Emergency Escharotomy Publications (13)
Emergency Escharotomy Publications
This review summarizes data from seven studies, four of which were randomized clinical trials that included a SOC or control vehicle. DGD eschar debridement efficacy was >90% in all studies, comparable to the SOC and significantly greater than the control vehicle. The total area excised was less in patients treated with DGD compared with the control vehicle (22.9% vs. 73.2%, P<0.001) or the surgical/non-surgical SOC (50.5%, P=0.006). The incidence of surgical debridement in patients treated with DGD was lower than the SOC (40/163 [24.5%] vs. 119/170 [70.0%], P0.001). Less autografting was used in all studies. Long-term scar quality and function were similar in DGD- and SOCtreated. DGD is a safe and effective method of burn debridement that offers an alternative to surgical and non-surgical SOC.
Fellowship-trained burn and plastic surgeons worked with special effect artists and anatomists to develop a biomimetic trainer with three discrete points of failure: median or ulnar nerve injury, fasciotomy, and failure to check distal pulse. Participants were divided between experienced and inexperienced, survey pre- and post-procedure on a biomimetic model while being timed. The trainer total cost per participant was less than $35. Eighteen participants were involved in the study. The inexperienced (0-1 prior escharotomies performed) had significantly more violations at the discrete points of failure relative to more experienced participants (P = .036). Face validity was assessed with 100% of participants agreement that the model appeared similar to real life and was valuable in their training. Given the advancements in biomimetic models and the need to train surgeons in how to perform infrequent, emergent surgical procedures, an escharotomy trainer is needed today. The authors developed an affordable model with a successful pilot study demonstrating discrimination between experienced and inexperienced surgeons. Additional research is needed to increase the reliability and assessment metrics.
With regard to emergency burn management, the knowledge required is: assessment of burn extent and depth, associated injuries, indications of escharotomy, fluid therapy and airway management, as well as safe transportation. The aim of this study therefore was to assess the knowledge of family physicians - as an indicator of that of non-burn practitioners - on emergency burn management, and design accordingly an appropriate burn educational program. An interview questionnaire was distributed to all physicians working in Family Medicine Centers in Ismailia, Egypt, who did not possess a post-graduate degree. A total of twenty-four family physicians (100%) participated in this study. The questionnaire findings showed that, out of a possible score of 25 correct answers, the highest result was 12; achieved by 6 physicians (25%). The highest frequency score was 8 correct responses; obtained by 10 physicians (29.2%). This demonstrated a knowledge deficit among Ismailia's family physicians, and subsequently non-burn practitioners, with regard to burns management, due to gaps in undergraduate teaching.
We conducted a multi-center, open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial including patients aged 4-55 years with deep partial and full thickness burns covering 5-30% of their total body surface area (TBSA). Patients were randomly assigned to burn debridement with NXB (applied for 4h) or SOC, which included surgical excisional or non-surgical debridement.
NXB significantly reduced the time from injury to complete débridement (2.2 vs. 8.7 days, P<0.0001), need for surgery (24.5% vs. 70.0%, P<0.0001), the area of burns excised (13.1% vs. 56.7%, P<0.0001) and the need for autografting (17.9% vs. 34.1%, P=0.01). Scar quality and quality of life scores were similar in both study groups as were the rates of adverse events.
Enzymatic débridement with NXB resulted in reduced need for and extent of surgery compared with SOC while achieving comparable long-term results in patients with deep burns.
Clinical Trials.gov NCT00324311.
Cement handling has been found to be responsible for many cases of occupational burns (generally full-thickness) usually affecting a limited TBSA, rarely greater than 5%, with localization especially in the lower limbs. We describe an unusual case of a self-inflicted cement burn involving 75% TBSA. A 28-yr-old building worker attempted suicide by jumping into a cement mixer in a truck. Upon arrival at our burn centre, clinical examination revealed extensive burn (75% TBSA - 40% full-thickness) involving face, back, abdomen, upper limbs and circumferentially lower limbs, sparing the hands and feet. The patient was sedated, mechanically ventilated, and subjected to escharotomy of the lower limbs in the emergency room. The following day, the deep burns in the lower limbs were excised down to the fascia and covered with meshed allografts. Owing to probable intestinal and skin absorption of cement, metal toxicity was suspected and dialysis and forced diuresis were therefore initiated on day 3. The patient's clinical conditions gradually worsened and he died on day 13 from the multi-organ failure syndrome.
Most burns associated with current were first degree (58%). The upper limbs, most frequently the wrist and arm (n = 23), were injured in 26 patients, and the lower limb in 2 patients, whereas 3 patients suffered multiple sites of injury. Twenty-eight patients were treated conservatively with dressings and minor surgical interventions such as debridement and primary repair. The remainder required excision and/or grafting. Fasciotomy and/or escharotomy were performed in 2 patients, and no one required amputation. Burns associated with electrical injuries remain a worldwide problem, responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. They can usually be prevented through simple safety measures. An effective prevention program would help address this problem.
Emergency medical services (EMS) providers infrequently encounter patients with circumferential chest burns, and escharotomy is generally not included in their scope of practice. The authors could not locate any documentation of other escharotomies performed in the out-of-hospital setting. This case series describes the care of two patients that required out-of-hospital chest escharotomy by physician members of a helicopter medical crew. The procedures of chest and neck escharotomies are reviewed, and the logistics of performing escharotomy in the prehospital setting are described.
The patient was connected to mechanical ventilator for 59 days. By the time the patient was transferred to plastic and reconstructive surgery ward, he was fully conscious, cooperated and hemodynamically stable.
Eleven were triaged to the trauma resuscitation area and four to the surgical emergency room. Seven patients were intubated for respiratory distress or airway protection. Six patients had >80 per cent burns with steam inhalation, and all of these died. One of the 6 patients had 99 per cent burns with steam inhalation and died after withdrawal of support within the first several hours. All patients with major burns required escharotomy on arrival to trauma resuscitation. One patient died in the operating room, despite decompression by laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome and pericardiotomy via thoracotomy for cardiac tamponade. Four patients required crystalloid, 20,000 mls/m2-27,000 ml/m2 body surface area (BSA) in the first 48 hours to maintain blood pressure and urine output. Three of these four patients subsequently developed abdominal compartment syndrome and died in the first few days. The fourth patient of this group died after 26 days due to sepsis. Five patients had 13-20 per cent bums and four patients had less than 10 per cent burns. Two of the patients with 20 per cent burns developed edema of the vocal cords with mild hoarseness. They improved and recovered without intubation. The facility was prepared for the mass casualty event; having just completed a mass casualty drill several days earlier. Twenty-six beds were made available in 50 minutes for anticipated casualties. Fifteen physicians reported immediately to the trauma resuscitation area to assist in initial stabilization. The event occurred at shift change; thus, adequate support personnel were instantaneously to hand. Our mass casualty preparation proved useful in managing this event. Most of the patients who survived showed signs of post-traumatic stress syndrome, which was diagnosed and treated by the burn center psychology team. Despite our efforts at treating large burns (>80%) with steam inhalation, mortality was 100 per cent. Fluid requirements far exceeded those predicted by the Parkland (Baxter) formula. Abdominal compartment syndrome proved to be a significant complication of this fluid resuscitation. A coordinated effort by the facility and preparation for mass casualty events are needed to respond to such events.