Encephalopathy Hypertensive Publications (2114)
Encephalopathy Hypertensive Publications
Basidiobolus ranarum was isolated from the culture. The fungus was also isolated from a perinephric fluid aspirate. Computerised tomography of the abdomen demonstrated features consistent with fungal invasion of the pelvic floor muscles and urinary bladder, leading to bilateral hydronephrosis. He required multiple antihypertensive drug therapy and was treated with intravenous amphotericin B, oral itraconazole and potassium iodide. Antihypertensive agents were discontinued after 2 weeks of antifungal therapy. At 6-months follow-up, the hydronephrosis had resolved completely. Perinephric abscess associated with basidiobolomycosis has not been reported previously.
The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure.
Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them.
International classification of disease was used. Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios for both groups and adjusted for possible confounders. Main outcome measures were in- hospital diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, vascular dementia and dementia.
No increased risks were seen for vascular dementia or dementia after all hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. If broken down in specific diagnoses for hypertensive disease in pregnancy, adjusted risks for vascular dementia after hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy were hazard ratios 6.27 (CI; 1.65-27.44). Higher risks for cardiovascular disease were confirmed.
Because of the very low absolute risk, the wide confidence interval and risk of misclassification our results on vascular dementia could be questioned. Considering the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, the findings of brain lesions and the increased risk for cardiovascular disease the possibly increased risk for all kinds of dementia must be investigated in larger and more well-defined cohorts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
We used 13C-UBT to detect H. pylori infection in patients with chronic HBV infection, HBV-related cirrhosis, HBV-related hepatic carcinoma, and other chronic hepatic diseases.
A total of 131 patients with chronic hepatitis B (HB), 179 with HBV-related cirrhosis, 103 with HBV-related hepatic carcinoma, 45 with HBV-negative hepatic carcinoma, and 150 controls were tested for H. pylori infection using 13C-UBT. We compared H. pylori infection rate, liver function, complications of chronic hepatic disease, serum HBV-DNA, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) incidence among groups.
HBV-related cirrhosis was associated with the highest H. pylori infection rate (79.3%). H. pylori infection rate in chronic HB was significantly higher than in the HBV-negative hepatic carcinoma and control groups (P < 0.001). H. pylori infection rate in patients with HBV-DNA ≥10 3 copies/ml was significantly higher than in those with HBV-DNA <103 copies/ml (76.8% vs. 52.4%, P < 0.001). Prothrombin time (21.3 ± 3.5 s vs. 18.8 ± 4.3 s), total bilirubin (47.3±12.3 μmol/L vs. 26.6 ±7.9 μmol/L), aspartate aminotransferase (184.5 ± 37.6 U/L vs. 98.4 ± 23.5 U/L), blood ammonia (93.4 ± 43.6 μmol/L vs. 35.5 ± 11.7 μmol/L), and AFP (203.4 ± 62.6 μg/L vs. 113.2 ± 45.8 μg/L) in the 13C-UBT-positive group were significantly higher than in the 13C-UBT-negative group (P < 0.01). The incidence rates of esophageal fundus variceal bleeding (25.4% vs. 16.0%), ascites (28.9% vs. 17.8%), and hepatic encephalopathy (24.8% vs. 13.4%) in the 13C-UBT-positive group were significantly higher than in the 13C-UBT-negative group (P < 0.01). The percentages of patients with liver function in Child-Pugh Grade C (29.6% vs. 8.1%) and PHG (43.0% vs. 24.3%) in the 13C-UBT-positive group were significantly higher than in the 13C-UBT-negative group (P < 0.05).
It is possible that H. pylori infection could increase liver damage caused by HBV. H. pylori eradication should be performed in patients with complicating H. pylori infection to delay hepatic disease progression.
PRES frequently develops in the context of cytotoxic medication, (pre)eclampsia, sepsis, renal disease or autoimmune disorders. The treatment is symptomatic and is determined by the underlying condition. The overall prognosis is favorable, since clinical symptoms as well as imaging lesions are reversible in most patients. However, neurological sequelae including long-term epilepsy may persist in individual cases.
We discuss the differential diagnosis of longitudinal myelopathy and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the "spinal cord variant of PRES."
A 26-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and epilepsy was admitted for recurrent cryptococcal meningitis and breakthrough seizures. There was radiologic evidence of ventricular enlargement, and opening pressure on serial lumbar punctures was constantly elevated. Owing to persistently elevated, symptomatic intracranial pressure and transient relief with serial lumbar punctures, a lumboperitoneal shunt was placed. The patient subsequently had a breakthrough seizure and became encephalopathic. Repeat head imaging showed reduced ventricular size, engorged venous sinuses, and tonsillar herniation in keeping with IH, coupled with extensive white matter abnormalities in bilateral parieto-occipital lobes indicative of PRES. The patient had an emergent programmable valve placed in the lumboperitoneal shunt to prevent excessive cerebrospinal fluid drainage, leading to clinical and radiologic improvement. Subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak resulted in recurrent presentation.
IH appears to be a distinct cause of PRES not previously reported in the neurosurgical literature. It occurs in susceptible patients, on average 1-5 days after the IH trigger, and seems clinically and radiologically similar to more common hypertensive cases in terms of initial presentation and prognosis. Increased vigilance is required for prompt recognition and management.
We present a case of 53-year-old woman with a history of a rapidly progressive dementia with symptoms of visual impairment, increased extrapyramidal type muscle tonus, stereotypical movements and ataxic gait resulting in the patient's death after13 months. The clinical symptoms deteriorated progressively to myoclonus and akinetic mutism already on the 14th week. The series of diagnostic examinations were done to exclude the possible causes of dementia. Initial MRI evaluation as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) on the 9th week after the onset of symptoms created us a diagnostic conundrum. Subsequent MRI findings of symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia (nucleus caudatus, putamen) on the 13th week and EEG with periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC) in frontal regions on the 18th week allowed us to diagnose the probable sCJD. The histopathological findings after brain biopsy on the 14th week demonstrated the presence of the abnormal prion protein deposits in the grey matter by immunohistochemistry with ICSM35, KG9 and 12 F10 antibodies and confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD.
In this article we focus our attention on a rare association between radiological PRES syndrome and early clinical stage of sCJD. Although concurrent manifestation of these conditions can be accidental, but the immunogenic or neuropeptide mechanisms could explain such radiological MRI findings. A thorough knowledge of differential diagnostic of PRES may be especially useful in earlier diagnosis of sCJD.