surgical intervention. The opposing results of available research as well as the lack of high quality evidence surrounding emergent therapies prevents their routine use in the management of Fournier's gangrene. The absence of a specific care pathway may hinder efficient management of Fournier's gangrene, thus based on current guidelines a management pathway is suggested.
The objective of this study was to compare conservative management and early exploration in cases of equivocal (early) FG.
This was an observational study where data of all patients diagnosed as early FG in our departments over 4 years (2011-2015) were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 with conservative treatment, and group 2 managed with urgent exploration with longitudinal hemiscrotal incision starting from external inguinal ring. All patients' demographics, vital signs, laboratory finding and clinical findings were reported.
A total of 28 patients were enrolled in the study. Group 1 was managed with conservative treatment (17 patients) and group 2 underwent urgent exploration (11 patients). Overall, four patients (23.5%) out of 17 patients of group 1 showed a good response to conservative management without any surgical debridement. A total of 13 patients (76.5%) developed gangrenous discoloration and needed surgical debridement later. In group 2, four patients (36.4%) underwent scrotal exploration and release incision only without debridement and showed an excellent clinical outcome. A total of four patients (36.4%) underwent debridement with excision of doubtful deep subcutaneous and fascial tissues. The remaining three patients (27.2%) underwent debridement of necrotic fascia. The hospital stay was significantly shorter in group 2 patients than group 1 (7.5 ± 3.75 versus 13.4 ± 5.19 days p < 0.05). The mean number of debridement sessions was 3.74 ± 0.69 in group 1 versus 1.82 ± 0.34 in group 2.
Early exploration and debridement in equivocal (early) FG has a better clinical outcome with reduced hospital stay and number of debridement sessions than conservative treatment with delayed debridement.