Delirium Tremens Publications (2361)
Delirium Tremens Publications
This is a quality improvement project involving a two-part retrospective review-an initial needs assessment followed by nursing education and a subsequent posteducation retrospective review. The initial needs assessment included 65 patients. The subsequent posteducation group included 50 patients.
Nursing compliance of 1-hour assessments increased after the educational intervention; however, there was no statistically significant difference in 6-hour assessment or medication administration protocol compliance between preeducation and posteducation groups.
Nursing education is a good place to start in improving compliance with an alcohol withdrawal protocol, but physicians need to be included to increase standardization within the institution. Future study should look at the effectiveness of different assessment frequency intervals and its impact on patient-centered outcomes.
New members receive various treatments, including administration of ethanol or isopropanol, restraint, and seclusion. We reviewed 42 deaths in unlicensed alcohol rehabilitation facilities in Los Angeles County during the years 2003-2014. Data gathered included age, length of time spent in the facility, blood alcohol and drugs at autopsy, and cause and manner of death. Causes of death included acute alcohol poisoning, alcohol withdrawal, and a variety of other causes. Three cases were considered homicides from restraint asphyxia. The Department of Medical Examiner-Coroner has worked with the police, district attorney, and State Department of Health Services to try to prevent additional deaths in unlicensed alcohol rehabilitation facilities. Nevertheless, prevention has been difficult.
(R) • Patients with hypertension of over 180/110 or associated target organ damage, should have antihypertensive medication started pre-operatively as per British Hypertension Society guidelines. (R) • Rapidly correcting pre-operative hypertension with beta blockade appears to cause higher mortality due to stroke and hypotension and should not be used. (R) • Patients with poorly controlled or unstable ischaemic heart disease should be referred for cardiology assessment pre-operatively. (G) • Patients within one year of drug eluting stents should be discussed with the cardiologist who was responsible for their percutaneous coronary intervention pre-operatively with regard to cessation of antiplatelet medication due to risk of stent thrombosis. (G) • Patients with multiple recent stents should be managed in a centre with access to interventional cardiology. (G) • Surgery after myocardial infarction should be delayed if possible to reduce mortality risk. (R) • Patients with critical aortic stenosis (AS) should be considered for pre-operative intervention. (G) • Clopidogrel should be discontinued 7 days pre-operatively; warfarin should be discontinued 5 days pre-operatively. (R) • Patients with thromboembolic disease or artificial heart valves require heparin therapy to bridge peri-operative warfarin cessation, this should start 2 days after last warfarin dose. (R) • Cardiac drugs other than angotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists should be continued including on the day of surgery. (R) • Angotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II antagonists should be withheld on the day of surgery unless they are for the treatment of heart failure. (R) • Post-operative care in a critical care area should be considered for patients with heart failure or significant diastolic dysfunction. (R) • Patients with respiratory disease should have their peri-operative respiratory failure risk assessed and critical care booked accordingly. (G) • Patients with severe lung disease should be assessed for right heart disease pre-operatively. (G) • Patients with pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure will be at extraordinarily high risk and should have the need for surgery re-evaluated. (G) • Perioperative glucose readings should be kept within 4-12 mmol/l. (R) • Patients with a high HbA1C facing urgent surgery should have their diabetes management assessed by a diabetes specialist. (G) • Insulin-dependent diabetic patients must not omit insulin for more than one missed meal and will therefore require an insulin replacement regime. (R) • Patients taking more than 5 mg of prednisolone daily should have steroid replacement in the peri-operative period. (R) • Consider proton pump therapy for patients taking steroids in the peri-operative phase if they fit higher risk criteria. (R) • Surgery within three months of stroke carries high risk of further stroke and should be delayed if possible. (R) • Patients with rheumatoid arthritis should have flexion/extension views assessed by a senior radiologist pre-operatively. (R) • Patients at risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium should be highlighted at pre-operative assessment. (G) • Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) must have enteral access so drugs can be given intra-operatively. Liaison with a specialist in PD is essential. (R) • Intravenous iron should be considered for anaemia in the urgent head and neck cancer patient. (G) • Preoperative blood transfusion should be avoided where possible. (R) • Where pre-operative transfusion is essential it should be completed 24-48 hours pre-operatively. (R) • An accurate alcohol intake assessment should be completed for all patients. (G) • Patients considered to have a high level of alcohol dependency should be considered for active in-patient withdrawal at least 48 hours pre-operatively in liaison with relevant specialists. (R) • Parenteral B vitamins should be given routinely on admission to alcohol-dependent patients. (R) • Smoking cessation, commenced preferably six weeks before surgery, decreases the incidence of post-operative complications. (R) • Antibiotics are necessary for clean-contaminated head and neck surgery, but unnecessary for clean surgery. (R) • Antibiotics should be administered up to 60 minutes before skin incision, as close to the time of incision as possible. (R) • Antibiotic regimes longer than 24 hours have no additional benefit in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery. (R) • Repeat intra-operative antibiotic dosing should be considered for longer surgeries or where there is major blood loss. (R) • Local antibiotic policies should be developed and adhered to due to local resistance patterns. (G) • Individual assessment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk and bleeding risk should occur on admission and be reassessed throughout the patients' stay. (G) • Mechanical prophylaxis for VTE is recommended for all patients with one or more risk factors for VTE. (R) • Patients with additional risk factors of VTE and low bleeding risk should have low molecular weight heparin at prophylactic dose or unfractionated heparin if they have severe renal impairment. (R).
Methods: Retrospective chart review was completed, including patients receiving at least one dose of diazepam for alcohol withdrawal pre- and post-protocol. The primary outcome of this study was the average daily and cumulative dose of diazepam during hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included length of stay and occurrence of seizures or delirium tremens. Results: The average daily dose and the average cumulative dose of diazepam were significantly lower in the post-protocol group (5.4 vs 12.1 mg, p < .001; 35.0 vs 77.6 mg, p < .001, respectively). Length of stay was similar between groups (6.5 vs 6.4 days, p = .91), however, duration of benzodiazepine use was decreased in the post-protocol group (2.2 vs 4.7 days, p < .001). Despite using reduced doses of benzodiazepines, there was no increase in adverse events. Conclusions: The implementation of a symptom-based AWP using the CIWA-Ar scale was associated with a reduced average daily and cumulative dose of diazepam without any apparent safety issues.
He presented with paranoid beliefs and was transferred to a psychiatric inpatient unit with suspected schizophrenia. Classic features of delirium tremens such as sympathetic overdrive and visual hallucinations were not salient features of his presentation. Within 24 hours of admission, he sustained major self-inflicted abdominal stab wounds and extracted a metre of small bowel as a result of command hallucinations. The possibility of delirium tremens was raised by the receiving trauma team and he responded rapidly to benzodiazepines. Emergency jejunal reanastomosis was successful. This case highlights the fact that delirium tremens may present atypically and that associated command hallucinations can confer grave risks.
We describe a normonatremic, alcoholic patient who presented with CPM after a rapid rise in his sodium levels. Our case illustrates the fact that CPM can manifest even in patients who are normonatremic at baseline. Rapid rises in sodium levels should be promptly reversed before clinical symptoms manifest in patient with risk factors for CPM irrespective of their baseline sodium levels. Furthermore, clinical evolution of CPM can be difficult to discern from the natural course of alcohol withdrawal delirium, requiring astuteness and maintenance of a high degree of clinical suspicion on the part of the physician.
The purpose of this review is to increase the awareness of the early clinical manifestations of AWS and the appropriate identification and management of this important condition in a neurological setting.
Its incidence reaches up to 30 % and its main complications are delirium tremens, restlessness, extended hospital stay, higher morbidity, and psychiatric and cognitive impairment. Without appropriate treatment, delirium tremens can lead to death in up to 50 % of patients.
This prospective, double-blind, randomised controlled study versus placebo will be conducted in twelve French intensive care units (ICU). Patients with an alcohol intake level higher than the NIAAA threshold, who are under mechanical ventilation, will be included. The primary objective is to determine whether baclofen is more efficient than placebo in preventing restlessness-related side effects in the ICU. Secondary outcomes include mechanical ventilation duration, length of ICU stay, and cumulative doses of sedatives and painkillers received within 28 days of ICU admission. Restlessness-related side effects in the ICU are defined as unplanned extubation, medical disposal removal (such as urinary catheter, venous or arterial line or surgical drain), falling out of bed, ICU runaway (leaving ICU without physician's approval), immobilisation device removal, self-aggression or aggression towards medical staff. Daily doses of baclofen/placebo will be guided by daily creatinine clearance assessment.
Restlessness in alcoholic patients is a life-threatening issue in ICUs. BACLOREA is a randomised study assessing the capacity of baclofen to prevent agitation in mechanically ventilated patients. Enrolment of 314 patients will begin in June 2016 and is expected to end in October 2018.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02723383 , registered on 3 March 2016.