Encephalopathy Hypertensive Publications (2114)

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Encephalopathy Hypertensive Publications

2017Jan
Paediatr Int Child Health
Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 Jan 23:1-4. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
a Department of Pediatrics , Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) , Pondicherry 605006 , India.
2017Jan
World J Nephrol
World J Nephrol 2017 Jan;6(1):41-44
Devdeep Mukherjee, Rajiv Sinha, Md Shakil Akhtar, Department of Pediatric Medicine, Institute of Child Health, Kolkata 700017, India.
2017Jan
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2017 Jan 17. Epub 2017 Jan 17.
Department of Pediatrics, Women and Infants Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Our aim was to investigate the rate of vascular dementia and dementia in women with previous hypertensive disorders in pregnancy since white matter lesions of the brain and cardiovascular disease are linked both to dementia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
Prospective population based registry study on all women giving birth in Sweden between 1973- 1975 (284 598). Women with and without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were identified by means of the Swedish Medical Birth Register and linked to the National Patient Register where data on somatic disease later in life were obtained. Read More

International classification of disease was used. Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios for both groups and adjusted for possible confounders. Main outcome measures were in- hospital diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, vascular dementia and dementia.
No increased risks were seen for vascular dementia or dementia after all hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. If broken down in specific diagnoses for hypertensive disease in pregnancy, adjusted risks for vascular dementia after hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy were hazard ratios 6.27 (CI; 1.65-27.44). Higher risks for cardiovascular disease were confirmed.
Because of the very low absolute risk, the wide confidence interval and risk of misclassification our results on vascular dementia could be questioned. Considering the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, the findings of brain lesions and the increased risk for cardiovascular disease the possibly increased risk for all kinds of dementia must be investigated in larger and more well-defined cohorts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2017Jan
Chin. Med. J.
Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 20th Jan;130(2):149-154
Department of Gastroenterology, the Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong 264000, China.

The 13C urea breath test (13C-UBT) is the gold standard for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori pathogenesis in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and related diseases remains obscure. Read More

We used 13C-UBT to detect H. pylori infection in patients with chronic HBV infection, HBV-related cirrhosis, HBV-related hepatic carcinoma, and other chronic hepatic diseases.
A total of 131 patients with chronic hepatitis B (HB), 179 with HBV-related cirrhosis, 103 with HBV-related hepatic carcinoma, 45 with HBV-negative hepatic carcinoma, and 150 controls were tested for H. pylori infection using 13C-UBT. We compared H. pylori infection rate, liver function, complications of chronic hepatic disease, serum HBV-DNA, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) incidence among groups.
HBV-related cirrhosis was associated with the highest H. pylori infection rate (79.3%). H. pylori infection rate in chronic HB was significantly higher than in the HBV-negative hepatic carcinoma and control groups (P < 0.001). H. pylori infection rate in patients with HBV-DNA ≥10 3 copies/ml was significantly higher than in those with HBV-DNA <103 copies/ml (76.8% vs. 52.4%, P < 0.001). Prothrombin time (21.3 ± 3.5 s vs. 18.8 ± 4.3 s), total bilirubin (47.3±12.3 μmol/L vs. 26.6 ±7.9 μmol/L), aspartate aminotransferase (184.5 ± 37.6 U/L vs. 98.4 ± 23.5 U/L), blood ammonia (93.4 ± 43.6 μmol/L vs. 35.5 ± 11.7 μmol/L), and AFP (203.4 ± 62.6 μg/L vs. 113.2 ± 45.8 μg/L) in the 13C-UBT-positive group were significantly higher than in the 13C-UBT-negative group (P < 0.01). The incidence rates of esophageal fundus variceal bleeding (25.4% vs. 16.0%), ascites (28.9% vs. 17.8%), and hepatic encephalopathy (24.8% vs. 13.4%) in the 13C-UBT-positive group were significantly higher than in the 13C-UBT-negative group (P < 0.01). The percentages of patients with liver function in Child-Pugh Grade C (29.6% vs. 8.1%) and PHG (43.0% vs. 24.3%) in the 13C-UBT-positive group were significantly higher than in the 13C-UBT-negative group (P < 0.05).
It is possible that H. pylori infection could increase liver damage caused by HBV. H. pylori eradication should be performed in patients with complicating H. pylori infection to delay hepatic disease progression.

2016Nov
J Fam Pract
J Fam Pract 2016 Nov;65(11):812-813
Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AK, USA. Email:

A 47-year-old woman had been hospitalized one month earlier for lupus nephritis with a hypertensive emergency that led to a seizure. During this earlier hospitalization, she was given a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Read More

2017Jan
J. Neurol.
J Neurol 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder of (sub)acute onset characterized by varied neurological symptoms, which may include headache, impaired visual acuity or visual field deficits, disorders of consciousness, confusion, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. In a majority of patients the clinical presentation includes elevated arterial blood pressure up to hypertensive emergencies. Neuroimaging, in particular magnetic resonance imaging, frequently shows a distinctive parieto-occipital pattern with a symmetric distribution of changes reflecting vasogenic edema. Read More

PRES frequently develops in the context of cytotoxic medication, (pre)eclampsia, sepsis, renal disease or autoimmune disorders. The treatment is symptomatic and is determined by the underlying condition. The overall prognosis is favorable, since clinical symptoms as well as imaging lesions are reversible in most patients. However, neurological sequelae including long-term epilepsy may persist in individual cases.

2016Dec
Neuropediatrics
Neuropediatrics 2016 Dec 29. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
Department of Pediatric Neurology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well-known clinical and radiologic entity mainly affecting the territory of the posterior cerebral circulation. Spinal cord involvement is extremely rare, and as of yet, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case describes a reversible, longitudinal spinal cord lesion in a patient with high blood pressure. Read More

We discuss the differential diagnosis of longitudinal myelopathy and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the "spinal cord variant of PRES."

2016Dec
World Neurosurg
World Neurosurg 2016 Dec 23. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is linked to various etiologies, including most importantly systemic hypertension. Its association with intracranial hypotension (IH), a potential sequela of various neurosurgical procedures, is underrecognized. We report a case of lumboperitoneal shunt-induced IH resulting in PRES with the goal to increase awareness and elaborate on the potential biologic mechanism, based on the Monro-Kellie hypothesis. Read More


A 26-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and epilepsy was admitted for recurrent cryptococcal meningitis and breakthrough seizures. There was radiologic evidence of ventricular enlargement, and opening pressure on serial lumbar punctures was constantly elevated. Owing to persistently elevated, symptomatic intracranial pressure and transient relief with serial lumbar punctures, a lumboperitoneal shunt was placed. The patient subsequently had a breakthrough seizure and became encephalopathic. Repeat head imaging showed reduced ventricular size, engorged venous sinuses, and tonsillar herniation in keeping with IH, coupled with extensive white matter abnormalities in bilateral parieto-occipital lobes indicative of PRES. The patient had an emergent programmable valve placed in the lumboperitoneal shunt to prevent excessive cerebrospinal fluid drainage, leading to clinical and radiologic improvement. Subsequent cerebrospinal fluid leak resulted in recurrent presentation.
IH appears to be a distinct cause of PRES not previously reported in the neurosurgical literature. It occurs in susceptible patients, on average 1-5 days after the IH trigger, and seems clinically and radiologically similar to more common hypertensive cases in terms of initial presentation and prognosis. Increased vigilance is required for prompt recognition and management.

2016Nov
BMC Neurol
BMC Neurol 2016 Nov 22;16(1):234. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
Department of Neurology Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Mickeviciaus str. 9, Kaunas, LT-44307, Lithuania.

Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive and fatal neurodegenerative prion disease. MRI findings are included in diagnostic criteria for probable CJD, giving a sensitivity and specificity more than 90%, but the atypical radiological presentations in the early stage of the disease could cause the diagnostic difficulties. CJD can be definitively diagnosed by histopathological confirmation, brain biopsy or at autopsy. Read More


We present a case of 53-year-old woman with a history of a rapidly progressive dementia with symptoms of visual impairment, increased extrapyramidal type muscle tonus, stereotypical movements and ataxic gait resulting in the patient's death after13 months. The clinical symptoms deteriorated progressively to myoclonus and akinetic mutism already on the 14th week. The series of diagnostic examinations were done to exclude the possible causes of dementia. Initial MRI evaluation as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) on the 9th week after the onset of symptoms created us a diagnostic conundrum. Subsequent MRI findings of symmetrical lesions in the basal ganglia (nucleus caudatus, putamen) on the 13th week and EEG with periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC) in frontal regions on the 18th week allowed us to diagnose the probable sCJD. The histopathological findings after brain biopsy on the 14th week demonstrated the presence of the abnormal prion protein deposits in the grey matter by immunohistochemistry with ICSM35, KG9 and 12 F10 antibodies and confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD.
In this article we focus our attention on a rare association between radiological PRES syndrome and early clinical stage of sCJD. Although concurrent manifestation of these conditions can be accidental, but the immunogenic or neuropeptide mechanisms could explain such radiological MRI findings. A thorough knowledge of differential diagnostic of PRES may be especially useful in earlier diagnosis of sCJD.