Delirium Tremens Publications (2361)


Delirium Tremens Publications

J Addict Nurs
J Addict Nurs 2016 Oct/Dec;27(4):234-240
John Barrett, MA, BSN, RN, Duke University School of Nursing, Durham, NC. Maria Jansen, PharmD, Matthew Felbinger, PharmD, BCPS, and Faith Waters, MSN, RN, NEA-BC, Duke Regional Hospital, Durham, NC. April Cooper, PharmD, Duke Regional Hospital, Durham, and College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC.
J Laryngol Otol
J Laryngol Otol 2016 May;130(S2):S13-S22
Department of Anaesthesia,Freeman Hospital,Newcastle upon Tyne NHS Foundation Trust,Newcastle upon Tyne,UK.

This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides recommendations on the pre-treatment clinical assessment of patients presenting with head and neck cancer. Recommendations • Comorbidity data should be collected as it is important in the analysis of survival, quality of life and functional outcomes after treatment as well as for comparing results of different treatment regimens and different centres. Read More

(R) • Patients with hypertension of over 180/110 or associated target organ damage, should have antihypertensive medication started pre-operatively as per British Hypertension Society guidelines. (R) • Rapidly correcting pre-operative hypertension with beta blockade appears to cause higher mortality due to stroke and hypotension and should not be used. (R) • Patients with poorly controlled or unstable ischaemic heart disease should be referred for cardiology assessment pre-operatively. (G) • Patients within one year of drug eluting stents should be discussed with the cardiologist who was responsible for their percutaneous coronary intervention pre-operatively with regard to cessation of antiplatelet medication due to risk of stent thrombosis. (G) • Patients with multiple recent stents should be managed in a centre with access to interventional cardiology. (G) • Surgery after myocardial infarction should be delayed if possible to reduce mortality risk. (R) • Patients with critical aortic stenosis (AS) should be considered for pre-operative intervention. (G) • Clopidogrel should be discontinued 7 days pre-operatively; warfarin should be discontinued 5 days pre-operatively. (R) • Patients with thromboembolic disease or artificial heart valves require heparin therapy to bridge peri-operative warfarin cessation, this should start 2 days after last warfarin dose. (R) • Cardiac drugs other than angotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists should be continued including on the day of surgery. (R) • Angotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists should be withheld on the day of surgery unless they are for the treatment of heart failure. (R) • Post-operative care in a critical care area should be considered for patients with heart failure or significant diastolic dysfunction. (R) • Patients with respiratory disease should have their peri-operative respiratory failure risk assessed and critical care booked accordingly. (G) • Patients with severe lung disease should be assessed for right heart disease pre-operatively. (G) • Patients with pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure will be at extraordinarily high risk and should have the need for surgery re-evaluated. (G) • Perioperative glucose readings should be kept within 4-12 mmol/l. (R) • Patients with a high HbA1C facing urgent surgery should have their diabetes management assessed by a diabetes specialist. (G) • Insulin-dependent diabetic patients must not omit insulin for more than one missed meal and will therefore require an insulin replacement regime. (R) • Patients taking more than 5 mg of prednisolone daily should have steroid replacement in the peri-operative period. (R) • Consider proton pump therapy for patients taking steroids in the peri-operative phase if they fit higher risk criteria. (R) • Surgery within three months of stroke carries high risk of further stroke and should be delayed if possible. (R) • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis should have flexion/extension views assessed by a senior radiologist pre-operatively. (R) • Patients at risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium should be highlighted at pre-operative assessment. (G) • Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) must have enteral access so drugs can be given intra-operatively. Liaison with a specialist in PD is essential. (R) • Intravenous iron should be considered for anaemia in the urgent head and neck cancer patient. (G) • Preoperative blood transfusion should be avoided where possible. (R) • Where pre-operative transfusion is essential it should be completed 24-48 hours pre-operatively. (R) • An accurate alcohol intake assessment should be completed for all patients. (G) • Patients considered to have a high level of alcohol dependency should be considered for active in-patient withdrawal at least 48 hours pre-operatively in liaison with relevant specialists. (R) • Parenteral B vitamins should be given routinely on admission to alcohol-dependent patients. (R) • Smoking cessation, commenced preferably six weeks before surgery, decreases the incidence of post-operative complications. (R) • Antibiotics are necessary for clean-contaminated head and neck surgery, but unnecessary for clean surgery. (R) • Antibiotics should be administered up to 60 minutes before skin incision, as close to the time of incision as possible. (R) • Antibiotic regimes longer than 24 hours have no additional benefit in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery. (R) • Repeat intra-operative antibiotic dosing should be considered for longer surgeries or where there is major blood loss. (R) • Local antibiotic policies should be developed and adhered to due to local resistance patterns. (G) • Individual assessment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk and bleeding risk should occur on admission and be reassessed throughout the patients' stay. (G) • Mechanical prophylaxis for VTE is recommended for all patients with one or more risk factors for VTE. (R) • Patients with additional risk factors of VTE and low bleeding risk should have low molecular weight heparin at prophylactic dose or unfractionated heparin if they have severe renal impairment. (R).

Acta Neurol. Scand.
Acta Neurol Scand 2017 Jan 1;135(1):4-16. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
Department of Neurology, University Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

The alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a well-known condition occurring after intentional or unintentional abrupt cessation of heavy/constant drinking in patients suffering from alcohol use disorders (AUDs). AUDs are common in neurological departments with patients admitted for coma, epileptic seizures, dementia, polyneuropathy, and gait disturbances. Nonetheless, diagnosis and treatment are often delayed until dramatic symptoms occur. Read More

The purpose of this review is to increase the awareness of the early clinical manifestations of AWS and the appropriate identification and management of this important condition in a neurological setting.

Anaesthesist 2016 Sep;65(9):712
Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Kliniken des Landkreises Neumarkt i. d. OPf, Nürnberger Str. 12, 92318, Neumarkt, Deutschland.
Trials 2016 Aug 19;17(1):415. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
Departments of Anaesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care, Hôtel-Dieu, University Hospital of Nantes, 44093, Nantes, France.

Alcohol is the leading psychoactive substance consumed in France, with about 15 million regular consumers. The National institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) considers alcohol abuse to be more than 14 units of alcohol a week for men and 7 units for women. The specific complication of alcoholism is the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Read More

Its incidence reaches up to 30 % and its main complications are delirium tremens, restlessness, extended hospital stay, higher morbidity, and psychiatric and cognitive impairment. Without appropriate treatment, delirium tremens can lead to death in up to 50 % of patients.
This prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled study versus placebo will be conducted in twelve French intensive care units (ICU). Patients with an alcohol intake level higher than the NIAAA threshold, who are under mechanical ventilation, will be included. The primary objective is to determine whether baclofen is more efficient than placebo in preventing restlessness-related side effects in the ICU. Secondary outcomes include mechanical ventilation duration, length of ICU stay, and cumulative doses of sedatives and painkillers received within 28 days of ICU admission. Restlessness-related side effects in the ICU are defined as unplanned extubation, medical disposal removal (such as urinary catheter, venous or arterial line or surgical drain), falling out of bed, ICU runaway (leaving ICU without physician's approval), immobilisation device removal, self-aggression or aggression towards medical staff. Daily doses of baclofen/placebo will be guided by daily creatinine clearance assessment.
Restlessness in alcoholic patients is a life-threatening issue in ICUs. BACLOREA is a randomised study assessing the capacity of baclofen to prevent agitation in mechanically ventilated patients. Enrolment of 314 patients will begin in June 2016 and is expected to end in October 2018. Identifier: NCT02723383 , registered on 3 March 2016.

Medsurg Nurs
Medsurg Nurs 2016 May-Jun;25(3):173-5

The physiologic risk is great for patients undergoing alcohol withdrawal without appropriate medication apd monitoring support. An interprofessional team adapted several alcohol withdrawal protocols for this project using evidence-based practice principles. Read More